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INVERESK Musselburgh, Scotland.

Roman fort and settlement guarding a harbor at the point where the roads from York and Chester converged on the Firth of Forth. In 1565 part of a structure with a hypocaust and an altar dedicated by an imperial procurator were discovered, and later an external bath house E of the parish church, but it was not until 1946 that excavation in the graveyard located the fort itself.

Measuring ca. 182 by 144 m over-all (2.7 ha), it was defended by a massive clay rampart and a single ditch, and faced W towards the crossing of the river Esk; the internal buildings, including barracks and stables, were of stone. Occupation appears to have begun ca. A.D. 140 and to have continued, with one brief intermission, until the late 2d c. The planning of the barracks and stables suggests that an ala quingenaria was in garrison. The bulk of the extramural settlement lay S and E of the church, probably as a ribbon development along streets leading to the E gate of the fort. Air photography has also revealed several temporary camps, as well as a Romano-British field system, SE of the settlement.


Inventory of the Ancient & Historical Monuments of Midlothian and West Lothian (1929) 90-93; JRS 38 (1948) 81-82.


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