(Zuglio) Friuli, Italy.
A Roman settlement, probably part of the defense of
Cisalpine Gaul following the attack of the Giapidi in
52 B.C. It was built on an indigenous center as a vicus
dependent on Aquileia. Under Augustus it was granted
autonomy; as a municipium it controlled a large amount
of territory on the road that led from Aquileia to Aguntum in Noricum. It was designated a colonia, perhaps
in the second half of the 1st c. A.D., at the same time
Aquileia received that designation.
Nothing is known of the site during the barbaric invasions nor of its destruction. The first documented destruction, of a building to the N of the bath building,
is datable to the end of the 4th c. or perhaps in connection with the descent of Alaric in 401-408. A little later
the center in the valley was abandoned and the inhabitants took refuge on the hill of San Pietro. The Bishopric
of Juliensis, founded at the end of the 4th c., was absorbed in the 8th c. by the diocese of Aquileia.
Numerous inscriptions document the life of the center.
We know the names of magistri vici, duoviri jure dicundo,
decuriones, a quaestor, and a curator reipublicae. Inscriptions of divinities also occur, including Jove, Mithra,
Fortuna, Silvanus, Hercules, and Beleno.
As the result of excavations, the remains of a number of monuments have come to light. The forum (40 x
85 m) was constructed on an existing pre-Roman quarter. It had a portico around the entire interior. In the
center there was the temple, probably faced with
marble, of which only the podium remains. It was tetrastyle with three columns on the sides, built according to
Vitruvian rules and proportions. The temple, of the 1st c.
A.D., was probably a Capitolium, and not a temple dedicated to the Carnican God Beleno, as might be inferred
from a Republican inscription of unknown provenance
that records the rebuilding of a temple at the instigation of several magistri vici. There is a rectangular hall
at the S end of the forum, opposite of the temple. It is
divided into two naves by a series of eight columns, and
it probably had a second story. This building may have
been a law court; it has parallels at Cividale, Aquileia,
and Rome. Numerous architectural fragments, inscriptions, and particularly a portrait considered to be a work
from the age of Trajan, date this building to the 1st c.
The bath complex is notable for its large swimming
pool. There are remains of a Temple to Hercules, an
aqueduct, sewers, and private houses with mosaics and
provision for heating. The cemetery basilica, typically
Early Christian in plan, had a fine mosaic pavement. On
the E side were two service rooms. Similarities are evident between this Early Christian basilica and the buildings constructed under Theodoric and slightly later at
Aquileia, as well as with Christian architecture in Noncum. Recently the apse possibly of another basilica has
come to light. Both would probably date to the 4th or
C. G. Mor, “Recenti scavi nei due Fori
Giuli Friulani,” Atti V Congr. naz. Studi Romani
(1940) 23ff; S. Stucchi, “Il ritratto romano di Costantino del Museo di Cividale,” Studi goriziani
45ff; G. Daltrop, Die stadtrömischen männlichen Privatbildnisse, traianischer und hadrianischer Zeit
Bertacchi, “Il Foro romano di Zuglio,” Aquileia nosta
30 (1959) 50-58; EAA
7 (1966) coll. 1290-91 (L.