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KALYNDA (Kozpinar) Turkey.

City in Caria or Lycia, ca. 4 km E of Dalaman, 32 km NW of Fethiye. Kalynda appears in the Athenian tribute lists with a tribute of one talent, and is mentioned twice by Herodotos: from 1.172 it appears that it lay close to Kaunos, and in 8.87-88 it supplies one ship to Xerxes' fleet. From the Zeno papyri it appears that in the 3d c. it was in Ptolemaic hands, and it was still independent about 200 B.C. when the Delphian theori paid it a visit. Before 164 B.C. it had come under the control of Kaunos, from which it revolted in that year and was given to Rhodes by the Roman Senate. The rare Kalyndian coins are of late Hellenistic date; none seem to have been issued under the Empire, and it is probable that by that time the city was incoporated in Kaunos. In the 1st c. A.D. it was attached to the Lycian League, and in the 2d was among the beneficiaries of Opramoas of Rhodiapolis; earlier it is reckoned a Carian city. It is listed by Pliny, Ptolemy, and Stephanos, but does not appear in the Byzantine bishopric lists.

The site at Kozpinar agrees well with the ancient notices; in particular, Strabo (651) places it 60 stades from the sea; the actual distance is 9.6 km. The hill, of moderate height, is enclosed by a ring wall of rather rough polygonal masonry, topped in places by a mediaeval wall. The style varies, but some parts at least seem to date to the early Hellenistic period. At the N end is a tower or small fort divided into two chambers; the masonry is good regular Hellenistic ashlar, with a door on the N side. There are two or three other towers in the wall circuit. No remains of public buildings are in evidence, but a great many building blocks, cut and uncut, are strewn over the whole area, and house foundations are discernible in many places. The absence of Roman remains is noticeable, and agrees with the history of the place as it appears from other evidence.


E. Davies & W. Arkwright, JHS 15 (1895) 97; G. E. Bean, JHS 73 (1953) 25-26I; P. Roos, Opuscula Atheniensia 9 (1969) 72-74I.


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