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LUGUVALIUM (Carlisle) Cumberland, England.

On the river Eden 85 km W of Newcastle and ca. 0.8 km S of Hadrian's Wall (NY 398560). A Roman town developed on the site of a Roman fort, which was at the point where the main road into Scotland W of the Pennines crossed the Eden and met the Stanegate from Corstopitum.

The fort, under and to the N of the cathedral, was occupied from the Flavian period to about the middle of Hadrian's reign. Military occupation of the site was rendered unnecessary by the construction of a fort at Stanwix on Hadrian's Wall, just across the river, ca. A.D. 125. Thereafter the site attracted increasing civilian settlement. Finds under the modern city suggest that the town reached a size of at least 28 ha, within stone walls which still stood in the 7th c. It was the largest town N of York, and it probably achieved city status and became the seat of a bishop. Virtually nothing is visible of the town now, but there is an important collection of material in the Tullie House Museum.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

R. C. Shaw, Trans. Cumberland and Westmorland Ant. and Arch. Soc. 24 (1924) 95-109; E. Birley, Research on Hadrian's Wall (1961) 136-37; P. Salway, The Frontier People of Roman Britain (1965) 41-45. Spelling of name: K. Jackson, JRS 38 (1948) 57.

J. C. MANN

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