(Stan Grad) Island of Hvar, Croatia, Yugoslavia.
Situated in the deep, elongated bay on the
longest Adriatic island, Pharos was founded by Ionian
Greeks from Paros in 385 B.C. They were helped by
Dionysios the Elder of Syracuse. It is the only Ionic
settlement in the Adriatic, the others being Doric. Not
long after its foundation, native Illyrians with help from
the mainland attacked the settlers but were defeated by
the fleet of Dionysios' governor from Issa (Diod. 15.13.1
It is the first recorded naval battle in what is now the
Croatian part of the Adriatic. In the Illyro-Roman wars
in 229 and 219 B.C. Pharos was the stronghold of Demetrius of Pharos, commander of the Illyrian army, and
the husband of their queen, Teuta. When the Romans
captured and destroyed the town in 219 B.C., Demetrius
escaped to Macedonia. The town was rebuilt but lost its
autonomy; and after the founding of the colony at Salona, it was administered as its praefectura. The fertile valley E of town was centuriated and settled by veterans.
During its period of autonomy Pharos was the only
known Greek foundation in the Adriatic to mint
coins that included silver pieces. The inscriptions confirm the relations of the polis of Pharos with its metropolis on Paros. The cyclopean parts of the city walls are still preserved. From the Roman period are fine mosaics
covered by modern streets. In the environs of the city are
remains of several villae rusticae.
The finds, mainly the inscriptions and coins, are preserved in the archaeological museums at Zagreb and Split and in the local collection in the Domenican Monastery at Stan Grad.
G. Novak, Prethistorijski Hvar, Grapčeva špilja
(English summary) (1955); id., Hvar
L. Robert, “L'inscription hellénistique de Dalmatie,” Hellenica
11-12 (1960) 505-41; N. Duboković-Nadalini,
“Ager Pharensis,” Vjesnik za arheologiju i historiju dalmatinsku
63-64 (1961-62) 91-97; D. Rendić-Miočević,
“Ballaios et Pharos,” Archaeologia Iugoslavica