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PHAROS (Stan Grad) Island of Hvar, Croatia, Yugoslavia.

Situated in the deep, elongated bay on the longest Adriatic island, Pharos was founded by Ionian Greeks from Paros in 385 B.C. They were helped by Dionysios the Elder of Syracuse. It is the only Ionic settlement in the Adriatic, the others being Doric. Not long after its foundation, native Illyrians with help from the mainland attacked the settlers but were defeated by the fleet of Dionysios' governor from Issa (Diod. 15.13.1). It is the first recorded naval battle in what is now the Croatian part of the Adriatic. In the Illyro-Roman wars in 229 and 219 B.C. Pharos was the stronghold of Demetrius of Pharos, commander of the Illyrian army, and the husband of their queen, Teuta. When the Romans captured and destroyed the town in 219 B.C., Demetrius escaped to Macedonia. The town was rebuilt but lost its autonomy; and after the founding of the colony at Salona, it was administered as its praefectura. The fertile valley E of town was centuriated and settled by veterans.

During its period of autonomy Pharos was the only known Greek foundation in the Adriatic to mint coins that included silver pieces. The inscriptions confirm the relations of the polis of Pharos with its metropolis on Paros. The cyclopean parts of the city walls are still preserved. From the Roman period are fine mosaics covered by modern streets. In the environs of the city are remains of several villae rusticae.

The finds, mainly the inscriptions and coins, are preserved in the archaeological museums at Zagreb and Split and in the local collection in the Domenican Monastery at Stan Grad.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

G. Novak, Prethistorijski Hvar, Grapčeva špilja (English summary) (1955); id., Hvar (1960); L. Robert, “L'inscription hellénistique de Dalmatie,” Hellenica 11-12 (1960) 505-41; N. Duboković-Nadalini, “Ager Pharensis,” Vjesnik za arheologiju i historiju dalmatinsku 63-64 (1961-62) 91-97; D. Rendić-Miočević, “Ballaios et Pharos,” Archaeologia Iugoslavica 5 (1964) 83-92.

M. ZANINOVIĆ

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