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PRINIAS Malevizi, Crete.

A modern village near the site of an ancient city in central Crete. The “patela” is a fiat-topped steep-sided acropolis (686 m) just N of the main watershed and dominating the two main N-S passes across the E foothills of Ida. Accessible only from the W, it had a mainly unfortified perimeter and measures ca. 230 x 560 m. The site has generally been identified with Rhizenia/Rhittenia (see Guarducci), but a plausible case has been made for Apollonia (Faure); either way it was probably normally subject to Gortyn in Classical and Hellenistic times. The excavations date to 1906-8 and since 1969.

Apart from a few Neolithic finds the earliest traces of occupation are of the latest Minoan period (LM III); evidence of early post-Minoan occupation has recently been increased by discovery at nearby Siderospilia of Proto-Geometric tholos tombs with inhumations and a Geometric cremation cemetery. Also of these periods is an important deposit of votive terracottas and vases found near the E edge of the plateau, including types with antecedents of the end of the Minoan period (female figures with cylindrical skirt and raised arms, sometimes with snakes; tall clay tubes with vertical rows of loop handles). A small enclosure found nearby against the rock formed the sanctuary of this snake-goddess, whose cult seems to last from Subminoan to late archaic times.

The site's most important remains are of the archaic period. Roughly in the middle of the plateau are the poorly preserved remains, close together, of two 7th c. temples. The more northerly (A: 9.7 x ca. 6 m) has a nearly rectangular elongated cella entered through a single door from a pronaos to the E with a single central square pier in antis. In the center of the cella is a slab-lined rectangular sacrificial pit on hearth, on each side of which stood a single (probably wooden) column on the central longitudinal axis. Many pieces were found of the limestone frieze (originally situated on the facade or at socle level) carved with horsemen in relief, and of two (later?) female statues each seated on a chair on the end of a sculpted architrave, probably from the upper part of the cella door (reconstr. in Iraklion Mus.): major works of Daedalic art. Temple B to the S was built in a similar technique but with dissimilar and less regular plan (ca. 18 x ca. 5.5 m); it had an opithodomos in addition, full of storage vessels, and both cella and pronaos had a central door on the E. Like A the cella had a hearth with an offering table at its W end, and a libation basin in the NW corner. Like the somewhat earlier Dreros temple (q.v.), these temples represent an early type deriving from the Mycenaean meganon with certain Minoan features added; the architectural order is not yet cleanly defined. The cult seems not to have outlasted the archaic period.

A number of archaic house foundations have been found on the plateau. At its SW side, W of the temples, is a rectangular Hellenistic (probably 2d c.) fort, with square towers projecting from the corners, interior dimensions 40 x 36 m and entrance on the cliff edge at the SE corner. Reused in its walls were blocks bearing early inscriptions and primitive (7th c.) funerary stelai incised with a hoplite or female figure. Inside and round the fort were found many arrowheads and other iron weapons, and sling-bullets of lead.

Inscribed sherds (2d c.) attest a cult of Athena. No coins have been found at the site, which seems to have been gradually depopulated in the Hellenistic period and has little sign of city life after the 2d c. B.C. If the site was Apollonia, settlement probably largely moved to its port (of the same name) near modern Gazi, just W of Iraklion.


F. Halbherr, AJA 11 1st ser. (1896) 530-31; id., AJA 5 (1901) 399ffI; id., RendLinc 14 (1905) 401-4; A. Taramelli, MonAnt 9 (1899) 328-34I; L. Pernier, RendLinc 16 (1907) 301-3; id., “Di una città ellenica arcaica scoperta a Creta dalla missione italiana,” BdA 2 (1908) 441-62I; id., “Vestigia di una città ellenica arcaica in Creta,” MemIstLombardo 22 (1910) 53-62; (1912) 213-26MI; id., “Templi arcaici sulla patèla di Prinià's,” ASAtene 1 (1914) 18-111MPI; id., “New elements for the study of the Archaic Temple of Prinias,” AJA 38 (1934) 171-77PI; id. & L. Banti, Guida degli scavi italiani in Creta (1947) 75-80; M. Guarducci, ICr I (1935) 3-4, 294-302; id., Historia 7 (1933) 363-70; 8 (1934) 71-77; E. Kirsten, “Rhizenia,” RE Suppl. VII (1940) 1138-53P; M. P. Nilsson, The Minoan-Mycenaean Religion (2d ed., 1950); P. Faure, KretChron 17 (1963) 16-17, 22-24; id., BCH 91 (1967) 131; G. Rizza, “Nuove ricerche sulla Patela e nel territorio di Prinias,” Chronache di Arch. e di Storia dell'Arte 8 (1969) 7-32; reports in BCH 84 (1960) 840; 94 (1970) 1161; 95 (1971) 1055-56; Deltion 24 (1969) Chronika 2, 414; 25 (1970) Chronika 2, 454.


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