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SAMIKON Triphylia, Greece.

A few km from Olympia. The ruins of the city have been identified on a broad upland to the S of Mt. Makistos (or Lapithos). Inhabited by the Epeans who named it Samos, and then by the Pylians, from whom it took the name Arene, the city later passed to the Minii who called it Makistos; only under the Eleans did it retake the original name of Samia or Samikon (cf. Paus. 5.6.1; Ptol. 4.80.12; Strab. 8.148; Herod. 4.148). It was the seat of the religious confederation of the six cities of Triphylia, and there was erected a Temple to Poseidon, whose cult was greatly renowned. A vast wall enclosed the S, where two types of masonry are found: polygonal blocks already in the 5th c. B.C., which were also used in several towers; and a trapezoidal technique with squared face, perhaps dating prior to the 3d c. B.C. In 1825, Fort Klidi (The Key), taking advantage of the ancient foundations, was erected on the site. A tumulus with pottery from the Middle Helladic period to Mycenaean II has been found at the NE base of the rocky hill on which stands Klidi.


H. Bisbee, Hesperia 6 (1937); R. L. Scranton, Greek Walls (1941); N. Yalouris in Deltion 20, 1965 (1966).


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