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SCHAAN Liechtenstein.

Late Roman fortress 4 km N of Vaduz, on the road to Feldkirch, Austria. Its ancient name is not known. It guarded the highway from Italy between Curia and Brigantium, on the right bank of the Rhine. The fort, overlooking the valley, is in the center of the modern town. It was built after the middle of the 4th c. A.D. and abandoned probably in A.D. 401, when Stilicho recalled most of the troops N of the Alps. Some occupation, however, may have lasted into the 5th c.

The E half has been excavated. The fort was almost square (59-60.5 m on a side), with square towers at the corners and in the middle of the N and S sides. The entrance was through the N tower (8.5 x 7.6 m), which had inner and outer gates (2.9 m wide) and a room between (4.2 x 4.1 m). The walls were thick for the size of the fort (3.6 m in the curtain walls, 1.9 m in the towers). Inside were baths (13 x 5 m), wooden casemates, a kitchen, perhaps a granary, and traces of workshops for iron and hartshorn.

In the 5th or 6th c. a baptistery and a church of St. Peter were built inside the walls. Parts of the N wall and its middle tower survive in and outside the church, which dates in its present form from ca. 1500. Remains of the earlier periods of the church are also preserved. Finds are in the Liechtensteinisches Landesmuseum in Vaduz.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

F. Staehelin, Die Schweiz in römischer Zeit (3d ed. 1948) 275-76; D. Beck, “Das spätrömische Kastell und die St. Peterskirche in Schaan,” Jb. Schweiz. Gesell. f. Urgeschichte 49 (1962) 29-38PI; E. Ettlinger, “Die Kleinfunde aus dem spätrömischen Kastell Schaan,” Jb. Hist. Vereins f. das Fürstentum Liechtenstein 59 (1969) 229-99PI.

V. VON GONZENBACH

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