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MARZOLL District Berchtesgaden, Bavaria, Germany.

An extensive villa rustica ca. 9 km SW of the municipium Iuvavum (Salzburg). Settlement began in the middle of the 1st c. B.C. (according to finds) with a Celtic agricultural establishment. Two Roman building periods using wood construction have been established for Augustan times. About the time of Hadrian the estate with its auxiliary buildings was rebuilt in stone. The main building was then 52 m long; its two wings with several stories formed an inner courtyard 22 x 25 m. On the fourth side the courtyard was closed by a wall with a centrally located entrance gate. A thorough rebuilding took place in the second half of the 2d c. A.D. The wings which previously had dominated the building were reduced in size and length giving greater importance to the central two-story building. About 170-180 the new main building was richly decorated with wall and ceiling frescos, using plant motifs, and with floor mosaics. The study of the mosaics revealed that they were created by a group of workshops which had produced for Iuvavum and its region until the 3d c. A.D. and now finally could be identified. About the middle of the 3d c., all the buildings were destroyed by fire, probably caused by a raid of the Alemanni. The settlement was then relocated in a more protected place close at hand, as indicated by a number of late Roman finds and by the name of the place, which in documents from the end of the 8th c. is called Marciolae. Mosaics, frescos, and smaller finds are in the Prähistorische Staatssammlung in München.


R. Christlein, “Ein römisches Gebäude in Marzoll,” Bayerische Vorgeschichtsblätter 28 (1963) 30-57MPI; H.-J. Kellner, “Die röimischen Mosaiken von Marzoll,” Germania 41 (1963) 18-28PI.


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