previous next


62. Crasis (κρᾶσις mingling) is the contraction of a vowel or diphthong at the end of a word with a vowel or diphthong beginning the following word. Over the syllable resulting from contraction is placed a ' called corōnis (κορωνίς hook), as τἄ_λλα from τὰ ἄλλα the other things, the rest.

a. The coronis is not written when the rough breathing stands on the first word: ἄνθρωπος ἅ_νθρωπος.

b. Crasis does not occur when the first vowel may be elided. (Some editors write τἄλλα, etc.)

63. Crasis occurs in general only between words that belong together; and the first of the two words united by crasis is usually the less important; as the article, relative pronoun (, ), πρό, καί, δή, . Crasis occurs chiefly in poetry.

a. It is rare in Hom., common in the dialogue parts of the drama (especially in comedy), and frequent in the orators.

64. π, τ, κ become φ, θ, χ when the next word begins with the rough breathing (124): τῇ ἡμέρᾳ θἠμέρᾳ the day, καὶ οἱ and the = χοι᾽ (68 c).

65. Iota subscript (5) appears in the syllable resulting from crasis only when the first syllable of the second word contains an ι: ἐγὼ οἶδα ἐγᾦδα I know (but τῷ ὀργάνῳ τὠργάνῳ the instrument, 68 a).

66. The rules for crasis are in general the same as those for contraction (48 ff.). Thus, τὸ ὄνομα τοὔνομα the name, ἐν οὑν, ἄνερ ὦνερ oh man, πρὸ ἔχων προὔχων excelling, τὸ ἱ_μάτιον θοἰμάτιον the cloak (64), ἐγώ ἁ_γώ.

But the following exceptions are to be noted (67-69):

67. A diphthong may lose its final vowel: οἱ ἐμοί οὑμοί, σοι ἐστί σοὐστί, μου ἐστί μοὐστί. Cp. 43, 68.

68. The final vowel or diphthong of the article, and of τοί, is dropped, and an initial α of the next word is lengthened unless it is the first vowel of a diphthong. The same rule applies in part to καί.

a. Article.— ἀνήρ ἁ_νήρ, οἱ ἄνδρες ἅ_νδρες, αἱ ἀγαθαί ἁ_γαθαί, ἀγήθεια ἁ_λήθεια, τοῦ ἀνδρός τἀ_νδρός, τῷ ἀνδρί τἀ_νδρί, αὐτός αὑτός the same, τοῦ αὐτοῦ ταὐτοῦ of the same.

b. τοί.—τοὶ ἄρα τἄ_ρα, μέντοι ἄν μεντἄ_ν.

c. καί.—(1) αι is dropped: καὶ αὐτός καὐτός, καὶ οὐ κου᾽, καὶ χη᾽, καὶ οἱ χοι᾽, καὶ ἱκετεύετε χἰ_κετεύετε and ye beseech (64). (2) αι is contracted chiefly before ε and ει: καὶ ἐν κἀ_ν, καὶ ἐγώ κἀ_γώ, καὶ ἐς κἀ_ς, καὶ εἶτα κᾆτα (note however καὶ εἰ κει᾽, καὶ εἰς κεἰς); also before ο in καὶ ὅτε χὤτε. καὶ ὅπως χὤπως (64).

N.—The exceptions in 68 a-c to the laws of contraction are due to the desire to let the vowel of the more important word prevail: ἅ_νηρ, not ὡνηρ, because of ἀνήρ.

68 D. Hom. has ὤριστος ἄριστος, ωὐτός αὐτός. Hdt. has οὕτερος ἕτερος, ὡνήρ ἀνήρ, ὡυτοί οἱ αὐτοί, τὠυτό τὸ αὐτό, τὠυτοῦ τοῦ αὐτοῦ, ἑωυτοῦ ἕο αὐτοῦ, ὧνδρες οἱ ἄνδρες. Doric has κἠπί καὶ ἐπί.

69. Most crasis forms of ἕτερος other are derived from ἅτερος, the earlier form: thus, ἕτερος ἅ_τερος, οἱ ἕτεροι ἅ_τεροι; but τοῦ ἑτέρου θοὐτέρου (64).

hide Display Preferences
Greek Display:
Arabic Display:
View by Default:
Browse Bar: