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N BEFORE CONSONANTS

91. ν before π, β, φ, ψ becomes μ: ἐμπί_πτω fall into for ἐν-πι_πτω, ἐμβάλλω throw in for ἐν-βαλλω, ἐμφαίνω exhibit for ἐν-φαινω, ἔμψυ_χος alive for ἐν-ψυ_χος.

92. ν before κ, γ, χ, ξ becomes γ-nasal (19 a): ἐγκαλέω bring a charge for ἐν-καλεω, ἐγγράφω inscribe for ἐν-γραφω, συγχέω pour together for συν-χεω, συγξύ_ω grind up for συν-ξι_ω.

93. ν before τ, δ, θ remains unchanged. Here ν may represent μ: βρον-τή thunder (βρέμ-ω roar).

94. ν before μ becomes μ: ἔμμετρος moderate for ἐν-μετρος, ἐμμένω abide by for ἐν-μενω.

a. Verbs in -νω may form the perfect middle in -σμαι (489 h); as in πέφασμαι (from φαίνω show) for πεφαν-μαι (cp. πέφαγ-κα, πέφαν-ται).

b. Here ν does not become ς; but the ending -σμαι is borrowed from verbs with stems in a dental (as πέφρασμαι, on which see 87).

95. ν before λ, ρ is assimilated (λλ, ρρ): σύλλογος concourse for συν-λογος, συρρέω flow together for συν-ρεω.

96. ν before ς is dropped and the preceding vowel is lengthened (ε to ει, ο to ου, 37): μέλα_ς black for μελαν-ς, εἷς one for ἑν-ς, τιθείς placing for τιθεντ-ς, τούς for τόν-ς.

a. But in the dative plural ν before -σι appears to be dropped without compensatory lengthening: μέλασι for μελαν-σι, δαίμοσι for δαιμον-σι divinities, φρεσί for φρεν-σι mind. But see 250 N.

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