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Σ BEFORE CONSONANTS

103. Sigma between consonants is dropped: ἤγγελςθε you have announced, γεγράφςθαι to have written, ἕκςμηνος of six months (ἕξ six, μήν month).

a. But in compounds ς is retained when the second part begins with ς: ἔν-σπονδος included in a truce. compounds in δυσ- ill omit ς before a word beginning with ς: δύσχιστος hard to cleave for δυσ-σχιστος (σχίζω).

104. ἐξ out of (= ἐκς) drops ς in composition before another consonant, but usually retains its κ unaltered: ἐκτείνω stretch out, ἐκδίδωμι surrender, ἐκφέρω carry out, ἐκθύ_ω sacrifice, ἐκσῴζω preserve from danger (not ἐξῴζω), ἐκμανθάνω learn thoroughly. Cp. 82 N. 2, 136.

105. ς before μ or ν usually disappears with compensatory lengthening (37) as in εἰμί for ἐσ-μι. But σμ stays if μ belongs to a suffix and in compounds of δυσ- ill: δυσ-μενής hostile.

a. Assimilation takes place in Πελοπόννησος for Πέλοπος νῆσος island of Pelops, ἕννυ_μι clothe for ἑσ-νυ_μι (Ionic εἵνυ_μι), ἔρρει was flowing for ἐ-σρει, 80 a.

105 D. ς is assimilated in Aeol. and Hom. ἔμμεναι to be for ἐσ-μεναι (εἶναι), ἀργεννός white for άργεσ-νος, ἐρεβεννός dark (ἐρεβεσ-νος, cp. Ερεβος), ἄμμε we, ὔμμες you (ἀσμε, ὐσμες). Cp. 81 D.

106. σδ becomes ζ in some adverbs denoting motion towards. Thus, ᾿ Αθήναζε for ᾿ Αθήνασ-δε Athens-wards (26, 342 a).

106 D. Aeolic has σδ for medial ζ in ὔσδος branch (ὄζος), μελίσδω make melody (μελίζω).

107. Two sigmas brought together by inflection become ς: βέλεσι for βέλεσ-σι missiles, ἔπεσι for ἔπεσ-σι words (98), τελέσαι for τελέσ-σαι (from τελέω accomplish, stem τελεσ-).

a. σς when = ττ (78) never becomes ς.

107 D. Homer often retains σς: βέλεσσι, ἔπεσσι, τελέσσαι.

108. Many of the rules for the euphony of consonants were not established in the classical period. Inscriptions show a much freer practice, either marking the etymology, as σύνμαχος for σύμμαχος ally (94), ἐνκαλεῖν for ἐγκαλεῖν to bring a charge (92), or showing the actual pronunciation (phonetic spelling), as τὸγ (= τὸν) κακόν (92), τὴμ (= τὴν) βουλήν (91), τὸλ (= τὸν) λόγον, ἔγδοσις for ἔκδοσις surrendering (104), ἐχφέρω, ἐχθύ_ω for ἐκφέρω, ἐκθύ_ω (104).

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