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SUBSTANTIVES


FIRST DECLENSION (STEMS IN α_

211. Stems in α_ are masculine or feminine. The feminine nominative singular ends in -α_, -α^, or -η; the masculine nominative singular adds -ς to the stem, and thus ends in -α_ς or -ης.

212. Table of the union of the case endings (when there are any) with the final vowel of the stem.

FEM. SING.MASC. SING.MASC. FEM. PL.MASC. FEM. DUAL
Nom. α_ or α^ ηα_-ςη-ςα-ιN. A. V. α_
Gen. α_-ς or η-ς η-ςα_-ιο (Hom. α_-οῶν (for έ-ων, ά_-ωνG. D. α-ιν
Dat. α_-ι or η-ι η-ια_-ιη-ια-ις or α-ισιν
Acc. α_-ν or α^-ν η-να_-νη-να_ς (for α-νς
Voc. α_ or α^ ηα_α^ or ηα-ι

Observe the shortening of the stem in vocative singular and plural, in nominative and dative plural, and genitive and dative dual.

213. Accent.—For special rule of accent in the genitive plural, see 208. The genitive plural is always perispomenon since -ῶν is contracted from -έ-ων derived from original (and Hom.) -ά_-ων (51). Final -αι is treated as short (169).

a. The form of the gen. pl. is taken from the pronominal adjective, i.e. (Hom.) θεά_ων goddesses follows the analogy of (Hom.) τά_ων (332 D.) for τα_- (ςων, cf. Lat. istā-rum deā-rum.

214. The dialects show various forms.

214 D. 1. For η, Doric and Aeolic have original α_; thus, νί_κα_, ϝί_κα_ς, ϝί_κᾳ, νί_κα_ν; πολί_τα_ς, κριτά_ς, Ἀτρείδα_ς.

2. Ionic has η for the α_ of Attic even after ε, ι, and ρ; thus, γενεή, οἰκίη, ἀγορή, μοίρης, μοίρῃ (nom. μοῖρα^), νεηνίης. Thus, ἀγορή, -ῆς, -, -ήν; νεηνίης, -ου, -, -ην. But Hom. has θεά_ goddess, Ἑρμεία_ς Hermes.

3. The dialects admit -α^ in the nom. sing. less often than does Attic. Thus, Ionic πρύμνη stern, κνί_ση savour (Att. πρύμνα, κνῖσα), Dor. τόλμα_ daring. Ionic has η for α^ in the abstracts in -είη, -οίη (ἀληθείη truth, εὐνοίη good-will). Hom. has νύμφα^ oh maiden from νύμφη.

4. Nom. sing. masc.—Hom. has -τα for -της in ἱππότα horseman, ἱππηλάτα driver of horses, νεφεληγερέτα cloud-collector, κυ_ανοχαῖτα dark-haired; and, with recessive accent, μητίετα counsellor. So in the adj. εὐρύοπα far-sounding. Cp. Lat. poeta, scriba.

5. Gen. sing. masc.—(a) -α_ο, the original form from α_-ιο, is used by Hom. (Ἀτρείδα_ο). It contracts in Aeolic and Doric to -α_ (Ἀτρείδα_).

(b) -εω, from ηο (= α_ο) by 34, is also used by Hom., who makes it a single syllable by synizesis (60), as in Ἀτρείδεω. Hdt. has -εω, as πολί_τεω (163 a).

(c) -ω in Hom. after a vowel, Βορέω (nom. Βορέης).

6. Accus. sing. masc.—In proper names Hdt. often has -εα borrowed from ς stems (264), as Μιλτιάδεα for Μιλτιάδη-ν.

7. Dual.—Hom. has the nom. dual of masculines only. In the gen. and dat. Hom. has -αιν and also -αιιν.

8. Gen. plur.—(a) -ά_ων, the original form, occurs in Hom. (μουσά_ων, ἀγορά_ων). In Aeolic and Doric -ά_ων contracts to (b) -ᾶν (ἀγορᾶν). The Doric -ᾶν is found also in the choral songs of the drama (πετρᾶν rocks). (c) -έων, the Ionic form, appears in Homer, who usually makes it a single syllable by synizesis (60) as in βουλέωνν, from βουλή plan. -έων is from -ήων, Ionic for -ά_ων. (d) -ῶν in Hom. generally after vowels (κλισιῶν, from κλισίη hut).

9. Dat. plur.: -ῃσιν), -ῃς, generally before vowels, and (rarely) -αις in Hom. Ionic has -ῃσι, Aeolic -αισιν), -αις, Doric -αις.

10. Accus. plur.: -ανς, -α^ς, α_ς in various Doric dialects, -αις in Aeolic.

215. Dative Plural.—The ending -αισιν) occurs in Attic poetry (δίκαισι from δίκη right, δεσπόταισι from δεσπότης lord).

a. Attic inscriptions to 420 B. C. have -ῃσι (written -ηισι), -ησι, and (after ε, ι, ρ) -ᾳσι (written -αισι) and -α_σι. Thus, δραχμῇσι and δραχμῆσι drachmas, ταμίᾳσι and ταμία_σι stewards. -ησι and -α_σι are properly endings of the locative case (341).

216. I. FEMININES

SINGULAR
χώρα_ νί_κη φυγή μοῖρα γλῶττα θάλαττα
χωρα_-νι_κα_-φυγα_-μοιρα_-γλωττα_-θαλαττα_-
landvictoryflightfatetonguesea
Nom.χώρα_νί_κηφυγήμοῖραγλῶτταθάλαττα
Gen.χώρα_ςνί_κηςφυγῆςμοίρα_ςγλώττηςθαλάττης
Dat.χώρᾳνί_κῃφυγῇμοίρᾳγλῶττῃθαλάττῃ
Acc.χώρα_-ννί_κη-νφυγή-νμοῖρα-νγλῶττα-νθάλαττα-ν
Voc.χώρα_νί_κηφυγήμοῖραγλῶτταθάλαττα
DUAL
N. A. V.χώρα_νί_κα_φυγά_μοίρα_γλώττα_θαλάττα_
G. D.χώραιννί_καινφυγαῖνμοίραινγλώτταινθαλάτταιν
PLURAL
N. V.χῶραινῖκαιφυγαίμοῖραιγλῶτταιθάλατται
Gen.χωρῶννι_κῶνφυγῶνμοιρῶνγλωττῶνθαλαττῶν
Dat.χώραιςνί_καιςφυγαῖςμοίραιςγλώτταιςθαλάτταις
Acc.χώρα_ςνί_κα_ςφυγά_ςμοίρα_ςγλώττα_ςθαλάττα_ς

ὥρα_ season, ἡμέρα_ day, σκιά_ shadow, μάχη battle, τέχνη art, γνώμη judgment, τι_μή honor, ἀρετή virtue, μοῦσα muse, πρῶρα prow, ἅμαξα wagon, δόξα opinion.

217. RULES.—a. If the nominative singular ends in alpha preceded by a vowel (σκιά_ shadow) or ρ (μοῖρα), alpha is kept throughout the singular.

b. If the nominative singular ends in alpha preceded by a consonant not ρ, alpha is changed to η in the genitive and dative singular.

c. If the nominative singular ends in η, η is kept in all the cases of the singular.

d. When the genitive singular has -ης, final α of the nominative singular is always short; when the genitive singular has -α_ς, the final α is generally long.

Feminines fall into two classes:

218. (I) Feminines with α_ or η in all the cases of the singular.

After ε, ι, or ρ, α_ appears in all the cases of the singular, as in γενεά_ race, οἰκία_ house, χώρα_ land. Otherwise, η throughout the singular, as νί_κη victory.

a. After ο, we find both α_ and η, as στοά_ porch, βοή shout, ἀκοή hearing, ὁͅοή current, ῥόα_ pomegranate. After ρ we have η in κόρη girl, δέρη neck (31).

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