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240. This declension includes stems ending in a consonant, in ι, υ, or a diphthong, and some in ω and ο, representing ωϝ and οι.

N.—To determine whether a noun belongs to the third declension it is necessary in most cases to know the stem, which is usually found by dropping -ος of the genitive singular. Stems in ι and υ are classed under the consonant declension because neither of these vowels admits contraction with the case endings beginning with a vowel, herein being like a consonant.


241. Masculine and feminine stems not ending in ν, ρ, ς and οντ, add ς.

a. A labial (π, β, φ) + ς becomes ψ (97).

b. A dental (τ, δ, θ) + ς becomes σς (98), which is reduced to ς (107).

c. A palatal (κ, γ, χ) or κτ ¨ ς becomes ξ (97).

(The same changes occur in the dative plural.)

γύ_ψ vulture γυ_π-ός, Ἄραψ Arab Ἄραβ-ος; κακότης baseness κακότητ-ος, ἐλπίς hope ἐλπίδ-ος, ὄρνι_ς bird ὄρνι_θ-ος; φύλαξ guard φύλακ-ος, μάστι^ξ scourge μάστι_γ-ος, σάλπιγξ trumpet σάλπιγγ-ος, ὄνυξ nail ὄνυχ-ος, νύξ night νυκτ-ός; ἅλ-ς salt ἁλ-ός, ἰχθύ_ς fish ἰχθύ-ος; ἐλέφα_ς elephant ἐλέφαντ-ος.

242. Masculine and feminine stems ending in ν, ρ, and ς reject ς and lengthen a preceding vowel if short (ε to η, ο to ω).

δαίμων divinity δαίμον-ος, χειμών winter χειμῶν-ος, λιμήν harbour λιμέν-ος, Ἕλλην Greek Ἕλλην-ος; ῥήτωρ orator ῥήτορ-ος, ἀήρ air ἀέρ-ος, φώρ thief φωρ-ός, τριήρης trireme (stem τριηρεσ-, 263 b), αἰδώς shame (stem αἰδοσ-, 266). On μήν see 259 end. For stems in ες, nominative -ος, see 263 c.

243. Masculine stems in οντ drop τ (133) and lengthen ο to ω: γέρων old man γέροντ-ος, λέων lion λέοντ-ος.

243 D. Hdt. has ὀδών tooth ὀδόντ-ος. Attic ὀδούς has the inflection of a participle in -ους (307).

244. Neuters show the pure stem, from which final τ and other consonants not standing at the end of a word (133) are dropped: ἅρμα chariot ἅρματ-ος, πρᾶγμα thing πρά_γματ-ος, γάλα milk γάλακτ-ος (133 b).

245. Summary.—ς is added to stems ending in a labial, dental, palatal, and in αντ, εντ, υντ; to some stems in ν (as εἷς one ἑν-ός, μέλα_ς black μέλαν-ος); to stems in ευ, αυ, ου; and to masc. and fem. stems in ι and υ. ς is not added to most stems ending in ν, nor to those in οντ, ρ, ες, ας, ος, υ (neut.), ωϝ), οι).


246. Masculines and feminines usually add α to stems ending in a consonant; ν to stems ending in ι or υ.

γῦπ-α, ὄνυχ-α, ἐλέφαντ-α, λιμέν-α, ῥήτορ-α, λέοντ-α; πόλι-ν, ἰχθύ_-ν, βοῦ-ν from πόλι-ς city, ἰχθύ_-ς fish, βοῦ-ς ox, cow. Stems in ευ take α (275).

247. Barytone stems of two syllables ending in ιτ, ιδ, ι_θ usually drop the dental and add ν.

χάρις grace (stem χαριτ-) χάριν, ἔρις strife (ἐριδ-) ἔριν, ὄρνι_ς bird (ὀρνι_θ-) ὄρνι_ν. So εὔελπις hopeful (εὐελπιδ-) εὔελπιν (292). Oxytones end in α: ἐλπίδ-α, σφρα_γῖδα (σφρα_γί_ς seal).

a. κλεῖς key (κλειδ-), Old Att. κλῄς, has κλεῖν (late κλεῖδα), acc. pl. κλεῖς (late κλεῖδας).

247 D. The acc. in α (χάριτα, ἔριδα, ὄρνι_θα) occurs in Hom., Hdt., and in Attic poetry. So κόρυθα and κόρυν (κόρυς helmet) in Hom.


248. The vocative of masculines and feminines is usually the pure stem.

πόλι (πόλι-ς city), βοῦ (βοῦ-ς ox, cow), Σώκρατες (Σωκράτης). Stems in ιδ and ντ cannot retain final δ and τ (133), hence Ἄρτεμι from Ἄρτεμις (Ἀρτεμιδ-), παῖ from παῖς boy, girl (παιδ-), νεᾶνι from νεᾶνις maiden (νεα_νιδ-); γέρον from γέρων old man (γεροντ-), γίγαν from γίγα_ς giant (γιγαντ-).

249. The vocative is the same as the nominative:

a. In stems ending in a stop (16) consonant (except those in ιτ, ιδ, ι_θ; ντ in nouns): φύλαξ watchman. (Αἴα_ς Ajax (Αἰαντ-) is nom. and voc.)

b. In oxytone stems ending in a liquid and not taking ς to form their nominative (242): ποιμήν shepherd (ποιμεν-); but ἀνήρ man, πατήρ father have ἄνερ, πάτερ (262). Barytones use the stem as the vocative: δαῖμον, ῥη̈τορ from δαίμων divinity, ῥήτωρ orator.

c. In all participles.

249 D. Hom. has ἄνα oh king as well as ἄναξ (ἀνακτ-); Αἶαν from Αἰαντ-. Πουλυδάμα_, Λα_οδάμα_ (from stems in αντ) are later forms due to analogy.


250. The dative plural adds -σι to the stem.

Ἄραψ (Ἀραβ-) Ἄραψι, μάστι^ξ (μαστι_γ-) μάστιξι, φύλαξ (φυλακ-) φύλαξι, σῶμα (σωματ-) σώμασι (98), ἐλπίς (ἐλπιδ-) ἐλπίσι (98), ὄρνι_ς (ὀρνι_θ-) ὄρνι_σι (98), ἐλέφα_ς (ἐλεφαντ-) ἐλέφα_σι, θήρ (θηρ-) θηρσί.

a. Stems in ντ drop ντ and lengthen the preceding vowel (100): λέων (λεοντ-) λέουσι, γίγα_ς (γιγαντ-) γίγα_σι.

b. Stems in ν drop ν without lengthening the preceding vowel (if short): δαίμων (δαιμον-) δαίμοσι, ποιμήν (ποιμεν-) ποιμέσι, φρήν mind (φρεν-) φρεσί.

N.—Strictly ν is not dropped, but since the stem of the dat. pl. is weak in form (253 a) the ν stood originally between two consonants and should become α (35 b). Thus, φρασί in Pindar is for φρσι. Attic φρεσί borrows its ε from φρένες, φρενῶν, etc. So ποιμέσι, for ποιμασι from ποιμσι, because of ποιμένες, etc.

c. ρς is not changed to ρρ (79 a).

250 D. 1. Hom. has only -οιιν in the gen. and dat. dual.

2. In the dat. pl. Hom. has -σι (βέλεσ-σι, δέπασ-σι), and in a few cases -εσι, reduced from -εσσι (ἀνάκτ-εσι); -σσι occurs after vowels (γένυ-σσι; for γένυ_σι?). -εσσι was added both to stems not ending in ς (πόδ-εσσι, βό-εσσι, ἄνδρ-εσσι, ὀΐ-εσσι, 274 D.), and even to stems in ς (έπέ-εσσι). Hom. has also ποσσί, ποσί; Pind. χαρίτεσσι, θέμισσι. Tragedy has this -εσσι (κορύθ-εσσι), and so Aeolic, and the Doric of Corinth.


251. a. The ending -ας is produced by adding νς to the stem (ν becoming α between two consonants by 35 b). Thus φύλακ-ας is from φυλακ-ς. This -ας may be added even to ι and υ stems: Hom. πόλι-ας, ἰχθύ-ας, Hdt. πήχε-ας. Hom. πόλι_ς is from πόλι-νς (Cretan).

b. The nominative pl. masc. or fem. is sometimes used instead of the accusative pl.: τριήρεις 264, πόλεις and πήχεις 268.


252. Accent.—Stems of one syllable accent the case ending in the genitive and dative of all numbers; and -ων and -οιν take the circumflex accent. Thus, φλέψ vein, φλεβ-ός, φλεβ-ῶν; θήρ wild beast, θηρ-ός, θηρ-οῖν, θηρ-ῶν; θρίξ hair, τριχ-ός, τριχ-ῶν.

a. Exceptions. The ending of the gen. dual and pl. is not accented in the case of , παῖς boy, girl, δμώς slave, θώς jackal, Τρώς Trojan, δᾴς torch, τὸ φῶς light, τὸ οὖς ear. Thus, παίδων (but παισί), Τρώων, ὤτων, etc. So ὤν being, ὄντων (305).

b. A trisyllabic form, if contracted, does not show the accent on the case ending: ἦρ-ος for ἔαρ-ος, ἦρ-ι for ἔαρ-ι, from τὸ ἔαρ spring.

253. Variation of Stem Formation.—Many words of the third declension show traces of an original variation of stem that is due to the influence of a shifting accent which is seen in some of the cognate languages. In Greek this variation has often been obscured by the analogy of other forms. Thus πατέρων, in comparison with Hom. πατρῶν, Lat. patrum, gets its ε from πατέρες.

a. Variation of stem is seen in ων, ον (259); ηρ, ερ, ρα (262); ης, εσ- (264); in stems in ι, ει (270); υ, ευ (270); ευ, ηυ (278); οι, ω (279), etc. Words in ων, ην show a middle form ον, εν, and a weak form in ν (250 N.).

b. Several words ending in ρ show a parallel stem in τ; thus, ὕδωρ water ὕδατ-ος, ἧπαρ liver ἥπατ-ος, φρέα_ρ tank φρέα_τ-ος (but poet. δάμα_ρ wife δάμαρτ-ος). The reason for this change is uncertain, but ατ is derived from ντ after a consonant (35 b): ὑδντος, ἡπντος, cp. Lat. jecinoris, nom. jecur. ἧπαρ is probably derived from ἡπαρτ (133).

c. -ατος was transferred from such genitives as ὀνόματος, ἥπατος to other neuter words: γόνατος from γόνυ knee, instead of γονϝ-ος, whence Hom. γουνός. φῶς light, for φάος (stem φαεσ-), has taken on the τ inflection (φωτ-ός, etc.).

d. Neuter stems in -ες show -ος in the nominative. Cp. ἔτος year (stem ἐτεσ-) with Lat. vetus, veter-is (for vetes-is).

254. Variation of Quantity.—a. In poetry the quantity of ι in words in -ις may differ from that of prose; as in tragedy ὄρνι^ς bird, κόνι_ς dust, ὄφι_ς serpent (in prose ὄρνι_ς, κόνι^ς, ὄφι^ς); so in Pind. ἰχθυ?́ς (prose ἰχθύ_ς) fish.

b. κῆρυ^ξ herald, Φοῖνι^ξ Phoenician, μάστι^ξ whip have long υ and ι in the oblique cases except the dat. pl. (κήρυ_κος, Φοίνι_κι, μάστι_γα, etc.). ἀλώπηξ fox has ε in the gen. ἀλώπεκος, etc., by analogy to such words as ποιμήν, ποιμένος (ἀλωπήκων occurs in Ionic). πῦρ fire has πυ^ρός, πυ^ρί, etc. (285, 25).

255. Gender.—The gender of substantives of the third declension is frequently known by the last letters of the stem.

1. Masculine are stems ending in

a. ντ: ὀδούς tooth (ὀδοντ-), δράκων serpent (δρακοντ-).

b. ητ, ωτ: πένης day-labourer (πενητ-), γέλως laughter (γελωτ-).

Exceptions. Stems in -τητ (2, b): ἐσθής dress (ἐσθητ-), τὸ φῶς light (φωτ-).

c. ν: λειμών meadow (λειμον-).

Exceptions. Fem.: stems in γον, δον (2, a), and φρήν mind (φρεν-), ἴ_ς strength (ἰ_ν-), ῥί_ς nose (ῥι_ν-), ἀκτί_ς ray (ἀκτι_ν-), γλωχί_ς arrow-point (γλωχι_ν-), ὠδί_ς birth-pang (ὠδι_ν-), εἰκών image (εἰκον-), ἠϊών shore (ἠϊον-), χθών earth (χθόν-), χιών snow (χιον-), ἀλκυών halcyon (ἀλκυον-), etc., , χήν goose (χην-).

d. ρ: θήρ wild beast (θηρ-), φώρ thief (φωρ-).

Exceptions. Fem.: χείρ hand (χερ-), κήρ fate (κηρ-), γαστήρ belly (γαστερ-); neut.: stems in αρ (3, a), πῦρ fire (πυρ-), and the indeclinable πέλωρ monster, τέκμωρ (Hom) token, etc.

e. ευ: γονεύς parent, φονεύς murderer.

2. Feminine are stems ending in

a. γον, δον: σταγών drop (σταγον-), χελι_δών swallow (χελι_δον-).

b. τητ, δ, θ: κακότης baseness (κακοτητ-), ἔρις strife (ἐριδ-), ἐλπίς hope (ἐλπιδ-).

Exceptions. Masc.: πούς foot (ποδ-), , ὄρνι_ς bird (ὀρνι_θ-).

c. ι, υ with nom. in -ις, -υς: πόλι-ς city, ἰσχύ_-ς strength.

Exceptions. Masc.: ὄφι-ς serpent, ἔχι-ς viper, ὄρχι-ς testicle; βότρυ-ς cluster of grapes, ἰχθύ_-ς fish, μῦ-ς mouse, νέκυ-ς corpse, στάχυ-ς ear of corn, πέλεκυ-ς axe, πῆχυ-ς fore-arm; and , σῦ-ς or ὗ-ς swine.

d. οι: ἠχώ echo, πειθώ pèrsuasion.

3. Neuter are stems ending in

a. ατ, αρ: πρᾶγμα thing (πρα_γματ-), νέκταρ nectar (νεκταρ-). But ψά_ρ starling.

b. ας, ες (with nom. in -ος): κρέας flesh (κρεασ-), γενος race (γενεσ-).

c. ι, υ with nom. in -ι, -υ: σίνα_πι mustard, ἄστυ city.

N.—No stem ending in π, β, φ or κ, γ, χ is neuter.

STEMS IN A LABIAL (π, β, φ) OR IN A PALATAL (κ, γ, χ


Αἰθίοψ φλέψ φύλαξ φάλαγξ αἴξ θρίξ
Αἰθιοπ-φλεβ-φυλακ-φαλαγγ-αἰγ-τριχ-, 125 f)

N. A. V.Αἰθίοπ-εφλέβ-εφύλακ-εφάλαγγ-εαἶγ-ετρίχ-ε
G. D.Αἰθιόπ-οινφλεβ-οῖνφυλάκ-οινφαλάγγ-οιναἰγ-οῖντριχ-οῖν

N. V.Αἰθίοπ-εςφλέβ-εςφύλακ-εςφάλαγγ-εςαἶγ-εςτρίχ-ες
Dat.Αἰθίο ψινφλεψίνφύλαξινφάλαγξιναἰξίνθριξίν

Masculine: κλώψ thief (κλωπ-), γύ_ψ vulture (γυ_π-), Ἄραψ Arab (Ἀραβ-), θώρα_ξ breastplate (θωρα_κ-), ὄνυξ nail (ὀνυχ-). Feminine: κλῖμαξ ladder (κλι_μακ-), μάστι^ξ whip (μαστι_γ-, 254 b), σάλπιγξ trumpet (σαλπιγγ-), κατῆλιψ upper story (κατηλιφ-).



θής ἐλπίς χάρις ὄρνι_ς γίγα_ς γέρων
serfhopegracebirdgiantold man

N. A. V.θῆτ-εἐλπίδ-εχάριτ-εὄρνι_θ-εγίγαντ-εγέροντ-ε
G. D.θητ-οῖνἐλπίδ-οινχαρίτ-οινὀρνί_θ-οινγιγάντ-οινγερόντ-οιν

N. V.θῆτ-εςἐλπίδ-εςχάριτ-εςὄρνι_θ-εςγίγαντ-εςγέροντ-ες

Masculine: γέλως laughter (γελωτ-), ἐλέφα_ς elephant (ἐλεφαντ-), λέων lion (λεοντ-), ὀδούς tooth (ὀδοντ-), voc. ὀδούς. Feminine: ἐσθής clothing (ἐσθητ-), ἔρις strife (ἐριδ-), ἀσπίς shield (ἀσπιδ-), πατρίς fatherland (πατριδ-), κόρυς helmet (κορυθ-).

a. In πούς foot, Doric πώς (stem ποδ-) ου is irregular.

257 D. χρώς skin (χρωτ-) and some other words often show a stem with no τ. Thus, Hom. χροός, χροΐ (also Hdt.), χρόα, and also, but rarely, χρωτός, χρῶτα. Hom. has ἱδρῷ, γέλῳ, ἔρῳ for Att. ἱδρῶτι (ἱδρώς sweat), γέλωτι (γέλως laughter), ἔρωτι (ἔρως love). Hom. has also acc. ἱδρῶ, γέλω (or γέλων), ἔρον (from ἔρος). Some stems in -ιδ are generally ι stems in Ionic, Doric, and Aeolic: Θέτις, Θέτιος (but Θέτιδος Θ 370), Πάρις, Πάριος.



σῶμα bodyἧπαρ liverτέρας portentκέρας horn
σωματ-ἡπατ-τερατ-κερα_τ-, κερασ-
N. A. V.σῶμαἧπαρτέραςκέρας
σῶμα bodyἧπαρ liverτέρας portentκέρας horn
σωματ-ἡπατ-τερατ-κερα_τ-, κερασ-
N. A. V.σώματ-εἥπατ-ετέρατ-εκέρα_τ-εκέρα-εκέρα_
G. D.σωμάτ-οινἡπάτ-οιντεράτ-οινκερά_τ-οινκερά-οινκερῷν

N. V.σώματ-αἥπατ-ατέρατ-ακέρα_τ-ακέρα-ακέρα_

ὄνομα name (ὀνοματ-), στόμα mouth (στοματ), μέλι honey (μελιτ-), γάλα milk (γαλακτ-, 133 b), φῶς light (φωτ-), κῆρ heart (for κηρδ-, 133 b).

a. Stems in ας (264) drop ς before the endings and contract αο, αω to ω, and αα to α_.

b. κέρας, meaning wing of an army, is declined from the stem κερασ- (ἐπὶ κέρως in single file); in the meaning horn, from the stem κερα_τ-.

c. For the inflection ἧπαρ, ἥπατ-ος, see 253 b. Of like inflection are ἄλειφαβ fat, φρέα_ρ cistern, δέλεαρ bait, and poetic ἦμαρ day, εἶδαρ food, πεῖραρ end.

d. τέρας, κέρας form their nominative from a stem in ς. So, too, πέρας end πέρατ-ος, φῶς light (contracted from φάος) φωτ-ός (253 c).

258 D. The other dialects rarely show the τ forms. Hom. has τέρας, τέραα (τείρεα), τεράων, τεράεσσι, κέρας, κέραος, κέραι, κέρα, κεράων, κέρασι and κεράεσσι. Hdt. has ε for α before a vowel (cp. 264 D. 3) in τέρεος, τέρεα (also τέρατος, τέρατα), κέρεος, κέρει, κέρεα, κερέων. Hom. has πεῖρας πείρατος for πέρας πέρατος. From φάος (φόως), whence φῶς, he has dat. φάει, pl. φά_εα. φάος is used in tragedy.



θήρ ῥήτωρ ῥι_ςἡγεμώνἀγώνποιμήν
wild beastoratornoseleadercontestshepherd

STEMS IN A LIQUID (λ, ρ) OR A NASAL (ν)—Concluded

θήρ ῥήτωρ ῥι_ςἡγεμώνἀγώνποιμήν
wild beastoratornoseleadercontestshepherd
N. A. V.θῆρ-εῥήτορ-εῥῖν-εἡγεμόν-εἀγῶν-εποιμέν-ε
G. D.θηρ-οῖνῥητόρ-οινῥι_ν-οῖνἡγεμόν-οινἀγών-οινποιμέν-οιν

N. V.θῆρ-εςῥήτορ-εςῥῖν-εςἡγεμόν-εςἀγῶν-εςποιμέν-ες

αἰθήρ upper air (αἰθερ-), κρα_τήρ mixing bowl (κρα_τηρ-), φώρ thief (φωρ-), τὸ νέκταρ nectar (νεκταρ-), δελφί_ς dolphin (δελφι_ν-), Ἕλλην Greek (Ἑλλην-), δαίμων divinity (δαιμον-), voc. δαῖμον, 249 b. The only λ stem is ἅλς salt (pl. grains of salt); ἅλς (poetic) means sea. μήν month was originally a sigma stem (μηνσ-, cp. mensis).

259 D. Late Greek shows δελφί_ν, ῥί_ν, θί_ν shore (Hom. θί_ς). ἕλμινς worm in Hippocrates has its ν from the oblique cases. Hom. has ἠέρι, ἠέρα from ἀ_ήρ air; from Κρονί_ων Hom. has Κρονι?́ωνος and Κρονί_ονος. μάκαρς is Doric for μάκα_ρ happy. Pind. has φρασί (250 N.). Ionic μείς, Doric μής are from μενς for μηνς (40, 37 D. 1, 2). Aeolic gen. μῆννος is from μηνσ-ος.

260. Accusative Sing.—Ἀπόλλω and Ποσειδῶ are found as well as Ἀπόλλωνα, Ποσειδῶνα. The shorter forms are regular in inscriptions, and occur especially in expressions of swearing after νὴ τόν, μὰ τόν (1596 b).

260 D. κυκεών potion usually has κυκεῶ for κυκεῶνα.

261. Vocative.—σωτήρ preserver, Ἀπόλλων, Ποσειδῶν (from Ποσειδέων, -ά_ων, -α_ϝων) have voc. σῶτερ, Ἄπολλον, Πόσειδον with recessive accent. Recessive accent also occurs in compound proper names in -ων; as Ἀγαμέμνων, Ἀγάμεμνον; Αὐτομέδων, Αὐτόμεδον; Φιλήμων, Φιλῆμον; but not in those in -φρων (Εὐθύφρον). Λακεδαίμων has Λακεδαῖμον.


262. Several words in -τηρ show three forms of stem gradation: -τηρ strong, -τερ middle, -τρ weak. ρ between consonants becomes ρα (35 b). The vocative has recessive accent. ἀνήρ man has the weak form in ρ even before vowels; between ν and ρ, δ is inserted by 130.

πατήρ μήτηρ θυγάτηρ ἀνήρ
πατερ-μητερ-θυγατερ-ἀνερ- or ἀνδρ-

N. A. V.πατέρ-εμητέρ-εθυγατέρ-εἄνδρ-ε
G. D.πατέρ-οινμητέρ-οινθυγατέρ-οινἀνδρ-οῖν

N. V.πατέρ-εςμητέρ-εςθυγατέρ-εςἄνδρ-ες

a. The accent in the weak forms of μήτηρ, θυγάτηρ in the gen. and dat. sing. follows that of πατρός, πατρί.

b. γαστήρ belly, has γαστρός, etc. Δημήτηρ is inflected Δήμητρος, Δήμητρι, Δήμητρα, Δήμητερ.

c. ἀστήρ star has gen. ἀστέρος, dat. ἀστέρι, dat. pl. ἀστράσι.

262 D. Poetry often has πατέρος, πατέρι, μητέρος, μητέρι, etc. Poetical are πατρῶν; θυγατέρι, θύγατρα, θύγατρες, θυγατρῶν, θυγατέρεσσι, θύγατρας, γαστέρος, etc.; and ἀνέρος, ἀνέρι, ἀνέρα, ἀνέρες, ἀνέρων, ἀνέρας all with long α. Hom. has ἄνδρεσσι and ἀνδράσι (with -ασι only in this word), Δήμητρος and Δημήτερος.

STEMS IN SIGMA (ες, ας, ος

263. Stems in sigma are contracted where ς falls out between the vowel of the stem and the vowel of the ending (120). Thus, γένος race, gen. γενες-ος γένους, dat. γενες-ι γένει, cp. Lat. genus gener-is (for genes-is), gener-i.

a. The masculine and feminine accusative plural, when it is contracted, borrows the form of the contracted nominative plural. -εις is not derived from -εας. In the dative plural the union of ς of the stem and ς of the ending produces σς, which is reduced to ς without lengthening the preceding vowel (107).

b. Masculine stems in ες with the nominative in -ης are proper names; the feminine τριήρης trireme is an adjective used substantively (properly, triply fitted; τριήρης (ναῦς) ‘ship with three banks of oars’).

c. Neuters with stems in ες have -ος in the nominative, accusative, and vocative singular; neuters with stems in ας have -ας in these cases.

d. Some stems in ας have also a stem in ατ or α_τ (258).


Σωκράτης Socrates Δημοσθένης Demosthenes

τριήρηςτὸ γένοςτὸ γέρας

N. A. V.τριήρε-ετριήρειγένε-εγένειγέρα-εγέρα_
G. D.τριηρέ-οιντριήροινγενέ-οινγενοῖνγερά-οινγερῷν

N. V.τριήρε-εςτριήρειςγένε-αγένηγέρα-αγέρα_
Dat.τριήρεσ-σιτριήρεσινγένεσ-σιγένεσινγέρασ-σιγέρασιν )</

Διογένης Diogenes, Ἱπποκράτης Hippocrates. Neuters: ἔτος year, εὖρος width, ξίφος sword, τεῖχος wall, γῆρας old age, κρέας flesh (for κέρας horn see 258).

a. Proper names in -ης have recessive accent in the vocative.

b. Proper names in -γένης, -κράτης, -μένης, -φάνης, etc., may have an accus. in -ην derived from the first declension. Thus, Σωκράτην, Ἀριστοφάνην, like Ἀτρείδην (222, 282 N.). But names in -κλῆς (265) have only -εα_.

c. Proper names in -ης often show -εος, -εα in the lyric parts of tragedy.

d. Neuters in -ος often show open forms (especially -εων) in Attic poetry. -εων is frequent in Xenophon.

e. τριήροιν and τριήρων have irregular accent by analogy to the other forms.

f. A preceding ρ does not prevent the contraction of εα to η, as ὄρη from τὸ ὄρος mountain (cp. 31. 1).

g. The dat. sing. of ας stems is properly -α^ι; but - is often written on the authority of the ancient grammarians. This may possibly be due to the analogy of in α_ stems.

264 D. 1. Hom. uses the open or the closed forms according to convenience. -ευς occurs in the gen. of a few words in -ος (βέλευς); -εων is often a monosyllable (60), as is the accus. sing. and pl. -εα from nom. -ης or -ος. Hdt. has open -εος, -εα, -εες (?), -εα. In the dat. pl. Hom. has βέλεσσι, βέλεσι, and βελέεσσι (250 D. 2) from βέλος missile.

2. Stems in ας are generally uncontracted in Hom. (γήραος, γήραϊ), but we find -αι in the dat. sing., κρεῶν and κρειῶν in the gen. pl. In the nom. and acc. pl. α is short (γέρα^), and this is sometimes the case even in Attic poetry (κρέα^). The explanation is obscure (γέρα^ does not stand for γέρα᾽). Hom. has δέπασσι and δεπάεσσι (δέπας cup).

3. In Hom. and Hdt. several words in -ας show ε for α before a vowel (cp. ὁρέω in Hdt. for ὁράω). Hom.: οὖδας ground, οὔδεος, οὔδεϊ and οὔδει; κῶας fleece, κώεα, κώεσι; Hdt.: γέρας, γέρεος, but κρέας, κρέως, κρεῶν. In Attic poetry: βρέτας image, βρέτεος, βρέτει, etc. Cp. 258 D.

265. When -εσ- of the stem is preceded by ε, the forms are inflected as follows: τὸ δέος fear (δεεσ-), Περικλῆς from Περικλέης Pericles (Περικλεεσ-):

So Ἡρακλῆς Heracles, Σοφοκλῆς Sophocles.

a. After ε, εα contracts to α_ (56). On the contraction of -εεος, see 55.

b. δέος is uncontracted because the form was originally δε[ιγλιδε]ος (58).

265 D. Hom. has κλέα (for κλέα᾽?), and from -κλῆς: -ῆος, -ῆι; Hdt.: -έος (for -έεος), -έϊ, -εα^. For -ῆος, -ῆα the open -έεος, -έεα may be read. Attic poetry often has the open forms -έης (also in prose inscrip.), -έει, -εες.


266. αἰδώς shame is the only ος stem in Attic. It is inflected in the singular only. Nom. αἰδώς, Gen. αἰδοῦς (αἰδό-ος), Dat. αἰδοῖ (αἰδό-ι), Acc. αἰδῶ (αἰδό-α), Voc. αἰδώς.

266 D. Hom. and Ion. ἠώς dawn (ἠοσ-) is inflected like αἰδώς. For αἰδοῦς, ἠῶ we may read αἰδόος, ἠόα and some other open forms in Hom. The Attic form ἕως is declined according to 238; but the accus. is ἕω (238 d). Hom. has ἱδρόα from ἱδρώς sweat (usually a τ stem). Cp. 257 D.


267. Stems in ωϝ have lost vau and appear as ω stems. This ω contracts with the case endings in the dative and accusative singular and in the nominative and accusative plural. Stems in ωϝ are masculine.

Nom.ἥρως heroN. A. V.ἥρω-εN. V. ἥρω-ες (rarely ἥρως
Gen.ἥρω-οςG. D.ἡρώ-οινGen. ἡρώ-ων
Dat.ἥρω-ι (usually ἥρῳDat. ἥρω-σιν
Acc.ἥρω-α (usually ἥρωAcc. ἥρω-ας (rarely ἥρως

Τρώς Trojan (252 a), πάτρως father's brother, μήτρως mother's brother, δμως slave (poetic, cp. 252 a).

a. Forms of the Attic second declension (237) are gen. ἥρω, Μί_νω, acc. ἥρων; dual ἥρῳν (on an inscription).

267 D. Hom. has ἥρωϊ (for ἥρῳ read ἡρω^ϊ), ἥρωα (or ἥρω᾽), ἥρωες ἥρωας, Μί_νωα and Μί_νω. Hdt. has the gen. Μί_νω and Μί_νωος, the acc. πάτρων, ἥρων, but μήτρωα.


268. Most stems in ι and some stems in υ show the pure stem vowel only in the nominative, accusative, and vocative singular. In the other cases they show an ε in place of ι and υ, and -ως instead of -ος in the genitive singular. Contraction takes place when this ε stands before ε, ι, or α of the case ending.

πόλις city πῆχυς forearmτὸ ἄστυ town σῦς sow ἰχθύ_ς fish
Dat.πόλε-ι) πόλειπήχε-ι) πήχειἄστε-ι) ἄστεισυ-ΐἰχθύ-ϊ

N.A.V.πόλε-ε) πόλειπήχε-ε) πήχειἄστε-ε) ἄστεισύ-εἰχθύ-ε
G. D.πολέ-οινπηχέ-οινἀστέ-οινσυ-οῖνἰχθύ-οιν

N. V.πόλε-ες) πόλειςπήχε-ες) πήχειςἄστε-α) ἄστησύ-εςἰχθύ-ες
Dat.πόλε-σινπήχε-σινἄστε-σινσυ-σίνἰχθύ-σι (ν
Acc.πόλειςπήχειςἄστε-α) ἄστησῦςἰχθῦς

268 D. 1. ι stems. a. Doric, Aeolic, and New Ionic retain the ι stem without variation in all cases: πόλις, πόλιος, πόλι_ (from πολι-ι) and rarely πόλει in Hdt., πόλιν, πόλι, πόλιες, πολίων, πόλισι, πόλι_ς from πόλινς (Cretan), and πόλιας.

b. Hom. has πόλις, πόλιος, πόλι_, πόλει or -ιϊ (for which some read πόλι_, as κόνι_; πόσεϊ is correct) and πτόλεϊ, πόλιν, πόλι; pl. πόλιες, πολίων, πόλεσι (some read instead πόλισι) or πολίεσσι (250 D. 2) ἐπάλξεσιν, πόλι_ς or πόλιας (πόλεις appears in some texts).

c. Hom. has also forms with η: πόληος, πόληι, πόληες, πόληας.

2. υ stems. a. Ionic, Doric, and Aeolic have the open forms πήχεες, ἄστεϊ, ἄστεα; in the gen. sing. -ος, never -ως (πήχεος, ἄστεος). In the dat. sing. of words of more than one syllable Hom. has -υϊ or -υι, as νέκυι (νέκυς corpse), but Hdt. does not show -υι.

b. The gen. pl. has the regular accent (πηχέων, ἀστέων). On the dat. πελέκεσσι, νέκυσσι, πίτυσσι (some would read νέκυ_σι, πίτυ_σι), νεκύεσσι, see 250 D. 2. Hom. has accus. ἰχθῦς and ἰχθύας, Hdt. has ἰχθύας very rarely.

269. Stems in ι and υ are of two kinds:—

1. a. Stems in ι, with genitive in -εως, as (masc.) μάντις seer, ἔχις viper; (fem.) πόλις city, ποίησις poetry, δύναμις power, στάσις faction, ὕβρις outrage. Neuter nominatives in -ι are not used in classical prose.

b. Stems in ι, with genitive in -ιος, as κί_ς weevil, gen. κι_-ός, dat. κι_-ί; and so in proper names in -ις, as Λύγδαμις Lygdamis, gen. Λυγδάμιος.

2. a. Stems in υ, with genitive in -υος; as (masc.) μῦς mouse, βότρυς cluster of grapes, ἰχθύ_ς fish; (fem.) δρῦς oak, ὀφρύ_ς eyebrow, ἰσχύ_ς force.

b. Stems in υ, with genitive in -εως: (masc.) πῆχυς forearm, πέλεκυς axe; (neut.) ἄστυ town.

N. 1.—In the nom., acc., and voc. sing. barytone stems in υ have short υ; oxytone substantives (usually) and monosyllables have υ_; and monosyllables circumflex the υ_ (σῦς, σῦν, σῦ).

N. 2.— ἔγχελυς eel follows ἰχθύ_ς in the singular (ἐγχέλυ-ος, etc.), but πῆχυς in the plural (ἐγχέλεις, etc.). But this does not hold for Aristotle.

270. Stems in ι and υ vary with stronger stems, of which ε in the cases other than nom., acc., and voc. sing. is a survival. Thus:

a. ι, υ, as in πόλι-ς, πῆχυ-ς.

b. ει, ευ, which before vowels lost their ι and υ (43), as in πολε[ιγλιδε]-ι, πολε[ιγλιδε]-ες, πηχε[υγλιδε]-ες; which contract to πόλει, πόλεις, πήχεις.

c. There is also a stem in η, as in Hom. πόλη-ος (268 D. 1, c), whence πόλε-ως.

N. 1.—πόλε-ος in Attic poetry for the sake of the metre is due to the analogy of υ stems with gen. in -ε-ος (ἡδέ-ος, 297). Hom. πήχε-ος is the regular form (from πηχε[υγλιδε]-ος). Attic πήχε-ως follows πόλεως. πόλε-σι and πήχε-σι for πόλι-σι and πήχυ-σι are due to the analogy of forms from stems in ει, ευ (πόλε-ων, πήχε-ων, etc.).

N. 2.—The dual πόλεε occurs in some Mss.

271. Accent.—Final -ως of the genitive singular does not prevent the acute from standing on the antepenult (163 a). Thus πόλε-ως, πήχε-ως, ἄστε-ως. πόλε-ως retains the accent of the earlier πόλη-ος, which, by transference of quantity (34), became πόλε-ως. The accent of the gen. pl. follows that of the gen. sing.

272. Accusative plural.—πόλεις, πήχεις are borrowed from the nominative. ἰχθῦς is from ἰχθυν-ς. ἰχθύας occurs in late Greek. Cp. 251 a.

273. Contraction.—ἰχθῦ (once) for ἰχθύε and ἰχθῦς for ἰχθύες occur in comedy. ἰχθῦ is not a legitimate contraction, as υ cannot contract with ε (51 c). ἰχθῦς (for ἰχθύες) is the accus. form used as the nom. (251 b).

274. οἶς sheep is declined as follows: οἶς, οἰ-ός, οἰ-ί, οἶ-ν, οἶ; dual, οἶ-ε, οἰ-οῖν; pl. οἶ-ες, οἰ-ῶν, οἰ-σί, οἶ-ς. Here the stem is οι᾽, representing ὀϝι, which is properly an ι stem: ὀϝι-ς, Lat. ovi-s.

274 D. Hom. has ὄϊς, ὀΐος and οἰός, ὄϊν, ὄϊες, ὀΐων and οἰῶν, ὀΐεσσι (οἴεσσι ο 386) and ὄεσσι, ὄϊςι_).

STEMS IN ευ, αυ, ου


βασιλεύ-ς γραῦ-ς ναῦ-ς, βοῦ-ς
kingold womanshipox, cow
Dat. (βασιλέ-ιβασιλεῖγρα_-ΐνη-ΐβο-ΐ

N. A. V.βασιλῆγρᾶ-ενῆ-εβό-ε
G. D.βασιλέ-οινγρα_-οῖννε-οῖνβο-οῖν

N. V.βασιλῆς, later )γρᾶ-εςνῆ-εςβό-ες

Like βασιλεύς are declined the masculine oxytones ἱππεύς horseman, ἱερεύς priest, γονεύς parent, φονεύς murderer; like βοῦς is declined χοῦς threequart measure (but acc. χόα_ and χόας).

275 D. 1. Hom. has βασιλῆος, -ῆι, -ῆα, -εῦ, -ῆες, -εῦσι (and -ήεσσι), -ῆας. Also -έος, -έϊ, -έα^, from the stem εϝ ε[υγλιδε]. -εῦς and -εῖ for -έος and -έϊ are not common. Ἀτρεύς, Τυ_δεύς have -έϝ-ος etc. regularly (Τυ_δῆ from Τυ_δέα). Hdt. has -έος, -έϊ or -εῖ, -έα^, -εῦ, -έες, -έων, -εῦσι, -έα^ς.

2. Hom. has γρηῦς or γρηΰς, γρηΐ, γρηῦ and γρηΰ; the unattic βόεσσι (and βουσί), βόας (and βοῦς), βῶν acc. sing. H 238. The Doric nom. sing. is βῶς, acc. pl. βῶς.

3. The declension of ναῦς in Doric, Homer, and Herodotus is as follows:

νε-ός(and νη-ός?)νε-ῶν
νά_-εσσιννή-εσσιν), νέ-εσσιν

Hom. has ναυσί in ναυσικλυτός.

276. Substantives in -εύς preceded by a vowel may contract in the gen. and acc. sing. and pl. Thus, ἁλιεύς fisherman has gen. ἁλιέως or ἁλιῶς, acc. ἁλιέα_ or ἁλιᾶ, gen. pl. ἁλιέων or ἁλιῶν, acc. pl. ἁλιέα_ς or ἁλιᾶς. All other forms are regular. The contracted forms were in use in the fifth century, but in the fourth (especially after 350 B.C.) the open forms are common. So are declined Εὐβοεύς Euboean from Εὐβοιεύς, Παιραιεύς Peiraeus, Πλαταιεύς Plataean.

277. Other Forms.—a. In the drama from words in -εύς we find rarely -έα^ in acc. sing., -έα^ς in acc. pl. -έος and -ῆος, -ῆες, -ῆας are occasionally found.

b. The nom. pl. in older Attic ended in -ῆς (βασιλῆς), derived either from -ῆες by contraction or from -έης (once on an inscription) by 34. -ῆς occurs on inscriptions till about 350 B.C., and is the form to be adopted in the texts of authors of the fifth century and in Plato. -έες occurs rarely, but is suspected. βασιλεῖς (regular on inscriptions after 329 B.C.) is from analogy to ἡδεῖς.

c. The acc. pl. βασιλεῖς was not used till the end of the fourth century. -ῆς (the nom. form) is used for the acc. in a few passages (251 b).

278. Stem Variation.—Stems ending in ευ, αυ, ου lose υ before case endings beginning with a vowel, [υγλιδε] passing into ϝ (43). Stems in ευ show the pure form only in the vocative; other forms are derived from the stronger stem ηυ. ηυ and α_υ before a consonant become ευ, α^υ (40) as in βασιλεύς, βασιλεῦσι, ναῦς, ναυσί from βασιληυς, να_υς, etc. From βασιλῆϝ-ος, -ϝ-ι, -ϝ-α, -ϝ-ας come, by transfer of quantity (34), the Attic forms. So νεώς is derived from νηϝ-ός. In βασιλέων, νεῶν, ε is shortened from the η of βασιλήων, νηῶν by 39. βο-ός, etc. are from the stem βου- βοϝ-, cp. Lat. bovis.


279. Stems in οι, with nominative in -ώ, turn ι into unwritten [ιγλιδε] (y) (43) before the endings beginning with a vowel. πειθώ persuasion is thus declined:

N. πειθώ. G. πειθοῦς (πειθό-ος). D. πειθοῖ (πειθό-ι). A. πειθώ (πειθό-α). V. πειθοῖ. Dual and plural are wanting.

So ἠχώ echo, εὐεστώ well-being, φειδώ sparing, Σαπφώ, Λητώ, Καλυψώ. οι stems are chiefly used for women's names.

a. A stronger form of the stem is ωι, seen in the earlier form of the nominative (Σαπφῴ, Λητῴ). The accusative has the accent of the nominative.

b. When dual and plural occur, they are of the second declension: nom. λεχοί (late) from λεχώ woman in child-bed, acc. γοργούς from γοργώ gorgon.

c. εἰκών image, ἀηδών nightingale, properly from stems in ον, have certain forms from this declension (εἰκοῦς, εἰκώ, voc. ἀηδοῖ).

279 D. In Ionic the forms are contracted (πειθοῦς, etc.). Hdt. has acc. Ἰ_οῦν from Ἰ_ώ, Λητοῦν, but also πειθώ.


280. Cases in -φιν).—-φιν) is often added to noun stems in Hom. to express the relations of the lost instrumental, locative, and ablative, both singular and (more commonly) plural; rarely to express the relations of the genitive and dative cases. From α_ stems are made singulars, from ο stems singulars or plurals, from consonant stems almost always plurals. Except in θεό-φιν with the gods -φιν) is not added to a stem denoting a person. (a) Instrumental: βίη-φι by might, ἑτέρη-φι with the other (hand), δακρυό-φιν with tears; (b) Locative: θύρη-φι at the door, ὄρεσ-φι on the mountains; (c) Ablative: κεφαλῆ-φιν from off the head; especially with prepositions, as ἐκ ποντό-φιν from off the sea, ἀπὸ ναῦ-φιν from the ships.

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