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248. The vocative of masculines and feminines is usually the pure stem.

πόλι (πόλι-ς city), βοῦ (βοῦ-ς ox, cow), Σώκρατες (Σωκράτης). Stems in ιδ and ντ cannot retain final δ and τ (133), hence Ἄρτεμι from Ἄρτεμις (Ἀρτεμιδ-), παῖ from παῖς boy, girl (παιδ-), νεᾶνι from νεᾶνις maiden (νεα_νιδ-); γέρον from γέρων old man (γεροντ-), γίγαν from γίγα_ς giant (γιγαντ-).

249. The vocative is the same as the nominative:

a. In stems ending in a stop (16) consonant (except those in ιτ, ιδ, ι_θ; ντ in nouns): φύλαξ watchman. (Αἴα_ς Ajax (Αἰαντ-) is nom. and voc.)

b. In oxytone stems ending in a liquid and not taking ς to form their nominative (242): ποιμήν shepherd (ποιμεν-); but ἀνήρ man, πατήρ father have ἄνερ, πάτερ (262). Barytones use the stem as the vocative: δαῖμον, ῥη̈τορ from δαίμων divinity, ῥήτωρ orator.

c. In all participles.

249 D. Hom. has ἄνα oh king as well as ἄναξ (ἀνακτ-); Αἶαν from Αἰαντ-. Πουλυδάμα_, Λα_οδάμα_ (from stems in αντ) are later forms due to analogy.

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