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281. The gender in the singular and in the plural may not be the same: σῖτος grain, τὰ σῖτα; δεσμός chain, τὰ δεσμά chains (οἱ δεσμοί cases of imprisonment); τὸ στάδιον stade, race-course, pl. τὰ στάδια and οἱ στάδιοι.

282. Usually the irregularity consists in a word having two different stems.

a. Both stems have a common nominative singular: σκότος darkness, σκότου σκότῳ, etc. (like ἵππου ἵππῳ) or σκότους σκότει (like γένους γένει). So τὸν Ἄθω, and τὸν Ἄθων from Ἄθως (238 d), τὸν Σωκράτη and τὸν Σωκράτην (264 b). These are called heteroclites (ἑτερόκλιτα differently declined).

N. Many compound proper names in -ης (especially names of foreigners) have forms of the 1 and 3 decl., as Τισσαφέρνης, -νους, -νῃ and -νει. So Θεοκρί_νη (voc.) in Demosth., Λεωνίδην and Λεωνίδεα in Hdt.

b. Certain cases are formed from another stem than that of the nom. singular: ὄνειρο-ς dream, gen. ὀνείρατ-ος (as if from τὸ ὄνειραρ), or (less freq.) ὀνείρου; so τὸν Ἀπόλλωνα and τὸν Ἀπόλλω (260), τοῦ υἱέος and τοῦ υἱοῦ (285, 27). These are called metaplastic forms (μεταπλασμός change of formation).

283. Defectives are substantives having, by reason of their meaning or use, only one number or only certain cases. Thus, sing. only: ἀήρ air, αἰθήρ upper air; plur. only: τὰ Διονύ_σια, τὰ Ὀλύμπια the Dionysiac (Olympic) festival, οἱ ἐτησίαι annual winds; in some cases only: μέλε my good sir or madam; ὄναρ dream; ὄφελος use only in nom.; λιβός λίβα from *λίψ stream, libation.

284. Indeclinables are substantives having one form for all cases: τὸ χρεών, τοῦ χρεών, etc. fatality, τὸ ἄλφα alpha, τὸ λέγειν to speak, most cardinal numbers (τὸ δέκα ten), several foreign words, as Ἰακώβ Jacob, Δαβίδ David.


1. Ἄρης () Ares, stems Ἀρεσ-, Ἀρευ- from Ἀρες ϝ-. G. Ἄρεως (poet. Ἄρεος), D. Ἄρει, A. Ἄρη (poet. Ἄρεα), Ἄρην. Epic G. Ἄρηος, Ἄρεος, D. Ἄρηι, Ἄρεϊ, A. Ἄρηα, Ἄρην. Hdt. Ἄρεος, Ἄρει, Ἄρεα. Aeolic Ἄρευς, Ἄρευος, etc.

2. ἀρήν (, ) lamb, sheep, stems ἀρεν-, ἀρν-, ἀρνα-. Thus, ἀρν-ός, ἀρν-ί, ἄρν-α, ἄρν-ες, ἀρν-ῶν, ἀρνά-σι (Hom. ἄρν-εσσι), ἄρν-ας (declined like a subst. in -ηρ). Nom. ἀρήν occurs on inscript. but ἀμνός (2 decl.) is commonly used.

3. γάλα (τό) milk (133), γάλακτ-ος, γάλακτ -ι, etc.

4. γέλως () laughter, γέλωτ-ος, etc. Attic poets A. γέλωτα or γέλων. Hom. has D. γέλῳ, A. γέλω, γέλων or γέλοι (?) from Aeol. γέλος. Cp. 257 D.

5. γόνυ (τό) knee, γόνατ-ος, etc. Ionic and poetic γούνατ-ος, γούνατ-ι, etc. Epic also γουν-ός, γουν-ί, γοῦν-α, pl. γούν-ων, γούν-εσσι (250 D. 2). The forms in ου are from γονϝ- (37 D. 1, 253 c); cf. Lat. genu.

6. γυνή () woman, γυναικ-ός, γυναικ-ί, γυναῖκ-α, γύναι (133); dual γυναῖκ-ε, γυναικ-οῖν; pl. γυναῖκ-ες, γυναικ-ῶν, γυναιξί, γυναῖκ-ας. The gen. and dat. of all numbers accent the last syllable (cp. ἀνήρ). Comic poets have A. γυνήν, γυνάς, N. pl. γυναί.

7. δάκρυον (τό) tear, δακρύου, etc., in prose and poetry. δάκρυ (τό) is usually poetic, D. pl. δάκρυσι.

8. δένδρον (τό) tree, δένδρου, etc. Also D. sing. δένδρει, pl. δένδρη, δένδρεσι. Hdt. has δένδρον, δένδρεον and δένδρος.

9. δέος (τό) fear (δεεσ-), δέους, δέει. Hom. δείους, 55 D. Cp. 265.

10. δόρυ (τό) spear, δόρατ-ος, δόρατ-ι, pl. δόρατ-α, etc. Poetic δορ-ός, δορ-ί (also in prose) and δόρ-ει (like ἄστει). Ionic and poetic δούρατ-ος, etc., Epic also δουρ-ός δουρ-ί, dual δοῦρ-ε, pl. δοῦρ-α, δούρ-ων, δούρ-εσσι (250 D. 2). The forms with ου are from δορϝ- (37 D. 1).

11. ἔρως () love, ἔρωτ-ος, etc. Poetical ἔρος, ἔρῳ, ἔρον. Cp. 257 D.

12. Ζεύς () Zeus, Δι-ός, Δι-ί, Δί-α, Ζεῦ. Ζεύς is from Διευς, Δι-ός, etc., from Διϝ-. Ionic and poetic Ζηνός, Ζηνί, Ζῆνα.

13. θέμις () justice and the goddess Themis (θεμιδ-), θέμιδ-ος, θέμιδ-ι, θέμι-ν. Hom. has θέμιστ-ος, etc. Pind. θέμιτ-ος, θέμι-ν, θέμιτ-ες. Hdt. θέμι-ος. In the phrase θέμις εἶναι fas esse (indic. θέμις ἐστί), θέμις is indeclinable.

14. κάρα_ (τό) head (poetic) used in Attic only in N. A. V. sing., but dat. κάρᾳ. Other cases are from the stem κρα_τ-, G. κρα_τ-ός, D. κρα_-τί; also τὸ κρᾶτ-α N. A. sing., κρᾶτ-ας A. pl.

Epic shows the stems κρα_ατ-, κρα_τ-, καρηατ-, καρητ-. N. κάρη, G. κρά_ατος, κρα_τός, καρήατος, κάρητος, D. κρά_ατι, κρα_τί, καρήατι, κάρητι, A. κάρ. N. pl. κάρα_, κρά_ατα, καρήατα, and κάρηνα, G. κρά_των, καρήνων, D. κρα_σί, A. κρᾶτα.

15. κύων: (, ) dog, κυν-ός, κυν-ί, κύν-α, κύον; κύν-ε, κυν-οῖν; κύν-ες, κυν-ῶν, κυσί, κύν-ας.

16. λᾶας () stone, poetic also λᾶς, G. λᾶος (or λά_ου), D. λᾶϊ, A. λᾶαν, λᾶα; dual λᾶε; pl. λᾶ-ες, λά_-ων, λά_-εσσι, λά_-εσι.

17. μάρτυς (, ) witness, μάρτυρ-ος, etc., but D. pl. μάρτυ-σι. Hom. has N. μάρτυρος, pl. μάρτυροι.

18. Οἰδίπους () Oedipus, G. Οἰδίποδος, Οἰδίπου, Οἰδιπόδα_ (Dor.), D. Οἰδίποδι, A. Οἰδίπουν, Οἰδιπόδα_ν, V. Οἰδίπους, Οἰδίπου.

19. ὄνειρος () and ὄνειρον (τό, Ionic and poetic) dream, ὀνείρου, etc., but also ὀνείρατ-ος, etc. τὸ ὄναρ only in N. A.

20. ὄρνι_ς (, ) bird (257). A. ὄρνι_θα and ὄρνι_ν (247). Poetic ὄρνι^ς, A. ὄρνι^ν; pl. N. ὄρνεις, G. ὄρνεων, A. ὄρνεις or ὄρνι_ς. Dor. G. ὄρνι_χ-ος, etc.

21. ὄσσε dual, two eyes, pl. G. ὄσσων, D. ὄσσοις (-οισι).

22. οὖς (τό) ear, ὠτ-ός, ὠτ-ί, pl. ὦτ-α, ὤτ-ων (252 a), ὠσί; from the stem ὠτ- contracted from οὐςατ-, whence ο᾽[υγλιδε]ατ-. οὖς is from ὀος, whence also the Doric nom. ὦς. Hom. G. οὔατ-ος, pl. οὔατ-α, οὔασι and ὠσί.

23. Πνύξ () Pnyx (128), Πυκν-ός, Πυκν-ί, Πύκν-α, and also Πνυκ-ός, Πνυκ-ί, Πνύκ-α.

24. πρεσβευτής () envoy has in the pl. usually the forms of the poetic πρέσβυς old man, properly an adj., old. Thus, N. sing. πρεσβευτής, G. πρεσβευτοῦ, etc., N. pl. πρέσβεις, G. πρέσβεων, D. πρέσβεσι, A. πρέσβεις (rarely πρεσβευταί, etc.). πρέσβυς meaning old man is poetic in the sing. (A. πρέσβυν, V. πρέσβυ) and pl. (πρέσβεις); meaning envoy πρέσβυς is poetic and rare in the sing. (dual πρεσβῆ from πρεσβεύς). πρεσβύ_της old man is used in prose and poetry in all numbers.

25. πῦρ (τό) fire (πυ^ρ-, 254 b), πυρ-ός, πυρ-ί, pl. τὰ πυρά watch-fires, 2nd decl.

26. ὕδωρ (τό) water, ὕδατ-ος, ὕδατ-ι, pl. ὕδατ-α, ὑδάτ-ων, etc. Cp. 253 b.

27. υἱός () son has three stems: 1. υἱο-, whence υἱοῦ, etc., according to the 2nd decl. 2. υἱυ-, whence υἱέος, υἱεῖ, dual υἱεῖ, υἱέοιν, pl. υἱεῖς, υἱέων, υἱέσι, υἱεῖς. The stems υἱο- and υἱυ-, usually lose their ι (43): ὑοῦ, ὑέος, etc. 3. υἱ- in Hom. G. υἷος, D. υἷι, A. υἷα, dual υἷε, pl. υἷες, υἱάσι, υἷας.

28. χείρ () hand, χειρ-ός, χειρ-ί, χεῖρ-α; dual χεῖρ-ε, χερ-οῖν; pl. χεῖρ-ες, χειρ-ῶν, χερ-σί, χεῖρ-ας. Poetic also χερ-ός, χερ-ί, etc.; dual, χειρ-οῖν. Att. inscr. have χειροῖν, χειρσί. Hom. agrees with Att. prose and Hdt. except that he has also χερ-ί, χείρ-εσσι χείρ-εσι.

29. χρώς () skin, χρωτ-ός, χρωτ-ί (but χρῷ in the phrase ἐν χρῷ), χρῶτα. Poetic χρο-ός, χρο-ί_, χρό-α, like αἰδώς, 266.

285 D. 27. Hom. has also υἱός, υἱοῦ, υἱόν, υἱέ, υἱῶν, υἱοῖσι; υἱέος, υἱέϊ, υἱέα, υἱέες and υἱεῖς, υἱέας. υι sometimes makes a short syllable in υἱός, υἱόν, υἱέ (148 D. 3).

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