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462. To make the complete verbal forms, to the tense-stems in the various moods are attached the personal endings in the finite moods and other endings in the infinitives, participles, and verbal adjectives. See 366. The personal endings of the four finite moods are given below. In many forms only the μι-verbs preserve distinct endings. Some of the endings are due to analogy of others and many are still unexplained. The first person dual, when it is used, has the form of the first person plural.

(primary tenses)(secondary tenses)(primary tenses)(secondary tenses)
Sing. 1.—or -μι-ν-μαι-μην
2. -ς (for -σι), -θα (-σθα-ς, -σθα-σαι-σο
3. -σι (for -τι-ται-το
Dual 2. -τον-τον-σθον-σθον
3. -τον-την-σθον-σθην
Plur. 1. -μεν-μεν-μεθα-μεθα
2. -τε-τε-σθε-σθε
3. -νσι (for -ντι-ν, -σαν,-νται-ντο

Sing. 2.—,-θι, -ς-σο
Dual 2.-τον-σθον
Plur. 2.-τε-σθε
3.-ντων (-τωσαν-σθων (-σθωσαν

462 D. Doric has -τι for -σι, -μες for -μεν, -ντι in 3 pl., and -τα_ν, -σθα_ν, -μα_ν for -την, -σθην, -μην. -τα_ν, -σθα_ν, -μα_ν are also Aeolic.

The close agreement between Greek and Sanskrit may be illustrated by the inflection of Old Greek and Doric φα_μί say, Skt. bhā´mi shine, ἔφερον, Skt. ábharam bore.



a. 1 Sing.—-μι is found only in μι-verbs. Verbs in -ω have no ending and simply lengthen the thematic vowel (λύ_ω, λείπω). The perfect has no personal ending, -α taking the place of a thematic vowel.

463 a. D. The Hom. subj. ἐθέλωμι, τύχωμι, ἀγάγωμι, are new formations. Aeolic has φίλημι, δοκίμωμι (indic.).

b. 2 Sing.—(1) -σι is found in Hom. ἐσσί thou art from the μι-verb εἰμί I am; possibly also in φῄς thou sayest. Attic εἶ thou art is derived from ἐ-σι. τίθη-ς is obscure. λύ_εις is probably for λυ_ε-σι, λυ_εϊ, λυ_ει, to which ς has been added. Subj. λύ_ῃ-ς follows the analogy of the indicative, but with long thematic vowel. τιθῇς for τιθέ-ῃς. In the perfect -ς (not for -σι) has been added.

b. (1) εἶς or εἴς in Hom. and Hdt. is derived from εἶ ¨ ς. For this form ἐσςί) may be read in Hom. Theocr. has -ες for -εις (ἀμέλγες, etc.) and perf. πεπόνθεις (557. 2. D.).

(2) -θα is a perfect ending, as in οἶσθα knowest for οἰδ ¨ θα (83). From the perfect it spread to the imperfects ἦσθα wast, ἤεισθα wentst, ἔφησθα saidst, and to ᾔδησθα or ᾔδεισθα knewest. The perfect has commonly -α-ς. οἶσθας and ἦσθας are late.

b. (2) -σθα in Hom. indic. φῆσθα, τίθησθα, ᾔδησθα; subj. ἐθέλῃσθα also written ἐθέλησθα; opt. (rarely) κλαίοισθα, βάλοισθα. -σθα occurs also occasionally in Doric (ποθορῆσθα) and Aeolic (ἔχεισθα, φίλησθα).

c. 3 Sing.—-τι is found in μι-verbs: ἐσ-τί, τίθησι for τίθη-τι (Doric) by 115. λύ_ει is obscure, but it cannot be derived from λυ_ε-σι for λυ_ε-τι. λύ_ῃ, τιθῇ (for τιθέῃ) follow λύ_ει, but with long thematic vowel. In the perfect, -ε with no personal ending.

c. Aeolic has τίθη, ποίη, στεφάνοι, but ἦσι says. Subj.: Hom. ἐθέλῃσι (also written ἐθέλησι; cp. Arcad. ἔχη), φορέῃσι, θέῃσι.

d. 3 Pl.—Original -ντι is retained in Doric λύ_οντι, whence Attic λύ_ουσι (115 a); ἐντί, Attic εἰσί. Subj. λύ_ωσι from λύ_ω-ντι, τιθῶσι from τιθέω-ντι, ποιῶσι from ποιῶντι (Dor.). Many μι forms are derived from -αντι, as τιθέα_σι (τιθέ-αντι), διδόα_σι (διδό-αντι), ἑστᾶσι (ἑστά-αντι), ἱστᾶσι (from ἱστά-αντι), the accent of which has been transferred to τιθεῖσι (747 D. 1), διδοῦσι from (Dor.) τίθε-ντι, δίδο-ντι. -α^τι from -ṇτι (35 b), properly the ending of the perfect after a consonant, appears as -α^σι in Hom. πεφύκα^σι; but it has been replaced by -α_σι out of -αντι, as in τετράφ-α_σι.

d. Hom. has -α_σι in ἴα_σι they go, ἔα_σι they are, and in βεβάα_σι, γεγάα_σι. Aeolic has λύ_οισι, φίλεισι, τί_μαισι.


The optative usually has the endings of the secondary tenses of the indicative.

a. 1 Sing.—-ν stands for μ (133 c), cp. ἔφερο-ν, Skt. ábhara-m. After a consonant μ (sonant nasal, 20 b, 35 c) became α: ἔλυ_σα for ἐλυ_ς, Epic ἦα was for η᾽ςα from ἠς. In the pluperfect -η is from ε-α (467). -ν is found in the optative when the mood suffix is -ιη-; elsewhere the optative has -μι.

464 a. D. -ν for -μι is very rare (τρέφοιν in Eur., ἁμάρτοιν in Cratinus).

b. 2 Sing.—On -σθα see 463 b (2).

c. 3 Sing.—-τ dropped (133 b) in ἔλυ_ε, ἐτίθη, and in the opt. λύ_οι, εἴη (cp. Old Lat. sied). ἔλυ_σε has its -ε from the perfect (cp. οἶδε) and shows no personal ending.

c. Doric ἦς was for ἠςτ).

d. Dual.—-την is rarely found for -τον in the 2 dual (εὑρέτην in Plato). Hom. has ἐτεύχετον as 3 dual.

e. 3 Pl.—-ν for -ντ by 133 b. -σαν (taken from the 1 aorist) is used (1) in the imperf. and 2 aor. of μι-verbs, as ἐτίθε-σαν, ἔθε-σαν; (2) in the aor. pass. ἐλύθη-σαν, ἐφάνη-σαν (here -ν preceded by a short vowel occurs in poetry, 585 a. D.); (3) in the pluperf. ἐλελύκε-σαν; (4) in the opt. when -ιη- is the modal suffix (460). In the opt. -σαν is rare.

e. -ν is regular in Doric and common in Hom. and later poetry; as ἔστα^-ν (ἔστη-σαν), ἔδιδο-ν (ἐδίδο-σαν), φίληθεν (ἐφιλήθη-σαν), τράφεν (ἐτράφη-σαν). The short vowel before ντ) is explained by 40. Hom. ἦε-ν were became ἦν, used in Dor. as 3 pl.; in Attic it was used as 3 sing.


a. 2 Sing.—Primary -σαι retains its ς in the perfect of all verbs (λέλυ-σαι), and in the pres. of μι-verbs (τίθε-σαι). Elsewhere ς drops between vowels, as in λύ_ῃ or λύ_ει from λύ_ε-σαι, λυθήσῃ or -ει, φανῇ from φανέε-σαι, τι_μᾷ from τι_μάε-σαι; subj. λύ_ῃ from λύη-σαι, φήνῃ from φήνη-σαι, θῇ from θήε-σαι, δῷ from δώη-σαι, from ἕη-σαι, φιλῇ from φιλέη-σαι, δηλοῖ from δηλόῃ δηλόη-σαι.

N. 1.—The forms - and -ει are found in the present, future, and future perfect. See 628.

N. 2.—δύνᾳ and δύνῃ for δύνασαι, ἐπίστᾳ and ἐπίστῃ for ἐπίστασαι, ἐφί_ει for ἐφί_εσαι, are poetic and dialectic or late.

465 a. D. Hom. has βούλεαι, perf. μέμνηαι, but pres. δύνασαι, παρίστασαι; ὄψει is unique (for ὄψεαι); subj. δύνηαι. Doric often contracts, as οἴῃ for οἴε-αι. Aeolic generally leaves εαι open (κείσε-αι). Hdt. has open -εαι, -ηαι.

b. 2 Sing.—-σο stays in all plups. and in the imperf. of μι-verbs. Elsewhere it loses its ς, as in ἐλύ_ου from ἐλύ_ε-σο, ἐλύ_σω from ἐλύ_σα-σο, ἐφήνω from ἐφήνα-σο, ἐλίπου from ἐλίπε-σο, ἔθου from ἔθε-σο, ἐπρίω from ἐπρία-σο, ἐτι_μῶ from ἐτι_μάε-σο, ἐφιλοῦ from ἐφιλέε-σο. In the optative, λύ_οιο, λίποιο, τιθεῖο, εἷο, λύ_σαιο, from λύ_οι-σο, etc.; τι_μῷο from τι_μάοι-σο.

N. 1.—ἐδύνω or ἠδύνω and ἠπίστω are commoner than ἐδύνασο and ἠπίστασο from δύναμαι am able and ἐπίσταμαι understand.

N. 2.—After a diphthong or a long vowel in the 2 aor. indic. mid. -σο is retained, as εἷσο (ἵ_ημι send), ὤνησο (ὀνίνημι benefit).

b. Hom., Doric, and Aeolic have generally open forms, as Hom. βάλλε-ο (rarely βάλλευ), ὠδύσα-ο. ἔρειο, σπεῖο are from -εεο. Hom. has ἐμάρναο for Attic ἐμάρνασο, and may drop ς even in the pluperfect (ἔσσυο). When Doric contracts αο we have α_. In Hdt. αο, εο are open, but the writing ευ for εο is found.

c. Dual.—The 1 pl. is used for the 1 dual except in the three poetic forms περιδώμεθον, λελείμμεθον, ὁρμώμεθον. Hom. has -σθον for -σθην in θωρήσσεσθον.

d. 1 Pl.—In epic and dramatic poetry -μεσθα is often used for -μεθα for metrical reasons (βουλόμεσθα, ἐπιστάμεσθα).

e. 2 Pl.—On the loss of ς in σθε (ἔσταλθε), see 103.

f. 3 Pl.—After vowel stems -νται, -ντο are preserved. After stems ending in a consonant -νται, -ντο became -αται, -ατο by 35 b. These forms were retained in prose till about 400 B.C. (e.g. τετάχαται, ἐτετάχατο).

f. -αται, -ατο occur in Hom. regularly in the perfect and pluperfect of consonant stems, as τετράφαται, ἕαται for ἑσ-νται, ἥατο for ἡσ-ντο from ἧμαι (ἡσμαι); also in stems ending in -ι, as ἐφθίατο. -αται, -ατο were transferred to vocalic stems, as βεβλήαται, βεβλήατο, Hdt. δυνέαται. Hom. has -δ-αται in ἐληλάδαται from ἐλαύνω drive. In the opt. -ατο always (γενοίατο for γένοιντο). In Hdt. η before -αται, -ατο is shortened, as perf. ἡγέαται for ἡγή-αται ἥγηνται, ἐβεβλέατο for -ηατο. For κεῖνται, Hom. κείαται and κέαται, Hdt. has κέαται. In the opt. Hdt. has -ατο: βουλοίατο, δεξαίατο. In Hdt. -αται, -ατο occur even in the present system, τιθέαται, δυνέαται, ἱ_στέατο.


1. Active.

a. 2 Sing.—λῦε, λίπε, τίθει (for τίθε-ε) have not lost -θι. -θι is found in 2 aor. pass. φάνη-θι; in στῆ-θι and ἕστα-θι; in some 2 aorists, like γνῶ-θι, τλῆ-θι, πῖ-θι, which are μι forms though they have presents of the ω form (687). Also in ἴσ-θι be or know, ἴθι go, φάθι or φαθί say. λύθητι is for λυθηθι by 125 b.

466 a. D. -θι is not rare in Hom., pres. δίδωθι δίδου, ὄρνυθι, aor. κλῦθι, perf. τέτλαθι. Aeolic has ἴστα_, φίλη. πίει, δέχοι, δίδοι (Pindar) are very rare.

b. -ς occurs in θές, ἕς, δός, σχές (and in the rare θίγες, πίεις). This -ς is not derived from -θι.

c. λῦσ-ον aor. act. and λῦσ-αι aor. mid. are obscure in origin.

2. Middle.

a. 2 Sing.—-σο retains its ς in the (rare) perf. of all verbs and in the pres. of μι-verbs (λέλυσο, τίθεσο, ἵστασο). Elsewhere ς is dropped, as in λύ_ου from λύ_ε-σο, λιποῦ from λιπέ-σο, θοῦ from θέ-σο, οὗ from ἕ-σο, πρίω from πρία-σο, τι_μῶ from τι_μάε-σο.

N.—τίθου, ἵστω, δίδου are poetic or late.

3. 3 Pl.—For -ντων and -σθων we find -τωσαν and -σθωσαν in prose after Thucydides, in Euripides, and in inscriptions after 300 B.C. Thus, λυ_έτωσαν, λυ_σάτωσαν, λυ_έσθωσαν, λυ_σάσθωσαν, λυθήτωσαν, λιπέτωσαν, λιπέσθωσαν, φηνάσθωσαν, φανήτωσαν, τι_μάσθωσαν, φιλείσθωσαν, γεγράφθωσαν, πεπείσθωσαν, τιθέτωσαν, διδότωσαν, θέτωσαν, τιθέσθωσαν, θέσθωσαν, -ἕτωσαν, -ἕσθωσαν.

N.—ἔστων for ὄντων is rare. Attic inscriptions have (very rarely) -ντωσαν.

3. Doric has also -ντω, as in παρεχόντω; Aeolic -ντον, as φέροντον. Doric has -σθω (pl.) and -σθων.


467. Endings of the Pluperfect Active.—-η, -ης, -ειν) are derived from -εςα, -εςας, -εςε. In later Greek the endings are -ειν, -εις, -ειν), -ειτον, -ειτην, -ειμεν, -ειτε, and very late -εισαν.

467 D. Hom. has -εα, -ης, -ει or ει-ν (-εε only in ᾔδεε), -εσαν, and rarely -ον, -ες, -ε; Hdt. has -εα, -εας, -εε (-ει?), -εατε, -εσαν.

468. The Endings -σθε, etc.—The ς of the endings -σθε, -σθω, -σθον, -σθων, -σθαι (409 N.) has no exact parallel in cognate languages, and seems to have spread in Greek from forms like τετέλεσ-θε, ἔζωσ-θε, etc., where a sigma-stem was followed by original -θε.


469. Infinitive.—The following are the endings added to the tense-stem to make the infinitive.

a. -εν: in present and 2 aorist active of ω-verbs, all futures active. Thus, λύ_ειν, τι_μᾶν, λιπεῖν, λύ_σειν, φανεῖν from λύ_ε-εν, τι_μάε-εν, λιπέ-εν, λύ_σε-εν, φανέε-εν.

b. -αι: in 1 aor. active, as λῦσαι, παιδεῦσαι, δεῖξαι.

c. -ναι: (1) present, 2 perf. of μι-verbs, the two passive aorists, as τιθέ-ναι, ἑστάναι, λυθῆ-ναι, φανῆ-ναι; (2) perfect active, λελυκέ-ναι, and εἰδέ-ναι from εἰδ-ε (οἶδα).

N. 1.—The ending εναι appears in the 2 aor. of μι-verbs, as δοῦναι from δό-εναι, θεῖναι from θέ-εναι.

d. -σθαι: in other cases.

N. 2.—The infinitives are old cases of substantives, those in -αι being datives, the others locatives.

469 D. -εν appears also in Hom. ἰδέεν (miswritten ἰδέειν). Hom. has no case of -εναι (for ἰέναι write ἴμεναι). For -εν or -ναι Hom. often uses -μεναι (also Aeolic) and -μεν (which is also Doric); both endings show the accent on the preceding syllable, as ζευγνύμεναι, ἔμμεναι ( = εἶναι), φιλήμεναι, στήμεναι, ἑστάμεναι, ἀξέμεναι, ὁμοιωθήμεναι, δαήμεναι; τιθέμεν, ἔμμεν, ἴμεν, θέμεν, ἐλθέμεν, ἀξέμεν. Doric has -μεν in the aorist passive, as αἰσχυνθῆμεν. -μεν is preceded by a short syllable and generally stands before a vowel. -ναι always follows a long vowel. Doric has -ην and -εν in the present. Aeolic has -ην in the present and 2 aorist.

470. Participles.—The stem of the participle is formed by adding the following endings to the tense stem.

a. -ντ-: in all active tenses except the perfect, and in 1 and 2 aor. passive (301).

b. -οτ-: in the perfect active (for -ϝοτ-); masc. -ώς, fem. -υῖα, neut. -ός (301 c).

c. -μενο-: in the middle, and in the passive except in the aorist.

471. Verbal Adjectives.—Most of the verbals in -τός and -τέος are formed by adding these suffixes to the verbal stem of the aorist passive (first or second). Thus, φιλητός, -τέος (ἐ-φιλή-θην); πειστός, -τέος (ἐ-πείσ-θην); τελεστός, -τέος (ἐ-τελέσ-θην); σταλτός, -τέος (ἐ-στάλ-ην); βλητός, -τέος (ἐ-βλή-θην). On the accent of compound verbals, see 425 c.

a. Some are derived from other stem forms (pres. and fut.), as φερ-τός, ί-τέον, δυνα-τός; μενετός (cp. μενέ-ω μενῶ fut.).

472. Verbals in -τός, -τή, -τόν either (1) have the meaning of a perfect passive participle, as κρυπτός hidden, παιδευτός educated, or (2) express possibility, as νοητός thinkable, ὁρα_τός visible. Many have either signification, but some are passive only, as ποιητός done. See 425 c. N.

a. Usually passive in meaning are verbals from deponent verbs, as μι_μητός imitated.

b. Usually active in meaning are compounds derived from transitive active verbs; but some intransitive verbs make active verbals, as ῥυτός flowing.

c. Many are active or passive, others only active: μεμπτός blamed, blamable, blaming, πιστός trusting in (rare), trusted, ἄπρα_κτος doing nothing, not done, φθεγκτός sounding.

473. Verbals in -τέος, -τέα_, -τέον express necessity (cp. the Lat. gerundive in -ndus), as δοτέος that must be given, παιδευτέος educandus.

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