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497. The present stem is formed from the verb-stem in five different ways. There are, therefore, five classes of present stems. The verb-stem is sometimes the present stem, but usually it is strengthened in different ways. A sixth class consists of irregular verbs, the present stem of which is not connected with the stem or stems of other tenses.


498. Presents of the Simple Class are formed from the verb-stem with or without the thematic vowel.

499. (I) Presents with the thematic vowel (ω-verbs). The present stem is made by adding the thematic vowel όε- to the verb-stem, as λύ_-ω, παιδεύ-ω, παύ-ω, μέν-ω, πείθ-ω, φεύγ-ω, and the denominative verbs τι_μά-ω, φιλέ-ω, βασιλεύ-ω. For the personal endings, see 463 ff. For the derivation of many of these verbs, see 522.

500. The final vowel of the verb-stem is long in the present indicative, but either long or short in the other tense-stems, of the following verbs in -υω or -ιω.

1. a. Verbs in -υω generally have υ_ in Attic in the present; as λύ_ω loose, δύ_ω go under, θύ_ω sacrifice (almost always), φύ_ω make grow (usually). Also in ἀλύ_ω, ἀρτύ_ω, βρενθύ_ομαι, γηρύ_ομαι, δακρύ_ω (once υ^), ἱδρύ_ω, ἰσχύ_ω, καττύ_ω, κνύ_ω,, κωκύ_ω, κωλύ_ω (usually), μηνύ_ω, ὀπύ_ω (ὀπυίω), πτύ_ω, ῥύ_ομαι, στύ_ομαι, τρύ_ω, ὕ_ει; possibly in εἰλύομαι, ἠμύω, μύω, ξύω, φλύω; ἐλινύω, μηρύομαι, πληθύω (once υ^), φι_τύω. ὠρύω (υ_^) is doubtful.

b. -υω has υ short in ἀνύω, ἀρύω, βρύω, κλύω (but κλῦθι), μεθύω, and in all verbs in -νυω.

500. 1. D. Homer has short υ in ἀλύω, ἀνύω, βρύω, δύω, ἐρύω, ἠμύω, τανύω, φύω, and in all denominative verbs except ἐρητύ_οντο and ἐπι_θύ_ουσι, where υ_ is metrically necessary; long υ in ξύ_ω, πτύ_ω, ὕ_ω; anceps in θυ?́ω sacrifice (υ_ doubtful), θύ_ω rush on, rage, λυ?́ω (rarely λύ_ω), ποιπνύω, ῥύομαι. Pindar has υ short in θύω sacrifice, ἰσχύω, λύω, μανύω, ῥύω, ῥύομαι, in presents in -νυω, and in denominative verbs.

2. Hom. has ι_ in the primitives πί_ομαι and χρί_ω; but τι?́ω and τί_ω (τείω?); -ι^ω in denominatives (except μήνι_ε B 769). κονί_ω, ὀί_ομαι are from κονις-[ιγλιδε]ω, ὀις-[ιγλιδε]ομαι.

3. Where Attic has υ_, ι_ in the present, and Epic υ^, ι^, the former are due to the influence of υ_, ι_ in the future and aorist.

2. Attic has ι_ in primitive verbs in -ιω, as πρί_ω, χρί_ω, χλί_ω, but ι^ in τίω. Denominative verbs have ι_; but ἐσθι?́ω.

501. Several verbs with medial ι_, υ_ in the present, show ι^ or ι_, υ^ or υ_ in some other tense or tenses. Thus, θλί_βω press τέθλιφα, πνί_γω choke ἐπνίγην, τρί_βω rub τέτριφα ἐτρίβην, τύ_φω raise smoke ἐτύφην, ψύ_χω cool ἐψύχην.

502. Verb-stems having the weak grades α, ι, υ, show the strong grades η, ει, ευ in the present; as τήκ-ω (τα^κ-) melt, λείπω (λιπ-) leave, φεύγω (φυγ-) flee.

a. To this class belong also λήθω, σήπω, τέθηπα am astonished, 2 aor. ἔταφον, ἀλείφω, (δέδοικα, 703), εἴκω (ἔοικα), (εἴωθα, 563 a), ἐρείκω, ἐρείπω, πείθω, στείβω, στείχω, φείδομαι; ἐρεύγομαι, κεύθω, πεύθομαι, τεύχω.

503. Present Stems in -εο´ε- for ευόε-.—The strong form ευ before the thematic vowel became εϝ (ευ) and then ε (20 a, 43) in the verbs θέω run θεύσομαι, νέω swim ἔνευσα, πλέω sail ἔπλευσα, πνέω breathe ἔπνευσα, ῥέω flow ῥεύσομαι, χέω pour κέχυκα, κέχυμαι, ἐχύθην.

503 D. These verbs end in -ευω in Aeolic (πνεύω etc.). Epic πλείω, πνείω have ει by metrical lengthening (28 D.).

504. (II) Presents without the thematic vowel (μι-verbs). The personal ending is added directly to the verb-stem, which is often reduplicated. The verb-stem shows different vowel grades, strong forms η, ω in the singular, weak forms ε (α), ο in the dual and plural. Thus τί-θη-μι, τί-θε-μεν; ἵ-στη-μι for σι-στη-μι (= σι-στα_-μι), ἵ-στα-μεν; δί-δω-μι, δί-δο-μεν.

a. All verbs in μι (enumerated 723 ff) belong to this class except those in -νυ_μι (523 f) and -νημι (523 g).


505. The present stem is formed by adding -τόε- to the verbstem, which ends in π, β, or φ. The verb-stem is ascertained from the second aorist (if there is one) or from a word from the same root.

κόπτω cut,verb-stem κοπ-in 2 aor. pass. ἐ-κόπ-ην.
βλάπτω injure,“ “ βλαβ-“ “ “ ἐ-βλάβ-ην.
καλύπτω cover,“ “ καλυβ-καλύβ-η hut.
ῥί_πτω throw,“ “ ῥιφ-, ῥι_φ-“ 2 aor. pass. ἐ-ρρίφ-ην.

a. ἀστράπτω lighten, χαλέπτω oppress may be from -π[ιγλιδε]ω (117, 507).

506. Some of the verbs of this class add ε in the present or other tenses, as ῥι_πτέω throw, πεκτέω comb, τύπτω strike τυπήσω.


507. The present stem is formed by adding -[ιγλιδε]όε- to the verb-stem and by making the necessary euphonic changes (109-116).


508. Dental Verb-stems.—Verb-stems in δ unite with [ιγλιδε] to form presents in -ζω (116), as φράζω tell (φραδ-[ιγλιδε]ω), ἐλπίζω hope (ἐλπιδ-), κομίζω carry (κομιδ-ή a carrying), ὄζω smell (ὀδ-μή odour), καθέζομαι seat myself (ἕδ-ος seat).

a. σῴζω save (for σω-ιζω) forms its tenses partly from the verb-stem σω-, partly from the verb-stem σωι-.

508 D. Aeolic has -σδω for -ζω.

509. Stems in γ.—Some verbs in -ζω are derived from stems in γ preceded by a vowel; as ἁρπάζω seize for ἁρπαγ-[ιγλιδε]ω (cp. ἁρπαγ-ή seizure), κρά_ζω cry out (2 aor. ἔκραγον). See 116, other examples 623 γ III.

a. νίζω wash makes its other tenses from the verb-stem νίβ- (fut. νίψω, cp. Hom. νίπτομαι).

510. A few verbs with stems in γγ lose one γ and have presents in -ζω; as κλάζω scream (κλαγγ-ή), fut. κλάγξω; σαλπίζω sound the trumpet ἐσάλπιγξα (also λύζω sob, πλάζω cause to wander).

511. ῥεγ[ιγλιδε]ω, ἐργ[ιγλιδε]ω yield ῥέζω do (poetic) and ἔρδω (Ionic and poetic). See 116.

512. Most verbs in -ζω are not formed from stems in δ or γ, but are due to analogy. See 516, 623 γ III, 866. 6.


513. Palatal Verb-stems.—Stems ending in κ or χ unite with [ιγλιδε] to form presents in -ττω (-σσω).

φυλάττω guard from φυλακ-[ιγλιδε]ω (φυλακ-ή guard (112)); κηρύ_ττω proclaim from κηρυ_κ-[ιγλιδε]ω (κῆρυξ, κήρυ_κ-ος); ταράττω disturb from ταραχ-[ιγλιδε]ω (ταραχ-ή confusion).

a. πέττω cook is for πεκ-[ιγλιδε]ω; all other tenses are made from πεπ-.

514. Several verbs showing forms in γ seem to unite γ with [ιγλιδε] to form presents in -ττω (-σσω.) Thus ἀλλάττω change, μάττω knead, πλήττω strike (with the 2 aorists passive ἠλλάγ-ην, ἐμάγ-ην, ἐπλήγ-ην), πρά_ττω do (2 perf. πέπρα_γα, 571), τάττω arrange (τα_γ-ός commander).

a. So δράττομαι grasp, νάττω compress (515 b), νύττω push, πτύσσω fold, σάττω load, συ_ρίττω pipe, σφάττω kill, φράττω fence. πρά_ττω has the late perf. πέπρα_χα.

515. Some presents in -ττω (-σσω) are formed from stems in τ, θ like those from κ, χ.

Poet. ἐρέσσω row (ἐρέτ-ης rower) aor. ἤρεσα; poet. κορύσσω arm (κόρυς κόρυθ-ος helmet), imperf. ἐκόρυσσε.

a. So also βλίττω take honey, πάττω sprinkle, πτίττω pound, and perhaps πλάττω form; also ἀφάσσω Hdt., and poetic ἱ_μάσσω, λαφύσσω, λίσσομαι.

b. νάττω compress (ναγ-, ναδ-) ἔναξα, νένασμαι and νέναγμαι. Cp. 514 a.

516. Formations by Analogy.—a. As γ ¨ [ιγλιδε] and δ ¨ [ιγλιδε] unite to form ζ, none of the verbs in -ττω can be derived from -γ[ιγλιδε]ω or -δ[ιγλιδε]ω. Since the future and aorist of verbs in -ζω might often seem to be derived from stems in κ, χ, or τ, θ, uncertainty arose as to these tenses: thus the future σφάξω (σφαγ-σω) from Epic σφάζω slay (σφαγ-[ιγλιδε]ω) was confused in formation with φυλάξω (φυλακ-σω), and a present σφάττω was constructed like φυλάττω. Similarly, Attic ἁρπάσω (-ομαι) for Epic ἁρπάξω; and so in place of (poetic) ἁρμόζω fit (ἁρμοδ-) the form ἁρμόττω was constructed.

516 D. Homer has many cases of this confusion; as πολεμίζω (πολεμιδ-) but πολεμίξω. In Doric the ξ forms from -ζω verbs are especially common, as χωρίζω separate, χωριξῶ, ἐχώριξα. παίζω sport has (late) ἔπαιξα.


517. (I) Presents in -λλω are formed from verb-stems in λ, to which [ιγλιδε] is assimilated (110). Thus, ἀγγέλλω announce (ἀγγελ-[ιγλιδε]ω), στέλλω send (στελ-[ιγλιδε]ω).

518. (II) Presents in -αινω and -αιρω are formed from verb-stems in -αν and -αρ, the [ιγλιδε] being thrown back to unite with the vowel of the verb-stem (111). Thus, φαίνω show (φαν-[ιγλιδε]ω), ὀνομαίνω name (ὀνομαν-[ιγλιδε]ω), χαίρω rejoice (χαρ-[ιγλιδε]ω).

a. Many verbs add -[ιγλιδε]ω to the weak form of the stem, as ὀνομαίν-ω for ὀνομαν-[ιγλιδε]ω from ὀνομṇ-[ιγλιδε]ω, cp. nomen (35 b).

b. Hom. has κυ_δαίνω and κυ_δάνω honour, μελαίνω blacken and μελάνω grow black. ὀλισθαίνω slip is late for ὀλισθάνω.

c. The ending αινω has been attached, by analogy, in θερμαίνω make hot, etc. (620 III, 866.7). Likewise -υ_νω (519) in poetic ἀρτύ_νω prepare, parallel to ἀρτύ_ω (in composition), by analogy to βαρύ_νω weigh down, ἡδύ_νω sweeten.

519. (III) Presents in -εινω, -ειρω, -ι_νω, -ι_ρω, -υ_νω, and -ι_ρω are formed from stems in εν, ερ, ι^ν, ι^ρ, υ^ν, υ^ρ with [ιγλιδε]όε- added. Here [ιγλιδε] disappears and the vowel preceding ν or ρ is lengthened by compensation (ε to ει; ι to ι_; υ to υ_). See 37 a, 111.

τείνω stretch (τεν-[ιγλιδε]ω), φθείρω destroy (φθερ-), κρί_νω (κριν-), οἰκτί_ρω pity (οἰκτιρ-) generally written οἰκτείρω, ἀμύ_νω ward off (ἀμυν-), μαρτύ_ρομαι call to witness (μαρτυρ-).

a. ὀφείλω (ὀφελ-) owe, am obliged is formed like τείνω, φθείρω in order to distinguish it from ὀφέλλω (ὀφελ-) increase formed regularly. Hom. has usually Aeolic ὀφέλλω in the sense of ὀφείλω. δείρω flay (δερ-[ιγλιδε]ω) is parallel to δέρ-ω (499).

519 D. Aeolic has here -εννω, -ερρω, -ιννω, -ιρρω, -υννω, -υρρω (37 D. 3); for κτείνω, it has κταίνω; cp. Doric φθαίρω for φθείρω.

520. Verb-stems in -αυ- for (α[υγλιδε], -αϜ-.—Two verbs with verb-stems in -αυ have presents in -αιω from -αιϝω out of -αϝ-[ιγλιδε]ω (38 a) : καίω burn (καυ-, καϝ-), fut. καύ-σω; and κλαίω weep (κλαυ-, κλαϝ-), fut. κλαύ-σομαι. Others 624 b.

a. Attic prose often has κά_ω and κλά_ω, derived from αιϝ before ει (κά_εις, and, with α_ extended to the 1 person, κά_ω). Cp. 396.

521. Addition of ε.—The following verbs add ε in one or more tense-stems other than the present: βάλλω throw, καθίζω sit, κλαίω weep, ὄζω smell, ὀφείλω owe, am obliged, χαίρω rejoice.

522. Contracted Verbs and Some Verbs in -ιω, -υω.—a. Verbs in -αω, -εω, -οω, which for convenience have been treated under the first class, properly belong here, [ιγλιδε] (y) having been lost between vowels. Thus, τι_μάω from τι_μα-[ιγλιδε]ω (τι_μα_-), οἰκέω dwell from οἰκε-[ιγλιδε]ω (οἰκε- alternate stem to οἰκο-, 229 b), δηλόω from δηλο-[ιγλιδε]ω. So in denominatives, as poetic μηνίω am wroth (μηνι-[ιγλιδε]ω), φι_τύ_ω sow (φι_τυ-[ιγλιδε]ω). Primitives in -ι_ω, -υ_ω are of uncertain origin. Cp. 608, 624.

N.—The rare spellings ἀλυίω, θυίω, μεθυίω, φυίω indicate their origin from -[ιγλιδε]ω.

b. So with stems in long vowels: δρῶ do from δρα_-[ιγλιδε]ω, ζῶ live from ζη-[ιγλιδε]ω (cp. ζῆθι), χρῶ give oracles from χρη-[ιγλιδε]ω (2 pers. χρῇς, 394).


523. The present stem of the N class is formed from the verbstem by the addition of a suffix containing ν.

a. -νόε- is added: δάκ-νω bite, τέμ-νω cut.

So δύ_νω, κάμνω, πί_νω, πίτνω poet., τίνω, φθάνω, φθίνω.

b. -ανόε- is added: αἰσθ-άν-ομαι perceive, ἁμαρτ-άν-ω err.

So αὐξάνω, βλαστάνω, δαρθάνω, ἀπεχθάνομαι, οἰδάνω, ὀλισθάνω, ὀφλισκάνω (526).

c. -ανόε- is added and a nasal (μ, ν, or γ nasal) inserted in the verb-stem: λα-μ-β-άν-ω (λαβ-) take, λα-ν-θ-άν-ω escape notice (λαθ-), τυ-γ-χ-άν-ω happen (τυχ-).

So ἁνδάνω please (ἁδ-), θιγγάνω touch (θιγ-), κιγχάνω find (κιχ-), λαγχάνω obtain by lot (λαχ-), μανθάνω learn (μαθ-), πυνθάνομαι inquire (πυθ-).

d. -νεόε- is added: βυ_-νέ-ω stop up (also βύω), ἱκ-νέ-ο-μαι come (also ἵ_κω), κυ-νέ-ω kiss, ἀμπ-ισχ-νέ-ο-μαι have on, ὑπ-ισχ-νέ-ο-μαι promise (cp. ἴ-σχ-ω for σι-σχ-ω, 493 a).

e. -υνόε- is added: ἐλαύνω drive for ἐλα-νυ-ω.

f. -νυ (-ννυ after a short vowel) is added (second class of μι-verbs, 414): δείκ-νυ_-μι show (δεικ-, present stem δεικνυ_-), ζεύγ-νυ_-μι yoke (ζευγ-), ὄλλυ_μι destroy (for ὀλ-νυ_μι, 77 a); κερά-ννυ_-μι mix (κερα-), σκεδά-ννυ_-μι scatter (σκεδα-). Others 729 ff. Some of these verbs have presents in -υω (746).

N. 1.—The forms in -ννυ_μι spread from ἕννυ_μι, σβέννυ_μι, which are derived from ἑσ-νυ_μι, σβεσ-νυ_μι.

N. 2.—Some verbs in -νω are formed from -νϝόε- for -ν[υγλιδε]όε-; as Hom. τί_νω, φθί_νω, φθά_νω, ἄ_νομαι from τι-νϝ-ω, etc., (37 D. 1). Attic τι?́νω, etc. dropped the ϝ.

g. -να, -νη are added (third class of μι-verbs 412); as in (poetic) δάμ-νη-μι I conquer, δάμ-να-μεν we conquer (δαμ-), and in σκίδ-νη-μι (rare in prose for σκεδάννυ_μι) scatter. The verbs of this class are chiefly poetic (Epic), and most have alternative forms in -αω. See 737.

In two further divisions there is a transition to the Iota Class.

h. -ινόε- for -ν-[ιγλιδε]όε is added: βαίνω go (βα-ν-[ιγλιδε]ω), κερδαίνω gain (κερδα-ν-[ιγλιδε]ω) τετραίνω bore (τετρα-ν-ιω). So poetic ῥαίνω sprinkle. For the added ν, cp. δάκ-ν-ω (523 a). See 518 a.

i. -αινόε- for αν-[ιγλιδε]όε is added: ὀσφραίνομαι smell (ὀσφραν-[ιγλιδε]ομαι), Hom. ἀλιταίνομαι sin (also ἀλιτραίνω). See 518 a.

524. A short vowel of the verb-stem is lengthened in the case of some verbs to form one or more of the tense-stems other than the present. Thus, λαμβάνω (λαβ-) take λήψομαι (ληβ-); δάκνω (δακ-) bite δήξω (δηκ-). So λαγχάνω, λανθάνω, τυγχάνω, πυνθάνομαι (πυθ-) inquire, fut. πεύσομαι (πευθ-).

a. ζεύγνυ_μι yoke, πήγνυ_μι fasten, ῥήγνυ_μι break have the strong grade in all tenses except the 2 pass. system. μείγνυ_μι mix (commonly written μί_γνυ_μι) has μι^γ- only in the 2 perf. and 2 pass. systems.

525. Addition of ε and ο.—a. Many verbs add ε to the verb-stem to form all the tenses except present, 2 aorist, and 2 perfect; as αἰσθάνομαι, ἁμαρτάνω, ἁνδάνω, αὐξάνω, ἀπεχθάνομαι, βλαστάνω, δαρθάνω, κιγχάνω, μανθάνω, ὀλισθάνω, ὀφλισκάνω. One or more tenses with ε added are formed by κερδαίνω, ὄλλυ_μι, ὀσφραίνομαι, στόρνυ_μι, τυγχάνω.

b. ὄμνυ_μι swear has ὀμο- in all systems except the present and future, as ὤμοσα, ὀμώμοκα, but fut. ὀμοῦμαι from ὀμεομαι.


526. The present stem is formed by adding the suffix -σκόε- to the verb-stem if it ends in a vowel; -ισκόε- if it ends in a consonant. Thus, ἀρέ-σκω please, εὑρ-ίσκω find.

a. This class is called inceptive (or inchoative) because some of the verbs belonging to it have the sense of beginning or becoming (cp. Lat. -sco); as γηράσκω grow old. But very few verbs have this meaning.

b. In θνῄσκω die, μιμνῄσκω remind, -ισκω was later added to verb-stems ending in a vowel. The older forms are θνήσκω, μιμνήσκω.

c. The verb-stem is often reduplicated in the present; as γι-γνώ-σκω know, βι-βρώ-σκω eat, δι-δρά_-σκω run away. Poetic ἀρ-αρ-ίσκω fit, poetic ἀπ-αφ-ίσκω deceive, have the form of Attic reduplication. μίσγω may stand for μι-μσγω.

526 c. D. Hom. has ἐΐσκω liken for ϝεϝίκ-σκω, also ἴσκω from ϝίκ-σκω, τιτύκ-σκομαι prepare, δε-δίκ-σκομαι welcome.

d. A stop consonant is dropped before -σκω (99); as δι-δάκ-σκω teach (cp. δι-δακ-τός), ἀλύκ-σκω avoid, λάκ-σκω speak. πάσχω suffer is for παθ-σκω (126).

e. The present stem often shows the strong grades ω (weak ο) and α_ or η (weak α). See b, c. Weak grades appear in φάσκω say, βόσκω feed.

f. On the iteratives in -σκω see 495.

527. The following verbs belong to this class (poetic and Ionic forms are starred):

a. Vowel stems: ἀλδήσκω* (ἀλδη-), ἀναβιώσκομαι* (βιο-), ἀρέσκω (ἀρε-), βάσκω* (βα- for βṇ-, 35 b), βιβρώσκω (βρο-), βλώσκω* (μολ-, μλο-, βλο-, 130 D.), βόσκω (βο-), γενειάσκω (cp. γενειάω), γηράσκω (γηρα-), γιγνώσκω (γνο-), δεδίσκομαι frighten, διδρά_σκω (δρα-), ἡβά_σκω (ἡβα-), ἠλάσκω* (ἠλα-), θνῄσκω (θαν-, θνα-), θρῴσκω* (θορ-, θρο-), ἱ_άσκομαι (ἱ_λα-), κικλήσκω* (καλε-, κλη-), κυΐσκομαι* (κυ-), μεθύσκω (μεθυ-), μιμνῄσκω (μνα-), πιπίσκω* (πι-), πιπρά_σκω (πρα-), πινύσκω* (πινυ-), πιφαύσκω* (φαυ-), τιτρώσκω (τρο-), φάσκω (φα-), χάσκω* (χα-).

b. Consonant stems: ἁλίσκομαι (ἁλ-ο-), ἀλύσκω* (ἀλυκ-), ἀμβλίσκω (ἀμβλ- ἀμβλο-), ἀμπλακίσκω* (ἀμπλακ-), ἀνα_λίσκω (ἀν-α_λ-ο-), ἀπαφίσκω* (ἀπ-αφ-), ἀραρίσκω* (ἀρ-), δεδίσκομαι* welcome (δε-δικ-) and δηδίσκομαι (usually written δειδ-) welcome, διδάσκω (διδαχ-), ἐΐσκω (ἐϊκ-), ἐπαυρίσκω* (αὐρ-), εὑρίσκω (εὑρ-ε-), λάσκω* (λακ-), μίσγω* (μιγ-), ὀφλισκάνω (ὀφλ-ε-), πάσχω (παθ-), στερίσκω (στερ-ε-), τιτύσκομαι* (τι-τυκ-), ὑλάσκω* (ὑλακ-), χρηΐσκομαι* (χρη-).

528. Addition of ε and ο.—στερίσκω deprive (cp. στέρομαι) makes all the other tense-stems from στερε-; εὑρίσκω has εὑρε- except in the present and 2 aorist. —ἁλίσκομαι am captured (ἁλ-) adds ο in other tense-stems.


529. This class includes some irregular verbs, one or more of whose tense-stems are quite different from others, as Eng. am, was, be, Lat. sum, fui. For the full list of forms see the List of Verbs.

1. αἱρέω (αἱρε-, ἑλ-) take, fut. αἱρήσω, ᾕρηκα, etc., 2 aor. εἷλον.

2. εἶδον (ϝιδ-, ἰδ-) saw, vidi, 2 aorist (with no present act.); 2 pf. οἶδα know (794). Middle εἴδομαι (poetic). εἶδον is used as 2 aor. of ὁράω (see below).

3. εἶπον (εἰπ-, ἐρ-, ῥε-) spoke, 2 aor. (no pres.); fut. (ἐρέω) ἐρῶ, perf. εἴ-ρη-κα, εἴρημαι, aor. pass. ἐρρήθην. The stem ἐρ- is for ϝερ-, seen in Lat. ver-bum. (Cp. 492.) ῥε- is for ϝρε, hence εἴρημαι for ϝε-ϝρη-μαι.

4. ἔρχομαι (ἐρχ-, ἐλευθ-, ἐλυθ-, ἐλθ-), go. Fut. ἐλεύσομαι (usually poet.), 2 perf. ἐλήλυθα, 2 aor. ἦλθον. The Attic future is εἶμι shall go (774). The imperf. and the moods of the pres. other than the indic. use the forms of εἶμι.

5. ἐσθίω (ἐσθ-, ἐδ-, φαγ-) eat, fut. ἔδομαι (541), pf. ἐδήδοκα, -ἐδήδεσμαι, ἠδέσθην, 2 aor. ἔφαγον.

6. ὁράω (ὁρα-, ὀπ-, ϝιδ-) see, fut. ὄψομαι, perf. ἑώρα_κα or ἑόρα_κα, perf. mid. ἑώρα_μαι or ὦμμαι (ὠπ-μαι), ὤφθην, 2 aor. εἶδον (see 2 above).

7. πάσχω (παθ-, πενθ-) suffer, fut. πείσομαι for πενθ-σομαι (100), 2 pf. πέπονθα, 2 aor. ἔπαθον. (See 526 d.)

8. πί_νω (πι-, πο-) drink, from πἱ_-ν-ω (523 a), fut. πί_ομαι (541), pf. πέπωκα, 2 aor. ἔπιον, imp. πῖθι (466. 1, a, 687).

9. τρέχω (τρεχ- for θρεχ- (125 g), δραμ-, δραμε-) run, fut. δραμοῦμαι, pf. δεδράμηκα, 2 aor. ἔδραμον.

10. φέρω (φερ-, οἰ-, ἐνεκ-, by reduplication and syncope ἐν-ενεκ and ἐνεγκ-) bear; fut. οἴσω, aor. ἤνεγκα, perf. ἐν-ήνοχ-α (446, 478), ἐν-ήνεγ-μαι, aor. pass. ἠνέχθην.

11. ὠνέομαι (ὠνε-, πρια-) buy, fut. ὠνήσομαι, perf. ἐώνημαι, ἐωνήθην. For ἐωνησάμην the form ἐπριάμην is used.

530. Apart from the irregularities of Class VI, some verbs may, by the formation of the verb-stem, belong to more than one class, as βαίνω (III, IV), ὀσφραίνομαι (III, IV), ὀφλισκάνω (IV, V).

531. Many verbs have alternative forms, often of different classes, as κυ_δάνω κυ_δαίνω honour, ἵ_κω ίκά_νω come, μελάν-ω grow black, μελαίνω (μελαν-[ιγλιδε]ω) blacken, κλάζω (κλαγγ-) κλαγγ-άν-ω scream, σφάζω σφάττω slay (516). Cp. also ἀνύω ἀνύτω accomplish, ἀρύω ἀρύτω draw water, Hom. ἐρύ_κω, ἐρυ_κάνω, ἐρυ_κανάω restrain. Cp. 866. 10.

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