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507. The present stem is formed by adding -[ιγλιδε]όε- to the verb-stem and by making the necessary euphonic changes (109-116).


508. Dental Verb-stems.—Verb-stems in δ unite with [ιγλιδε] to form presents in -ζω (116), as φράζω tell (φραδ-[ιγλιδε]ω), ἐλπίζω hope (ἐλπιδ-), κομίζω carry (κομιδ-ή a carrying), ὄζω smell (ὀδ-μή odour), καθέζομαι seat myself (ἕδ-ος seat).

a. σῴζω save (for σω-ιζω) forms its tenses partly from the verb-stem σω-, partly from the verb-stem σωι-.

508 D. Aeolic has -σδω for -ζω.

509. Stems in γ.—Some verbs in -ζω are derived from stems in γ preceded by a vowel; as ἁρπάζω seize for ἁρπαγ-[ιγλιδε]ω (cp. ἁρπαγ-ή seizure), κρά_ζω cry out (2 aor. ἔκραγον). See 116, other examples 623 γ III.

a. νίζω wash makes its other tenses from the verb-stem νίβ- (fut. νίψω, cp. Hom. νίπτομαι).

510. A few verbs with stems in γγ lose one γ and have presents in -ζω; as κλάζω scream (κλαγγ-ή), fut. κλάγξω; σαλπίζω sound the trumpet ἐσάλπιγξα (also λύζω sob, πλάζω cause to wander).

511. ῥεγ[ιγλιδε]ω, ἐργ[ιγλιδε]ω yield ῥέζω do (poetic) and ἔρδω (Ionic and poetic). See 116.

512. Most verbs in -ζω are not formed from stems in δ or γ, but are due to analogy. See 516, 623 γ III, 866. 6.


513. Palatal Verb-stems.—Stems ending in κ or χ unite with [ιγλιδε] to form presents in -ττω (-σσω).

φυλάττω guard from φυλακ-[ιγλιδε]ω (φυλακ-ή guard (112)); κηρύ_ττω proclaim from κηρυ_κ-[ιγλιδε]ω (κῆρυξ, κήρυ_κ-ος); ταράττω disturb from ταραχ-[ιγλιδε]ω (ταραχ-ή confusion).

a. πέττω cook is for πεκ-[ιγλιδε]ω; all other tenses are made from πεπ-.

514. Several verbs showing forms in γ seem to unite γ with [ιγλιδε] to form presents in -ττω (-σσω.) Thus ἀλλάττω change, μάττω knead, πλήττω strike (with the 2 aorists passive ἠλλάγ-ην, ἐμάγ-ην, ἐπλήγ-ην), πρά_ττω do (2 perf. πέπρα_γα, 571), τάττω arrange (τα_γ-ός commander).

a. So δράττομαι grasp, νάττω compress (515 b), νύττω push, πτύσσω fold, σάττω load, συ_ρίττω pipe, σφάττω kill, φράττω fence. πρά_ττω has the late perf. πέπρα_χα.

515. Some presents in -ττω (-σσω) are formed from stems in τ, θ like those from κ, χ.

Poet. ἐρέσσω row (ἐρέτ-ης rower) aor. ἤρεσα; poet. κορύσσω arm (κόρυς κόρυθ-ος helmet), imperf. ἐκόρυσσε.

a. So also βλίττω take honey, πάττω sprinkle, πτίττω pound, and perhaps πλάττω form; also ἀφάσσω Hdt., and poetic ἱ_μάσσω, λαφύσσω, λίσσομαι.

b. νάττω compress (ναγ-, ναδ-) ἔναξα, νένασμαι and νέναγμαι. Cp. 514 a.

516. Formations by Analogy.—a. As γ ¨ [ιγλιδε] and δ ¨ [ιγλιδε] unite to form ζ, none of the verbs in -ττω can be derived from -γ[ιγλιδε]ω or -δ[ιγλιδε]ω. Since the future and aorist of verbs in -ζω might often seem to be derived from stems in κ, χ, or τ, θ, uncertainty arose as to these tenses: thus the future σφάξω (σφαγ-σω) from Epic σφάζω slay (σφαγ-[ιγλιδε]ω) was confused in formation with φυλάξω (φυλακ-σω), and a present σφάττω was constructed like φυλάττω. Similarly, Attic ἁρπάσω (-ομαι) for Epic ἁρπάξω; and so in place of (poetic) ἁρμόζω fit (ἁρμοδ-) the form ἁρμόττω was constructed.

516 D. Homer has many cases of this confusion; as πολεμίζω (πολεμιδ-) but πολεμίξω. In Doric the ξ forms from -ζω verbs are especially common, as χωρίζω separate, χωριξῶ, ἐχώριξα. παίζω sport has (late) ἔπαιξα.

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