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FOURTH OR N CLASS

523. The present stem of the N class is formed from the verbstem by the addition of a suffix containing ν.

a. -νόε- is added: δάκ-νω bite, τέμ-νω cut.

So δύ_νω, κάμνω, πί_νω, πίτνω poet., τίνω, φθάνω, φθίνω.

b. -ανόε- is added: αἰσθ-άν-ομαι perceive, ἁμαρτ-άν-ω err.

So αὐξάνω, βλαστάνω, δαρθάνω, ἀπεχθάνομαι, οἰδάνω, ὀλισθάνω, ὀφλισκάνω (526).

c. -ανόε- is added and a nasal (μ, ν, or γ nasal) inserted in the verb-stem: λα-μ-β-άν-ω (λαβ-) take, λα-ν-θ-άν-ω escape notice (λαθ-), τυ-γ-χ-άν-ω happen (τυχ-).

So ἁνδάνω please (ἁδ-), θιγγάνω touch (θιγ-), κιγχάνω find (κιχ-), λαγχάνω obtain by lot (λαχ-), μανθάνω learn (μαθ-), πυνθάνομαι inquire (πυθ-).

d. -νεόε- is added: βυ_-νέ-ω stop up (also βύω), ἱκ-νέ-ο-μαι come (also ἵ_κω), κυ-νέ-ω kiss, ἀμπ-ισχ-νέ-ο-μαι have on, ὑπ-ισχ-νέ-ο-μαι promise (cp. ἴ-σχ-ω for σι-σχ-ω, 493 a).

e. -υνόε- is added: ἐλαύνω drive for ἐλα-νυ-ω.

f. -νυ (-ννυ after a short vowel) is added (second class of μι-verbs, 414): δείκ-νυ_-μι show (δεικ-, present stem δεικνυ_-), ζεύγ-νυ_-μι yoke (ζευγ-), ὄλλυ_μι destroy (for ὀλ-νυ_μι, 77 a); κερά-ννυ_-μι mix (κερα-), σκεδά-ννυ_-μι scatter (σκεδα-). Others 729 ff. Some of these verbs have presents in -υω (746).

N. 1.—The forms in -ννυ_μι spread from ἕννυ_μι, σβέννυ_μι, which are derived from ἑσ-νυ_μι, σβεσ-νυ_μι.

N. 2.—Some verbs in -νω are formed from -νϝόε- for -ν[υγλιδε]όε-; as Hom. τί_νω, φθί_νω, φθά_νω, ἄ_νομαι from τι-νϝ-ω, etc., (37 D. 1). Attic τι?́νω, etc. dropped the ϝ.

g. -να, -νη are added (third class of μι-verbs 412); as in (poetic) δάμ-νη-μι I conquer, δάμ-να-μεν we conquer (δαμ-), and in σκίδ-νη-μι (rare in prose for σκεδάννυ_μι) scatter. The verbs of this class are chiefly poetic (Epic), and most have alternative forms in -αω. See 737.

In two further divisions there is a transition to the Iota Class.

h. -ινόε- for -ν-[ιγλιδε]όε is added: βαίνω go (βα-ν-[ιγλιδε]ω), κερδαίνω gain (κερδα-ν-[ιγλιδε]ω) τετραίνω bore (τετρα-ν-ιω). So poetic ῥαίνω sprinkle. For the added ν, cp. δάκ-ν-ω (523 a). See 518 a.

i. -αινόε- for αν-[ιγλιδε]όε is added: ὀσφραίνομαι smell (ὀσφραν-[ιγλιδε]ομαι), Hom. ἀλιταίνομαι sin (also ἀλιτραίνω). See 518 a.

524. A short vowel of the verb-stem is lengthened in the case of some verbs to form one or more of the tense-stems other than the present. Thus, λαμβάνω (λαβ-) take λήψομαι (ληβ-); δάκνω (δακ-) bite δήξω (δηκ-). So λαγχάνω, λανθάνω, τυγχάνω, πυνθάνομαι (πυθ-) inquire, fut. πεύσομαι (πευθ-).

a. ζεύγνυ_μι yoke, πήγνυ_μι fasten, ῥήγνυ_μι break have the strong grade in all tenses except the 2 pass. system. μείγνυ_μι mix (commonly written μί_γνυ_μι) has μι^γ- only in the 2 perf. and 2 pass. systems.

525. Addition of ε and ο.—a. Many verbs add ε to the verb-stem to form all the tenses except present, 2 aorist, and 2 perfect; as αἰσθάνομαι, ἁμαρτάνω, ἁνδάνω, αὐξάνω, ἀπεχθάνομαι, βλαστάνω, δαρθάνω, κιγχάνω, μανθάνω, ὀλισθάνω, ὀφλισκάνω. One or more tenses with ε added are formed by κερδαίνω, ὄλλυ_μι, ὀσφραίνομαι, στόρνυ_μι, τυγχάνω.

b. ὄμνυ_μι swear has ὀμο- in all systems except the present and future, as ὤμοσα, ὀμώμοκα, but fut. ὀμοῦμαι from ὀμεομαι.

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