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III. FIRST (SIGMATIC>) AORIST SYSTEM


(FIRST AORIST ACTIVE AND MIDDLE)

542. The first aorist stem is formed by adding the tense suffix -σα to the verb-stem: ἔ-λυ_-σα I loosed, λύ_σω, λύ_σαιμι; ἔ-δειξα I showed, from δείκ-νυ_-μι. See 666.

a. In verbs showing strong and weak grades (476), the tense-suffix is added to the strong stem: πείθω ἔπεισα, τήκω ἔτηξα, πνέω ἔπνευσα, ἵστημι (στα-, στη-) ἔστησα, ἐστησάμην.

N.—τίθημι (θε-, θη-) place, δίδωμι (δο-, δω-) give, ἵ_ημι (ἑ-, ἡ-) send have aorists in -κα (ἔθηκα, ἔδωκα, ἧκα in the singular: with κ rarely in the plural). See 755.

542 D. Mixed Aorists.—Hom. has some forms of the first aorist with the thematic vowel (όε) of the second aorist; as ἄξετε, ἄξεσθε (ἄγω lead), ἐβήσετο, imper. βήσεο (βαίνω go), ἐδύ_σετο (δύω set), ἷξον (ἵ_κω come), οἶσε, οἴσετε, οἰσέμεν, οἰσέμεναι (φέρω bring), imper. ὄρσεο rise (ὄρνυ_μι rouse).

543. Vowel Verbs.—Verb-stems ending in a vowel lengthen a short final vowel before the tense-suffix (α to η except after ε, ι, ρ). Thus, τι_μάω ἐτί_μησα, ἐάω εἴα_σα (431), φιλέω ἐφίλησα.

a. χέω (χυ-, χευ-, χεϝ-) pour has the aorists ἔχεα, ἐχεάμην (Epic ἔχευα, ἐχευάμην) from ἐχευσα, ἐχευσαμην.

543 a. D. Homeric ἠλευάμην and ἠλεάμην avoided, ἔκηα burned (Att. ἔκαυσα), ἔσσευα drove, also have lost ς.

b. For verbs retaining a short final vowel see 488.

543 b. D. Hom. often has original σς, as γελάω ἐγέλασσα, τελέω ἐτέλεσσα; in others by analogy, as ὄλλυ_μι ὄλεσσα, ὄμνυ_μι ὄμοσσα, καλέω κάλεσσα.

544. Liquid Verbs.—Verb-stems ending in λ, μ, ν, ρ lose ς and lengthen their vowel in compensation (37): α to η (after ι or ρ to α_), ε to ει, ι^ to ι_, υ^ to υ_.

φαίνω (φαν-) show, ἔφηνα for ἐφανσα; περαίνω (περαν-) finish, ἐπέρα_να for ἐπερανσα; στέλλω (στελ-) send, ἔστειλα for ἐστελσα; κρί_νω (κριν-) judge, ἔκρι_να for ἐκρινσα; ἅλλομαι (ἁλ-) leap, ἡλάμην for ἡλσαμην.

a. Some verbs in -αινω (-αν-) have -α_να instead of -ηνα; as γλυκαίνω sweeten ἐγλύκα_να. So ἰσχναίνω make thin, κερδαίνω gain, κοιλαίνω hollow out, λιπαίνω fatten, ὀργαίνω be angry, πεπαίνω make ripe. Cp. 30 a.

b. The poetic verbs retaining ς in the future (536) retain it also in the aorist.

c. αἴρω (ἀρ-) raise is treated as if its verb-stem were ἀ_ρ- (contracted from ἀερ- in ἀείρω): aor. ἦρα, ἄ_ρω, ἄ_ραιμι, ἆρον, ἆραι, ἄ_ρας, and ἠράμην, ἄ_ρωμαι, ἀ_ραίμην, ἄ_ρασθαι, ἀ_ράμενος.

d. ἤνεγκα is used as the first aorist of φέρω bear. εἶπα is rare for εἶπον (549).

544 D. Hom. has Ionic -ηνα for -α_να after ι or ρ. Aeolic assimilates ς to a liquid; as ἔκριννα, ἀπέστελλα, ἐνέμματο, συνέρραισα (= συνείρα_σα). Cp. Hom. ὤφελλε (ὀφέλλω increase).

545. Stop Verbs.—Labial (π, β, φ) and palatal (κ, γ, χ) stops at the end of the verb-stem unite with ς to form ψ or ξ. Dentals (τ, δ, θ) are lost before ς (cp. 98).

πέμπ-ω send ἔπεμψα, ἐπεμψάμην; βλάπτω (βλαβ-) injure ἔβλαψα; γράφ-ω write ἔγραψα, ἐγραψάμην; πλέκ-ω weave ἔπλεξα, ἐπλεξάμην; λέγ-ω say ἔλεξα; ταράττω (ταραχ-) disturb ἐτάραξα, ἐταραξάμην; poetic ἐρέσσω (ἐρετ-) row ἤρεσα; φράζω (φραδ-) tell ἔφρασα, ἐφρασάμην; πείθ-ω (πιθ-, πειθ-, ποιθ-) persuade ἔπεισα.

a. On forms in ς from stems in γ see 516.

545 D. Hom. often has σς from dental stems, as ἐκόμισσα ἐκομισσάμην (κομίζω). Doric has -ξα from most verbs in -ζω; Hom. also has ξ (ἥρπαξε). See 516 D.

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