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555. The stem of the first perfect is formed by adding -κα to the reduplicated verb-stem. λέ-λυ-κα I have loosed, ἐ-λε-λύκη I had loosed.

a. The κ-perfect is later in origin than the second perfect and seems to have started from verb-stems in -κ, as ἔ-οικ-α (= ϝέ-ϝοικ-α) from εἴκω resemble.

b. Verbs showing the gradations ει, ευ: οι, ου: ι, υ (476) have ει, ευ; as πείθω (πιθ-, πειθ-) persuade πέπεικα (560). But δέδοικα fear has οι (cp. 564).

555 b. D. Hom. δείδω (used as a present) is for δε-δϝο ([ιγλιδε]-α. δειδ- was written on account of the metre when ϝ was lost. Hom. δέδια is for δε-δϝι-α with the weak root that is used in δέδιμεν. See 703 D.

556. The first perfect is formed from verb-stems ending in a vowel, a liquid, or a dental stop (τ, δ, θ).

557. Vowel Verbs.—Vowel verbs lengthen the final vowel (if short) before -κα, as τι_μά-ω honour τε-τί_μη-κα, ἐά-ω permit εἴα_-κα, ποιέ-ω make πε-ποίη-κα, τίθημι (θε-, θη-) place τέ-θη-κα, δίδωμι (δο-, δω-) give δέ-δω-κα.

557 D. 1. Hom. has the κ-perfect only in verbs with vowel verb-stems. Of these some have the second perfect in -α, particularly in participles. Thus κεκμηώς, Attic κεκμηκώς (κάμ-ν-ω am weary); κεκορηώς (κορέ-ννυ_μι satiate); πεφύ_κα_σι and πεφύα_σι (φύω produce).

2. In some dialects a present was derived from the perfect stem; as Hom. ἀνώγω, Theocr. δεδοίκω, πεφύ_κει (in the 2 perf.: Theocr. πεπόνθω). Inf. τεθνάκην (Aeol.), part. κεκλήγοντες (Hom.), πεφρί_κων (Pind.).

3. From μέμηκα (μηκάομαι bleat) Hom. has the plup. ἐμέμηκον.

558. This applies to verbs that add ε (485). For verbs that retain a short final vowel, see 488. (Except σβέννυ_μι (σβε-) extinguish, which has ἔσβηκα.)

559. Liquid Verbs.—Many liquid verbs have no perfect or employ the second perfect. Examples of the regular formation are φαίνω (φαν-) show, πέφαγκα, ἀγγέλλω (ἀγγελ-) announce, ἤγγελκα.

a. Some liquid verbs drop ν; as κέκρικα, κέκλικα from κρί_νω (κριν-) judge, κλί_νω (κλιν-) incline. τείνω (τεν-) stretch has τέτακα from τετκα.

b. Monosyllabic stems change ε to α; as ἔσταλκα, ἔφθαρκα from στέλλω (στελ-) send, φθείρω (φθερ-) corrupt.

N. For α we expect ο; α is derived from the middle (ἔσταλμαι, ἔφθαρμαι).

c. All stems in μ and many others add ε (485); as νέμω (νεμ-ε-), distribute νενέμηκα, μέλω (μελ-ε-) care for μεμέληκα, τυγχάνω (τυχ-ε) happen τετύχηκα.

d. Many liquid verbs suffer metathesis (492) and thus get the form of vowel verbs; as βάλλω (βαλ-) throw βέβληκα; θνῄσκω (θαν-) die τέθνηκα; καλέω (καλε-, κλη-) call κέκληκα; κάμνω (καμ-) am weary κέκμηκα; τέμνω (τεμ-) cut τέτμηκα. Also πί_πτω (πετ-, πτο-) fall πέπτωκα. See 128 a.

560. Stop Verbs.—Dental stems drop τ, δ, θ before -κα; as πείθω (πιθ-, πειθ-, ποιθ-) persuade πέπεικα, κομίζω (κομιδ-) carry κεκόμικα.

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