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VIII. FIRST PASSIVE SYSTEM (ΘΗ PASSIVE)

(FIRST AORIST AND FIRST FUTURE PASSIVE)


FIRST AORIST PASSIVE

585. The stem of the first aorist passive is formed by adding -θη- (or -θε-) directly to the verb-stem: ἐ-λύ-θη-ν I was loosed, ἐ-φάν-θη-ν I was shown (φαίνω, φαν-), ἐ-δό-θη-ν I was given (δίδωμι, δο-, δω-).

a. -θη- appears in the indicative, imperative (except the third plural), and infinitive; -θε- appears in the other moods. -θη- is found before a single consonant, -θε- before two consonants or a vowel except in the nom. neuter of the participle.

585 a. D. For -θησαν we find -θεν in Hom., as διέκριθεν.

586. The verb-stem agrees with that of the perfect middle herein:

a. Vowel verbs lengthen the final vowel of the verb-stem, as τε-τί_μη-μαι, ἐ-τι_μή-θην. On verbs which do not lengthen their final vowel, see 488.

b. Liquid stems of one syllable change ε to α, as τέ-τα-μαι, ἐ-τά-θην (τείνω stretch, τεν-). But στρέφω turn, τρέπω turn, τρέφω nourish have ἐστρέφθην, ἐτρέφθην, ἐθρέφθην (rare), though the perfect middles are ἔστραμμαι, τέτραμμαι, τέθραμμαι.

586 b. D. ἐστράφθην is Ionic and Doric; Hom. and Hdt. have ἐτράφθην from τρέπω. Hom. has ἐτάρφθην and ἐτέρφθην from τέρπω gladden.

c. Primitive verbs showing in their stems the gradations ε (ει, ευ): ο (οι, ου): α (ι, υ) have a strong form, as ἐτρέφθην from τρέπω (τρεπ-, τροπ-, τραπ-) turn, ἐλείφθην from λείπω (λιπ-, λειπ-, λοιπ-) leave, ἐπλεύσθην from πλέω (πλυ-, πλευ-) sail.

d. Primitive verbs showing in their stems a variation between ε: η and ο: ω have, in the first aorist passive, the short vowel. Thus, τίθημι (θε-, θη-) ἐτέθην, δίδωμι (δο-, δω-) ἐδόθην.

e. Final ν is dropped in some verbs: κέ-κρι-μαι, ἐκρίθην. See 491.

586 e. D. Hom. has ἐκλίνθην and ἐκλίθην, ἐκρίνθην and ἐκρίθην; ἱδρύνθην = Att. ἱδρύ_θην (ἱδρύω erect), ἀμπνύνθην (ἀναπνέω revive).

f. The verb-stem may suffer metathesis: βέ-βλη-μαι, ἐ-βλή-θην. See 492.

g. Sigma is often added: κε-κέλευσ-μαι, ἐ-κελεύσ-θην. See 489.

587. Before θ of the suffix, π and β become φ; κ and γ become χ (82 c); τ, δ, θ become ς (83). φ and χ remain unaltered.

λείπ-ω ἐλείφ-θην, βλάπτω (βλαβ-) ἐβλάφ-θην; φυλάττω (φυλακ-) ἐφυλάχ-θην, ἄγ-ω ἤχ-θην; κομίζω (κομιδ-) ἐκομίσ-θην, πείθ-ω ἐπείσ-θην; γράφ-ω ἐγράφ-θην, ταράττω (ταραχ-) ἐταράχ-θην.

588. θ of the verb-stem becomes τ in ἐ-τέ-θην, and in ἐ-τύ-θην for ἐ-θυ-θην from τίθημι (θε-, θη-) place and θύ_ω (θυ-, θυ_-) sacrifice. See 125 c.


FIRST FUTURE PASSIVE

589. The stem of the first future passive is formed by adding -σόε- to the stem of the first aorist passive. It ends in -θησομαι. Thus, παιδευθή-σομαι I shall be educated, λυθή-σομαι I shall be loosed.

τι_μάω, ἐτι_μήθην τι_μηθήσομαι; ἐάω, εἰά_θην ἐα_θήσομαι; λείπω, ἐλείφθην λειφθήσομαι; πείθω, ἐπείσθην πεισθήσομαι; τείνω, ἐτάθην ταθήσομαι; τάττω, ἐτάχθην ταχθήσομαι; τίθημι, ἐτέθην τεθήσομαι; δίδωμι, ἐδόθην δοθήσομαι; δείκνυ_μι, ἐδείχθην δειχθήσομαι.

589 D. Hom. has no example of the first future passive. To express the idea of the passive future the future middle is used. See 802. Doric shows the active endings in both futures passive: δειχθησοῦντι, ἀναγραφησεῖ.

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