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IX. SECOND PASSIVE SYSTEM (H PASSIVE)

(SECOND AORIST AND SECOND FUTURE PASSIVE)


SECOND AORIST PASSIVE

590. The stem of the second aorist passive is formed by adding -η- (or -ε-) directly to the verb-stem. Thus, ἐβλάβην I was injured from βλάπτω (βλαβ-).

a. -η- appears in the indicative, imperative (except the third plural), and infinitive; -ε- appears in the other moods. -η- is found before a single consonant, -ε- before two consonants or a vowel except in the nom. neut. of the participle.

590 a. D. For -ησαν we generally find -εν (from -ηντ, 40) in Hom.; also in Doric.

591. The second aorist passive agrees in form with the second aorist active of μι-verbs; cp. intransitive ἐχάρην rejoiced with ἔστην stood. The passive use was developed from the intransitive use.

592. Primitive verbs showing in their stems the grades ε: ο: α have α. Thus an ε of a monosyllabic verb-stem becomes α, as in πλέκ-ω weave ἐπλάκην, κλέπ-τ-ω steal ἐκλάπην, φθείρω (φθερ-) corrupt ἐφθάρην, στέλλω (στελ-) send ἐστάλην. But λέγω collect has ἐλέγην.

593. Primitive verbs showing in their stems a variation between a short and long vowel have, in the second aorist passive, the short vowel. Thus τήκω (τακ-, τηκ-) melt ἐτάκην, ῥήγνυ_μι (ῥαγ-, ῥηγ-, ῥωγ-) break ἐρράγην.

a. But πλήττω (πλαγ-, πληγ-) strike has ἐπλάγην only in composition, as ἐξεπλάγην; otherwise ἐπλήγην.

594. The second aorist passive is the only aorist passive formed in Attic prose by ἄγνυ_μι (ἐά_γην), γράφω (ἐγράφην), δέρω (ἐδάρην), θάπτω (ἐτάφην), κόπτω (ἐκόπην), μαίνω (ἐμάνην), πνί_γω (ἐπνι?́γην), ῥάπτω (ἐρράφην), ῥέω (ἐρρύην active), ῥήγνυ_μι (ἐρράγην), σήπω (ἐσάπην), σκάπτω (ἐσκάφην), σπείρω (ἐσπάρην), στέλλω (ἐστάλην), σφάζω or σφάττω (ἐσφάγην), σφάλλω (ἐσφάλην), τύ_φω (ἐτύφην), φθείρω (ἐφθάρην pass. and intr.), φύ_ω (in subj. φυῶ), χαίρω (ἐχάρην active).

595. Both the first aorist passive and the second aorist passive are formed by ἀλείφω (ἠλείφθην), ἀλλάττω (-ηλλάχθην, ἠλλάγην), βάπτω (ἐβάφην), βλάπτω (ἐβλάφθην, ἐβλάβην), βρέχω (ἐβρέχθην), ζεύγνυ_μι (ἐζύγην), θλί_βω (ἐθλί_φθην), κλέπτω (ἐκλάπην), κλί_νω (-εκλίνην), κρύπτω (ἐκρύφθην), λέγω collect (διελέχθην, but συνελέγην), μάττω (ἐμάγην), μείγνυ_μι (ἐμίγην), πήγνυ_μι (ἐπάγην), πλέκω (ἐπλάκην), πλήττω (ἐπλήγην and -επλάγην), ῥί_πτω (ἐρρί_φθην, ἐρρίφην), στερίσκω (ἐστερήθην), στρέφω (ἐστράφην), τάττω (ἐτάχθην), τήκω (ἐτάκην), τρέπω (ἐτράπην pass. and intr.), τρέφω (ἐτράφην pass. and intr.), τρί_βω (ἐτρίβην, ἐτρί_φθην), φαίνω (ἐφάνθην was shown, ἐφάνην appeared), φράγνυ_μι (ἐφράχθην), ψύ_χω (ἐψύχην). Most of these verbs use either the one in prose and the other in poetry, the dialects, or late Greek. Only the forms in common prose use are inserted in brackets.

596. Only those verbs which have no second aorist active show the second aorist passive; except τρέπω, which has all the aorists: active ἔτρεψα and ἔτραπον turned; middle ἐτρεψάμην put to flight, ἐτραπόμην turned myself, took to flight; passive ἐτρέφθην was turned, ἐτράπην was turned and turned myself.


SECOND FUTURE PASSIVE

597. The stem of the second future passive is formed by adding -ς όε- to the stem of the second aorist passive. It ends in -ησομαι. Thus, βληβήσομαι I shall be injured from βλάπτω (βλαβ-) ἐ-βλάβη-ν.

κόπ-τ-ω, ἐκόπην κοπήσομαι; γράφω, ἐγράφην γραφήσομαι; φαίνω, ἐφάνην appeared, φανήσομαι; φθείρω, ἐφθάρην φθαρήσομαι; πήγνυ_μι fix, ἐπάγην παγήσομαι.

597 D. Hom. has only δαήσεαι (ἐδάην learned), μιγήσεσθαι (μείγνυ_μι mix).

598. Most of the verbs in 594, 595 form second futures passive except ἄγνυ_μι, ἀλείφω, βάπτω, βρέχω, ζεύγνυ_μι, θλί_βω, κλέπτω, μαίνω, μάττω, ῥάπτω. But many of the second futures appear only in poetry or in late Greek, and some are found only in composition.

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