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PRESENT AND IMPERFECT ACTIVE AND MIDDLE (PASSIVE)

For the formation of the present stem see 497-531.

627. Indicative.—Vowel and consonant verbs in -ω inflect the present by attaching the primary endings (when there are any) to the present stem in -όε (-ώη-). λύ_ω, τι_μῶ (τι_μά-ω), φαίνω, λείπω. The imperfect attaches the secondary endings to the present stem with the augment. See the paradigms, pp. 114, 120. For the active forms -ω, -εις, -ει, see 463.

628. - and -ει are found in the pres. fut. mid. and pass., fut. perf. pass. ε-ςαι yields (written EI in the Old Attic alphabet, 2 a), which is usually given as the proper spelling in the texts of the tragic poets, whereas ει is printed in the texts of prose and comedy. ει was often written for ηι () after 400 B.C., as in ἀγαθεῖ τύχει, since both had the sound of a close long e. It is often impossible to settle the spelling; but βούλει wishest, οἴει thinkest, and ὄψει shalt see (from ὁράω) have only the -ει forms. -ει is sometimes called Attic and Ionic in contrast to - of the other dialects, including the Koiné.

629. Subjunctive.—The present subjunctive adds the primary endings to the tense-stem with the long thematic vowel. For the endings -ῃς, - see 463. Thus, λύ_ω, -ῃς, -, τι_μᾷς ( = τι_μά-ῃς), τι_μᾷ ( = τι_μά-ῃ), φαίνωμεν, -ητε, -ωσι (from -ωντι). Middle λύ_ω-μαι, λύ_ῃ ( = λύ_η-σαι), λύ_η-ται; τι_μᾶ-σθον ( = τι_μάη-σθον); φαινώ-μεθα, φαίνη-σθε, φαίνω-νται.

630. Optative.—To the tense-stem ending in the thematic vowel (always ο) are added the mood-sign -ι_- (-ιε-) or -ιη- (459, 460) and the secondary personal endings (except -μι for -ν, where the mood sign is -ι_-, 459). In the 3 pl. we have -ιε-ν.

a. The final vowel of the tense-stem (ο) contracts with the mood suffix (ι_), ο-ι_ becoming οι. Thus λύ_οιμι (λύ_ο-ι_-μι), λύ_οις (λύ_ο-ι_-ς), λύ_οιεν (λύ_ο-ιε-ν), λυ_οίμην (λυ_ο-ί_-μην), λύ_οιο (λύ_ο-ι_-σο).

631. Imperative.—The present imperative endings are added to the tensestem with the thematic vowel ε (ο before -ντων). The 2 pers. sing. active has no ending, but uses the tense-stem instead (παίδευε, φαῖνε). In the middle -σο loses its ς (466, 2 a); λύ_ου from λύ_ε-σο, φαίνου from φαίνε-σο. On the forms in -ετωσαν and -εσθωσαν for -οντων and -εσθων, see 466, 2 b.

632. Infinitive.—The present stem unites with -εν: λύ_ε-εν λύ_ειν, λείπε-εν λείπειν. In the middle (passive) -σθαι is added: λύ_ε-σθαι, λείπε-σθαι.

632 D. Severer Doric has ἔχην and ἔχεν; Milder Doric has ἔχειν; Aeolic has ἔχην. Hom. has ἀμύ_νειν, ἀμυ_νέμεναι, ἀμυ_νέμεν.

633. Participle.—The present participle adds -ντ- to the present stem ending in the thematic vowel ο. Stems in -ο-ντ have the nominative singular in -ων. Thus masc. λύ_ων from λυ_οντ-ς, fem. λύ_ουσα from λυ_οντ-[ιγλιδε]α, neut. λῦον from λυ_οντ). See 301 a and N.

633 D. Aeolic has fem. -οισα in the present and second aorist (37 D. 3), λύ_οισα, λίποισα.

634. A few ω-verbs in the present and imperfect show forms of the μι-conjugation. These are usually Epic.

δέχομαι, 3 pl. δέχαται await for δεχται, part. δέγμενος, imperf. ἐδέγμην. But these are often regarded as perfect and pluperfect without reduplication. ἐδέγμην in some passages is a second aorist (688).—ἔδω eat (529. 5), inf. ἔδμεναι.—ἐρύω (or εἰρύω) in εἰρύαται.—λοῦται wash is from λόεται, not from λούω (cp. 398 a).— οἶμαι think is probably a perfect to οἴομαι (οἰ-ο-).—οὐτάω wound in οὖτα, οὐτάμεναι is 2 aor.—φέρω bear, imper. φέρτε.

CONTRACT VERBS

635. Verbs in -αω, -εω, -οω contract the final α, ε, ο of the verb-stem with the thematic vowel -όε (-ώη) in the present and imperfect tenses. Thus, τι_μάω τι_μῶ, ποιέω ποιῶ, δηλόω δηλῶ; ἐτί_μαον ἐτί_μων, ἐποίεον ἐποίουν, ἐδήλοον ἐδήλουν. The rules of contraction are given in 4955; the paradigms, p. 120.

a. Open forms of -εω verbs occur in the lyric parts of tragedy.

636. Subjunctive.—The subjunctive adds the primary endings. For the contractions see 59.

637. Optative.—άοι becomes , έοι and όοι become οῖ. Thus. -άο-ι_-μι -ῷμι, -αο-ίη-ν -ῴην, -αο-ί_-μην -ῴμην; -έο-ι_-μι -οῖμι, -εο-ίη-ν -οίην, -εο-ί_-μην -οίμην; -όο-ι_-μι -οῖμι, -ο-ίη-ν -οίην, -οο-ί_-μην -οίμην. Thus, τι_μῴην (τι_μαο-ίη-ν), τι_μῴης (τι_μαο-ίη-ς), τι_μῴη (τι_μαο-ίη), τι_μῴμην (τι_μαο-ί_-μην), ποιοῖο (ποιέο-ι_-σο), ποιοῖτο (ποιέο-ι_-το).

638. In the singular -αω verbs usually end in -ῴην, -ῴης, -ώῃ, rarely in -ῷμι, -ῷς, -. -εω verbs usually end in -οίην, -οίης, -οίη, rarely in -οῖμι, -οῖς, -οῖ (-οῖ chiefly in Plato).

639. In the dual and plural -αω verbs usually end in -ῷτον, -ῴτην, -ῷμεν, -ῷτε, -ῷεν, rarely in -ῴητον, -ῳήτην, -ῴημεν, -ῴητε, -ῴησαν. -εω verbs usually end in -οῖτον, -οίτην, -οῖμεν, -οῖτε, -οῖεν, rarely in -οίητον, -οιήτην, -οίημεν, -οίητε, -οίησαν.

640. Few cases of the optative of -οω verbs occur. In the sing. both -οίην and -οῖμι are found; in the plur. -οῖμεν, -οῖτε, -οῖεν. For ῥι_γῴην from ῥι_γόω shiver see 641.

641. Several contract verbs have stems in -α_, -η, -ω.

These are the verbs of 394, 398 with apparently irregular contraction, and δρῶ do; with presents made from -α_-[ιγλιδε]ω, -η-[ιγλιδε]ω, -ω-[ιγλιδε]ω. Thus, from ζήω, ζήεις, ζήει and χρήομαι, χρήεςαι, χρήεται come ζῶ, ζῇς, ζῇ and χρῶμαι, χρῇ, χρῆται; so διψῆν, πεινῆν from διψή-εν, πεινή-εν. ίδρόω, ῥι_γόω (398) derive the forms in ω and from ἱδρω-, ῥι_γω- (ἱδρώω, ῥι_γώω from ἱδρωσ-[ιγλιδε]ω, ῥι_γωσ-[ιγλιδε]ω). The forms in -οω are from the weaker stems ἰδροσ-, ῥι_γοσ-.

641 D. Hom. has διψά_ων, πεινά_ων, πεινήμεναι, μνά_ομαι, χρήων (Mss. χρείων) uttering oracles, γελώω, ἱδρώω. The verbs in 394, except διψῶ and πεινῶ, have stems in η and α^ (36 e); thus, in Hdt., χρᾶται from χράεται, but χρέω imper., χρεώμενος from χρῆο, χρηόμενος by 34. Hom. and Ion. ζώω has the stem ζω (ζω-[ιγλιδε]ω). Hdt. has ζῆν, διψῆν, but κνᾶν, σμᾶν.

CONTRACT VERBS IN THE DIALECTS

642. -αω Verbs in Homer.—Hom. leaves -αω verbs open 64 times, as ναιετάω, -άουσι, ὑλάει, ἀοιδιάουσα, γοάοιμεν, τηλεθάοντας. When contracted, -αω verbs have the Attic forms, as ὁρῶ, ὁρᾷς, ὁρᾷ; as πειρᾷ makest trial from πειράε-ςαι from πειράομαι; ἠρῶ didst pray from ἠράε-ςο from ἀράομαι.

643. When uncontracted, verbs in -αω often show in the Mss. of Hom., not the original open forms, but “assimilated” forms of the concurrent vowels, αε, αει, αη giving a double a sound by α prevailing over the e sound; αο, αω, αοι, αου giving a double o sound by the o sound prevailing over the α. One of the vowels is commonly lengthened, rarely both.

αε = (1)αα: ὁράεσθαι ὁράασθαι, ἀγά-
εσθε ἀγάασθε.
= (2)α_α: μνάεσθαι μνά_ασθαι, ἠγά-
εσθε ἠγά_ασθε.
αει = (1)αᾳ: ὁράεις ὁράᾳς, ἐάει ἐάᾳ.
= (2)α_ᾳ: μενοινάει μενοινά_ᾳ.
αῃ = (1)αᾳ: ἐάῃς ἐάᾳς.
= (2)α_ᾳ: μνάῃ wooest 2 sing. mid.
= μνά_ᾳ.
αο = (1)οω: ὁράοντες ὁρόωντες.
= (2)ωο: ἡβάοντες ἡβώοντες, μνά-
οντο μνώοντο.
αω = (1)οω: ὁράω ὁρόω, βοάων
βοόων.
= (2)ωω: μενοινάω μενοινώω.
αοι = (1)οῳ: ὁράοιτε ὁρόῳτε.
= (2)ωοι:ἡβάοιμι ἡβώοιμι.
αου = (1)οω: ὁράουσα ὁρόωσα, ὁρά-
ουσι ὁρόωσι, ἀλάου (from
ἀλάεο imper. of ἀλάομαι) =
ἀλόω.
= (2)ωω: ἡβάουσα ἡβώωσα, δρά-
ουσι δρώωσι. ου here is
a spurious diphthong (6)
derived from -οντ-: ὁρα-
οντ-[ιγλιδε]α, ἡβαοντ-[ιγλιδε]α, δρά_οντι;
or by contraction in ἀλάου
from ἀλάεο.

N.—ἀλόω from ἀλάεο wander is unique. γελώοντες is from γελώω (641).

644. The assimilated forms are used only when the second vowel (in the unchanged form) stood in a syllable long by nature or position. Hence ὁροωμεν, ὁραατε, ὁραατο, do not occur for ὁράομεν, etc. (μνωόμενος for μνα_όμενος is an exception.) The first vowel is lengthened only when the metre requires it, as in ἡβώοντες for ἡβάοντες ¯ ˘ ¯ ˘. Thus two long vowels do not occur in succession except to fit the form to the verse, as μενοινώω for μενοινάω; but ἡβώοιμι, not ἡβώῳμι. When the first vowel is metrically lengthened, the second vowel is not lengthened, though it may be long either in a final syllable (as in μενοινά_ᾳ) or when it represents the spurious diphthong ου from -οντ- (as in ἡβώωσα, δρώωσι for ἡβάουσα, δρά_ουσι from -οντ[ιγλιδε]α, -οντι).

645. The assimilated forms include the “Attic” future in -αω from -ασω (539); as ἐλόωσι ( = ἐλάουσι), κρεμόω, δαμάᾳ, δαμόωσι.

646. The assimilated forms are found only in the artificial language of Homer, Hesiod, and their imitators, and nowhere in the living speech. They are commonly explained as derived from the contracted forms by a process of ‘distraction,’ and as inserted in the text for the sake of the metre. Thus ὁρᾷς, βοῶντες, the spoken forms which had taken the place of original ὁράεις, βοάοντες, in the text, were expanded into ὁράᾳς, βοόωντες, by repetition of the α and ο. While the restoration of the original uncontracted forms is generally possible, and is adopted in several modern editions, a phonetic origin of many of the forms in question is still sought by some scholars who regard ὁρόω as an intermediate stage between ὁράω and ὁρῶ. It will be observed, however, that the forms in 648 can be derived only from the unassimilated forms.

647. In the imperfect contraction generally occurs, and assimilation is rare.

648. Some verbs show εο for αο, as ἤντεον, τρόπεον, μενοίνεον, ποτέονται. Cp. 649, 653.

649. -αω verbs in Herodotus.—Hdt. contracts -αω verbs as they are contracted in Attic. In many cases before an ο sound the Mss. substitute ε for α (τολμέω, ὁρέων, ἐφοίτεον). This ε is never found in all the forms of the same verb, and the Mss. generally disagree on each occurrence of any form.—Hdt. always has -ῴην, -ῴμην, in the optative.

650. -εω verbs in Homer.—a. Hom. rarely contracts εω and εο (except in the participle). In a few cases ευ appears for εο, as ποιεύμην; rarely for εου, as τελεῦσι. When the metre allows either -εε and -εει, or -ει, the open forms are slightly more common. ει is often necessary to admit a word into the verse (as ἡγεῖσθαι, ἐφίλει), and is often found at the verse-end. -έ-ε-αι, -έ-ε-ο, in the 2 sing. mid. may become -εῖαι, -εῖο, or -έαι, -έο, by the expulsion of one ε; as μυ_θεῖαι or μυ_θέαι sayest, αἰδεῖο show regard.

b. νεικείω, τελείω, from -εσ-[ιγλιδε]ω (νεικεσ-, τελεσ-) are older forms than νεικέω, τελέω. See 488 d, 624. θείω, πλείω, πνείω show metrical lengthening (28 D.).

c. On -ημεναι in Hom. see 657.

651. -εω verbs in Herodotus.—a. Hdt. generally leaves εο, εω, εου, open, except when a vowel precedes the ε, in which case we find ευ for εο (ἀγνοεῦντες). In the 3 plur. -έουσι is kept except in ποιεῦσι. For -έ-εο in the 2 sing. mid. we find έ-ο in αἰτέο. εε, εει, in stems of more than one syllable, are usually uncontracted in the Mss., but this is probably an error. δεῖ it is necessary and δεῖν are never written otherwise.—The Ion. ευ for εο, εου, occurs rarely in tragedy.

b. In the optative Hdt. has -έοι after a consonant, as καλέοι, but -οῖ after a vowel, as ποιοῖμι, ποιοῖ.

652. Verbs in -οω.—a. Hom. always uses the contracted forms except in the case of such as show assimilation like that in -αω verbs.

οο = (1) οω : δηϊόοντο δηϊόωντο.οοι οῳ : δηιόοιεν δηιόῳεν.
(2) ωο : ὑπνόοντας ὑπνώοντας.οου οω : ἀρόουσι ἀρόωσι.

b. Hdt. contracts -οω verbs as in Attic. Forms with ευ for ου, as δικαιεῦσι, ἐδικαίευν, are incorrect.

653. Doric.—Doric (59 D.) contracts αε and αη to η; αει and αῃ to ; αο, αω, to α_ except in final syllables: τι_μῶ, τι_μῇς, τι_μῇ, τι_μᾶμες, τι_μῆτε, τι_μᾶντι, τί_μη, τι_μῆν. Monosyllabic stems have ω from α ¨ ο or α ¨ ω. Some verbs in -αω have alternative forms in -εω (648), as ὁρέω, τι_μέω.

654. The contractions of -εω verbs in Doric may be illustrated thus:

Severer DoricMilder Doric
φιλέω, φιλῶ, φιλίωφιλέω, φιλῶ
φιλεῖς, φιλές(?)φιλεῖς, φιλές(?)
φιλεῖφιλεῖ
φιλέομες, φιλίομες, φιλίωμες, φιλῶμεςφιλέομες, φιλοῦμες, φιλεῦμες
φιλῆτεφιλεῖτε
φιλέοντι, φιλίοντι, φιλόντιφιλέοντι, φιλοῦντι, φιλεῦντι

a. ιω for εο is a diphthong. ευ for εο is common in Theocritus. In Cretan ι ( = y) for ε is often expelled (κοσμόντες κοσμέοντες).

655. Verbs in -οω contract οο and οε to ω in Severer Doric and to ου in Milder Doric.

656. Aeolic.—In Aeolic contract verbs commonly pass into the μι-conjugation: τί_μαιμι, -αις, -αι, τί_μα_μεν, τί_μα_τε, τί_μαισι, imperfect, ἐτί_μα_ν, ἐτί_μα_ς, ἐτί_μα_, etc. inf. τί_μα_ν, part. τί_μαις, -αντος, mid. τί_μα_μαι, inf. τι_μά_μεναι. So φίλημι, φίλημεν, φίλητε, φίλεισι, ἐφίλην, inf. φίλην, part. φίλεις, -εντος. Thus ὄρημι from ὀρέω = Att. ὁράω, κάλημι, αἴνημι. So also δήλωμι, 3 pl. δήλοισι, inf. δήλων. Besides these forms we find a few examples of the earlier inflection in -αω, -εω, -οω, but these forms usually contract except in a few cases where ε is followed by an ο sound (ποτέονται). From other tenses, e.g. the fut. in -ησω, η has been transferred to the present in ἀδικήω, ποθήω.

657. Hom. has several cases of contract verbs inflected according to the μι- conjugation in the 3 dual: συ_λή-την (συ_λάω spoil), προσαυδή-την (προσαυδάω speak to), ἀπειλή-την (ἀπειλέω threaten), ὁμαρτή-την (ὁμαρτέω meet); also σάω 3 sing. imperf. (σαόω keep safe). In the infinitive -ημεναι, as γοήμεναι (γοάω), πεινήμεναι (πεινά_ω, 641), φιλήμεναι (φιλέω), φορήμεναι and φορῆναι (φορέω). But ἀγι_νέω has ἀγι_νέμεναι.

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