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PERFECT AND PLUPERFECT MIDDLE AND PASSIVE (574

706. All vowel and consonant verbs in -ω inflect the perfect middle according to the μι-conjugation.

707. Indicative.—The perfect middle is inflected by adding the primary middle endings directly to the tense-stem, herein agreeing with the μι-conjugation. The pluperfect adds the secondary middle endings. In vowel verbs the formation is simple, as in λέλυ-μαι, ἐλελύ-μην. But in consonant verbs, the consonant at the end of the stem comes into collision with the consonant at the beginning of the ending; hence certain euphonic changes described in 409. The periphrastic form occurs in the 3 pl. and sometimes in the 3 sing. (599 d, e).

a. Stems in ν avoid the forms -ν-σαι, -ν-σο; thus, from φαίνω, instead of πέφανσαι, ἐπέφανσο the periphrastic πεφασμένος εἶ, ἦσθα were probably used.

708. Subjunctive.—The perfect middle subjunctive is commonly formed by periphrasis of the perfect middle participle and , ᾖς, , etc. Thus λελυμένος .

708 D. Hdt. has μεμνεώμεθα, and this form may be read in ξ 168.

709. From two verbs, whose perfect stem ends in η-α), the simple forms are constructed. κτάομαι (κτα-) acquire, perf. κέκτημαι possess (1946), forms its subjunctive by adding the thematic vowel -ώη- to κε-κτα; thus κε-κτά-ω-μαι κεκτῶμαι, κε-κτά-η-σαι κεκτῇ, κε-κτά-η-ται κεκτῆται, etc.—μιμνῄσκω (μνα- remind, perf. μέμνημαι remember (1946): με-μνά-ω-μαι μεμνῶμαι, μεμνη-ώ-μεθα μεμνώμεθα. With κεκτῶμαι, μεμνῶμαι, cp. ἱστῶμαι, p. 137. The periphrastic κεκτημένος , μεμνημένος occur.

710. Optative.—The perfect middle optative is commonly formed by the periphrasis of the perfect middle participle and εἴην, εἴης, εἴη, etc. Thus λελυμένος εἴην, etc.

711. Some verbs add -ί_-μην, -ο-ί_-μην to the tense-stem (709).—a. κτάομαι (κτα-) acquire, perf. κέκτημαι possess (1946): opt. κεκτη-ί_-μην κεκτῄμην, κεκτήι_-σο κεκτῇο, κεκτή-ι_-το κεκτῇτο. Less frequent and doubtful are κεκτῴμην, -ῷο, -ῷτο, -ῴμεθα from κεκτη-ο-ί_-μην, etc.

b. μιμνῄσκω (μνα-) remind, perf. μέμνημαι remember; opt. μεμνη-ί_-μην μεμνῄμην, μεμνή-ι_-σο μεμνῇο, μεμνή-ι_-το μεμνῇτο, etc. The forms μεμνῴμην, -ῷο, -ῷτο, etc., from μεμνη-ο-ί_-μην, etc., are uncommon and suspected.

c. καλέω (καλε-, κλη-) call, perf. κέκλημαι am called (1946); opt. κεκλη-ί_-μην, etc. = κεκλῄμην, κεκλῇο, κεκλῇτο, κεκλῄμεθα.

d. βάλλω (βαλ-, βλη-) throw, perf. διαβέβλημαι, opt. διαβεβλῇσθε.

N.—The forms in -ῄμην, etc., have the μι-form; the doubtful -ῴμην, etc., belong to the ω-conjugation.

711 D. Hom. has λελῦτο ς 238 = λελύ-ι_το (cp. δαίνηυ_το). Pind. has μεμναίατο. μέμνοιο in Xen. is from μέμνομαι.

712. Imperative.—In the third person singular the perfect meaning is regularly retained, as εἰρήσθω let it have been said. The 2 sing. and pl. are generally found only in the case of perfects with a present meaning, as μέμνησθε remember! μὴ πεφόβησθε do not be afraid! πέπαυσο stop! See 698.

a. The dual and 3 pl. are apparently wanting. The 2 sing. in -νσο from stems in -ν does not occur. For πέφανσο, πεφασμένος ἴσθι was probably used.

713. Attic prose writers have ἀναβεβλήσθω, ἀποκεκρίσθω, εἰρήσθω, ἐκτήσθω, ἐψεύσθω, κεῖσο, -κείσθω, κέκτησο, μέμνησθε, πεπαίσθω, πεπεράνθω, πεποίησο, πεπρά_σθω, πεφάσθω, πεφόβησθε, τετάχθω, τετολμήσθω.

714. Instead of the simple forms of the imperative we find the periphrastic use of the perfect participle and ἴσθι, ἔστω, etc. (599 g). Thus εἰρημένον ἔστω εἰρήσθω.

715. Infinitive.—The perfect infinitive adds -σθαι, as λελύ-σθαι. Consonant stems lose the ς by 103, as λελεῖφθαι, πεπρᾶχθαι (406), ἐληλέγχθαι, πεφάνθαι (407).

716. Participle.—The perfect participle adds -μένος, as λελυμένος, λελειμμένος, πεπρα_γμένος (406, 407). On the ς of πεφασμένος see 409 d.

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