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PRESENT SYSTEM

722. Verbs in -μι belong to the first or simple class (504) or to the fourth class (523).


FIRST OR SIMPLE CLASS

723. The present is made by adding the personal endings directly to the verb-stem, which is a root. This verb-stem may be used in its pure form or it may be reduplicated.

a. Some verbs of this class with no active have a verb-stem of more than one syllable (usually two syllables).

724. Unreduplicated Presents: εἰμί (ἐσ-) am, εἶμι (ἰ-, εἰ-) go, ἧμαι (ἡσ-) sit, ἠμί say ( said, 3 sing.), κεῖμαι (κει-) lie, φημί (φα-, φη-) say, χρή it is necessary (793); and poet. ἄημι (ἀη-) blow.

725. Deponents.—ἄγα-μαι (and ἀγάομαι) admire, δέα-μαι appear, δίε-μαι flee, make flee (cp. δίω), δύνα-μαι am able (737 a), ἐπί-στα-μαι understand, ἔρα-μαι love (poet. for ἐράω), ἵπταμαι fly (late, see 726 a), κρέμα-μαι hang (intrans.), ὄνο-μαι insult, πέτα-μαι (poet. by-form of πέτομαι) fly, ἐπριάμην bought a second aorist, στεῦμαι affirm.

a. Other such forms are Hom. ἵ_εμαι (ϝί_εμαι) strive, εἴρυμαι and ἔρυμαι rescue, Ion. λάζυμαι take. ἐπίστηται II 243 owes its η to such non-present forms as ἐπιστήσομαι.

726. Reduplicated Presents.—δίδημι bind (rare for δέω), δίδωμι (δο-, δω-) give, ἵ_ημι (ἑ-, ἡ-) send, ἵστημι (στα-, στη-) set, κίχρημι (χρα-, χρη-) lend, ὀνίνημι (ὀνα-, ὀνη-) benefit, πίμπλημι (πλα-, πλη-) fill, πίμπρημι (πρα-, πρη-) burn, τίθημι (θε-, θη-) place.

a. Also poetic βίβημι (βα-, βη-) go, in Hom. βιβά_ς striding, δί-ζημαι (also Ion.) seek, for δι-δ[ιγλιδε]η-μαι by 116 (cp. ζητέω seek), ἵλημι (ἱ_λα-, ἱ_λη- for σισλα-, σισλη-) am propitious. ἵπταμαι (late) for πέτομαι fly is an analogue of ἵσταμαι and is not properly reduplicated. τίτρημι bore is late.

727. Verbs in -μι reduplicate with ι in the present. See 414, 447. πί-μ-πλημι and πί-μ-πρημι may lose the inserted nasal in compounds of ἐν, but only when ἐν- takes the form ἐμ-; as ἐμπίπλημι, but ἐνεπίμπλασαν. Doric has κίγχημι. In ὀ-νί-νη-μι the reduplication takes place after a vowel (verb-stem ὀνα-, ὀνη-).

a. Reduplication is in place only in present and imperfect; but Hom. has διδώσομεν.


FOURTH CLASS

728. Most μι-verbs of the fourth class add -νυ- (after a vowel, -ννυ-) to the verb-stem.

729. Verb-stems in -α: κερά-ννυ_μι mix, κρεμά-ννυ_μι hang (intrans.), πετάννυ_μι spread, σκεδά-ννυ_μι scatter.

730. Verb-stems in ε (for ες): ἕ-ννυ_μι (in prose ἀμφιέ-ννυ_μι) clothe, κορέννυ_μι satiate, σβέ-ννυ_μι extinguish.

731. Verb-stems in ω: ζώ-ννυ_μι gird, ῥώ-ννυ_μι strengthen, στρώ-ννυ_μι spread.

732. All the forms in -ννυ_μι started from verb-stems ending in ς: ἕννυ_μι from ἑσ-νυ_-μι, σβέννυ_μι from σβεσ-νυ_-μι, ζώννυ_μι from ζωσ-νυ_-μι. All the other verbs are analogues of these.

733. Verb-stems in a consonant: ἄγ-νυ_μι break, ἄρ-νυμαι earn, δείκ-νυ_μι show, εἴργ-νυ_μι ( = εἴργω) shut in, ζεύγ-νυ_μι yoke (ἀποκτει-νυ_μι often written -κτίννυ_μι ( = κτείνω) kill, μείγ-νυ_μι (miswritten μί_γ-νυ_μι) mix, -οἰγ-νυ_μι ( = -οἴγω) open, ὄλλυ_μι (ὀλ-ε) destroy, ὄμ-νυ_μι (ὀμ-ε-, ὀμ-ο) swear, ὀμόργ-νυ_μι wipe off, ὄρ-νυ_μι rouse, πήγ-νυ_μι (παγ-, πηγ-) fix, πλήγ-νυ_μι (once, in ἐκπλήγνυσθαι Thuc. 4. 125; cp. πλήττω), πτάρ-νυμαι sneeze, ῥήγ-νυ_μι (ῥαγ-, ῥηγ-, ῥωγ-) break, στόρνυ_μι spread, φράγ-νυ_μι ( = φράττω) inclose.

734. Poetic verbs: αἴ-νυμαι take, ἄ-νυ_μι complete (ἀνύω), ἄχ-νυμαι am troubled, γά-νυμαι rejoice, δαί-νυ_μι entertain, καί-νυμαι excel, κί_-νυμαι move myself (cp. κι_νέω), ὀρέγ-νυ_μι reach, τά-νυμαι stretch, with νυ carried into other tenses (τανύω), τί_-νυμαι (cp. Epic τί_νω from τι-νϝ-ω) better τείνυμαι, chastise.

735. The verbs whose verb-stem ends in a liquid or nasal often form the tenses other than the present by adding ε or ο, as ὄλλυ_μι (from ὀλνυ_μι) ὤλεσα, ὀλώλεκα (ὀλ-ε-), ὄμνυ_μι ὤμοσα (ὀμ-ο-).

736. νυ_μι-verbs form only the present and imperfect according to the μι- conjugation; with the exception of σβέ-ννυ_μι, which has 2 aor. ἔσβην. The 2 aorist passive and 2 future passive are rare, as ῥήγνυ_μι ἐρράγην ἐκραγήσομαι, ζεύγνυ_μι ἐζύγην.

736 D. From verbs in -νυ_μι second aorists middle are formed in Hom. by only three verbs: μείγνυ_μι (commonly written μί_γνυ_μι) mix ἔμικτο, ὄρνυ_μι rouse ὦρτο, πήγνυ_μι fix κατέπηκτο.

737. -νημι class. A few verbs add νη- in the singular, να- in the plural, to the verb-stem. These verbs are almost entirely poetical or dialectical; and show by-forms in -ναω. They are:

δάμνημι (δαμνάω) subdue, κίρνημι (κιρνάω also Epic) mix, κρίμνημι (miswritten κρήμνημι) suspend, πέρνημι sell, πίτνημι (πετνάω) spread, σκίδνημι (and κίδνημι) scatter.

a. Only in the middle: μάρναμαι fight, πίλναμαι (πιλνάω) approach. In δύναμαι am able, να has grown fast (cp. δυνατός).

738. Stem Gradation.—Verbs of the root class show in the stem vowel a variation between strong and weak grades in the present and imperfect indicative active. The singular has the strong grade, the dual and plural have the weak grade. The optative active and most middle forms have the weak grade.

a. η strong (original and Dor. α_), α weak; φημί φαμέν, ἔφην ἔφαμεν; ἵστημι ἵσταμεν, ἵ_στην ἵ_σταμεν; δάμνημι δάμναμεν.

b. η strong, ε weak: τίθημι τίθεμεν, ἐτίθην ἐτίθεμεν; ἵ_ημι ἵ_εμεν.

c. ω strong, ο weak: δίδωμι δίδομεν.

d. ει strong, ι weak (cp. λείπω ἔλιπον): εἶμι will go, ἴμεν. The grades ει, οι, ι appear in εἰδῶ, subjunctive of οἶδα know, pl. ἴσμεν for ἴδμεν (799).

739. In the second aorist ἔστην I stood the strong form has been carried from the singular through the dual and plural of the indicative. The strong stem occurs also in the imperative (στῆθι, στῆτε) and infinitive (στῆναι).

740. The second aorist infinitive shows the weak stem: θεῖναι from θέ-εναι, δοῦναι from δό-εναι. Cp. 469 N. δτῆναι is, however, from στή-εναι (469 c. N.).

741. A few root verbs retain the strong grade η throughout. Thus, poet. ἄημι blow ἄημεν; ἀέντες is from ἀηντες by 40; δίζημαι seek (poet. δίζεσθαι is from δίζομαι); πίμπλημι fill 2 aor. ἐνεπλήμην, opt. ἐμπλῄμην.

742. Verbs adding νυ show the strong form of the verb-stem in the present. ῥήγ-νυ_-μι break 2 aor. pass. ἐρράγην, μείγ-νυ_-μι (miswritten μί_γνυ_μι) mix 2 aor. pass. ἐμίγην, ζεύγ-νυ_-μι yoke 2 aor. pass. ἐζύγην.

743. The ending νυ varies between strong νυ_ and weak νυ^. Thus δείκνυ_μι δείκνυ^μεν, ἐδείκνυ_ν ἐδείκνυ^μεν.


INFLECTION OF MI-VERBS

744. Verbs in -μι differ in inflection from verbs in -ω in the present and second aorist systems and (rarely) in the second perfect system. Verbs in -μι have the following peculiarities of inflection:

a. The endings -μι and -σι (for original -τι) occur in the present indicative active: τίθη-μι, τίθη-σι; φη-μί φη-σί.

b. The 3 plural present indicative active has generally the ending -α_σι, from α-αντι, as τιθέα_σι, ἱστᾶσι. So in the 2 perf. active ἑστᾶσι.

c. The 3 plural of active past tenses has -σαν: ἐτίθε-σαν.

d. The imperative ending -θι is sometimes retained: φα-θί, στῆ-θι; some forms never had it: τίθει, ἵστη.

e. The middle endings -σαι and -σο regularly retain ς: τίθε-σαι, ἐτίθε-σο.

N.—But not in the subjunctive or optative; and usually not in the second aorist; as τιθῇ for τιθέη-σαι, τιθεῖο for τιθέ-ι_-σο, ἔθου for ἔθε-σο.

f. The infinitive active has -ναι: τιθέ-ναι, διδό-ναι; the 2 aorist active has -εναι rarely: θεῖναι for θέ-εναι, δοῦναι for δό-εναι.

g. Active participles with stems in -οντ- have the nominative sing. masc. in -ούς (301 a, 307 a): διδούς, διδό-ντ-ος.

745. Forms of -μι verbs which are inflected according to the thematic conjugation are included under the Second Conjugation.

746. μι-verbs may pass into the ω inflection elsewhere than in the subjunctive. a. Verbs in -νυ_μι often inflect the present and imperfect active (not the middle) from a present in -νύω; as δεικνύω (but usually δείκνυ_μι), δεικνύεις, δεικνύει, imperf. ἐδείκνυον, -ες, -ε, etc.,; imper. δείκνυε, inf. δεικνύειν, part. δεικνύων.

b. τίθημι, ἵστημι, δίδωμι, ἵ_ημι, etc., show some ω-forms in pres. (and imperf.) indic. opt. imper. and infin.; but the forms τιθέω, ἱστέω, διδόω, ἱ_έω, do not occur in the 1 sing.

c. In the present and second aorist optative of τίθημι and ἵ_ημι there is a transition to the ω-conjugation but not in the 1 and 2 singular. The accent is differently reported: (1) as if the presents were τιθέω, ἱ_έω; (2) as if the presents were τίθω, ἵ_ω. Thus:

Active: ἀφί_οιτε for ἀφι_εῖτε, ἀφί_οιεν for ἀφι_εῖεν.—Middle: τιθοῖτο, ἐπιθοίμεθα, συνθοῖτο, ἐπιθοῖντο (also accented τίθοιτο, ἐπίθοιντο); προοῖτο, προοῖσθε, προοῖντο (also accented πρόοιτο, πρόοιντο). Hdt. has -θέοιτο and -θεῖτο. The form in -οῖτο for -εῖτο occurs especially in Plato.

d. The Mss. vary between τιθῶμαι and τίθωμαι, ἀποθῶμαι and ἀπόθωμαι (426 f).

e. Some other μι-verbs show alternative ω-forms, as πιμπλάω, -εω (πίμπλημι), πιπράω (πίμπρημι), Hom. ἀγάομαι (ἄγαμαι), and ἱ_λάομαι (ἵ_λημι). So often with -νημι verbs (737), as δαμνᾷ and δάμνησι, ἐκίρνα_ and κιρνά_ς.

746 D. The tragic poets never have the ω-forms; the poets of the Old Comedy seldom; those of the New Comedy often have the ω-forms.—Plato usually has -νυα_σι. Hom. has ζεύγνυον (and ζεύγνυσαν, ὤρνυον, ὤμνυε, ὀμνυέτω, etc.). Hdt. usually keeps the μι-forms, but has some ω-forms in 2, 3 sing. 3 pl. present indic. and part., and 1 sing., 3 pl. imperfect. Doric usually has the ω-forms; Aeolic has ζεύγνυ_, and ὄμνυ_ν infin.

PRESENT AND IMPERFECT ACTIVE AND MIDDLE (PASSIVE)

747. Present Indicative.—a. The primary personal endings are added to the stem with the strong form in the singular and the weak form in the dual and plural.

b. In the 2 sing. τίθης, ἵ_ης, ἵστης, δείκνυ_ς, etc., ς has been added to the stem. This ς is obscure in origin, but cannot be derived from -σι. τιθει-ς is rare.

c. 3 sing. τίθησι, ἵστησι, etc., with -σι for -τι (463 c).

d. 3 plur. τιθέα_σι, ἱστᾶσι, etc., from τιθέ-αντι, ἱστά-αντι (463 d).

e. For the retention of ς in τίθε-σαι, etc., see 465 a, b, and N. 2.

f. δίδομαι in the middle present and imperfect is used only in composition, as ἀποδίδομαι. But the simple form occurs in the passive.

747 D. 1. Hom. has τίθησθα, τίθησι and τιθεῖ, τιθεῖσι; διδοῖς and διδοῖσθα, δίδωσι (usually) and διδοῖ, διδοῦσι, ῥηγνῦσι from ῥηγνυ-ντι, ἴα_σι they go and ἔα_σι they are. On ἵ_στασκε see 495. Mid. ἐμάρναο from μάρναμαι.

2. Hdt. has τιθεῖ τιθεῖσι; ἱστᾷ is doubtful; διδοῖς, διδοῖ, διδοῦσι, ἴα_σι ἔα_σι, -νῦσι and -νύουσι. Middle: -αται and -ατο (imperf.) for -νται, -ντο in τιθέαται ἐτιθέατο, ἱστέαται ἱ_στέατο, δυνέαται ἐδυνέατο. -αται, -ατο have been transferred from the perfect and pluperfect of consonant stems, such as γεγράφαται, ἐγεγράφατο (465 f).

3. Doric has ἵστα_μι, and α_ for η in all tenses (στά_σω, ἔστα_σα, ἔστα_ν); -τι in 3 sing. τίθητι; -ντι in 3 pl. τίθεντι, δίδοντι.

4. Aeolic has τίθης, τίθη, τίθεισι; ἴστα_ς, ἴστα_; δίδως, δίδω; δάμνα_ς.

748. Imperfect.—ἐτίθεις ἐτίθει, ἐδίδουν ἐδίδους ἐδίδου (for ἐδιδων, -ως, -ω) are thematic forms (746 b). For the imperfect of δύναμαι and ἐπίσταμαι see 465 b, N. 1. For the retention of ς in ἐτίθεσο see 465 b.

748 D. Hom. has ἐτίθει, ἐδίδους, ἐδίδου.—Hdt. has ὑπερετίθεα 1 sing., ἐδίδουν, ἐδίδου, ἵ_στα_ and ἀνί_στη (both in Mss.).—In poetry -ν occurs for -σαν as τίθεν, ἵ_στα^ν, δίδον (464 e. D.).

749. Subjunctive.—Attic τιθῶ, etc., are derived by contraction from the forms of the weak stem to which the thematic vowel ώη has been added. Thus τιθέω, -έῃς, -έῃ, τιθέωμεν, -έητε, -έωσι; διδόω, -όῃς, -όῃ, διδόωμεν, -όητε, -όωσι. ἱστῶ is derived from ἱστέω. See 746 b. Verbs in -νυ_μι regularly inflect the subjunctive like ω-verbs: δεικνύω, -ύῃς, -ύῃ.

a. Similarly the middle (passive) forms are derived from τιθέω-μαι τιθέη-ςαι, etc., διδόω-μαι διδόη-ςαι, ἱστέω-μαι ἱστέη-ςαι, etc. For the loss of ς in -σαι see 465 a. -νυ_μι verbs inflect the mid. subj. like λύ_ωμαι.

b. δύναμαι am able, ἐπίσταμαι understand, κρέμαμαι hang, and ἄγαμαι admire put ώη in place of the stem-vowel so that there is no contraction: δύνωμαι, δύνῃ, δύνηται, δυνώμεθα, etc. So, too, ἐπριάμην, πρίωμαι (757 a).

c. Traces of -υ_ται in -νυ_μι verbs are very rare: ῥήγνυ_ται Hipponax 19; cp. διασκεδάννυ_ται P. Ph. 77b.

749 D. Dor. has τιθέω, -έωμεν, but contracts ε + η to η; pl. διδῶντι (and τίθηντι). Dor. has δύνα_μαι, ἵστα_ται; Hdt. ἐνίστηται, ἐπιστέωνται, δυνέωνται.

750. Present Optative.—The optative active has the secondary endings and the mood sign -ιη- in the singular, -ι_- (-ιε- 3 pl.) in the dual and plural. In the dual and plural the longer (-ιη-) forms are rare. Thus τιθείην (τιθε-ίη-ν), τιθεῖμεν (τιθέ-ι_-μεν), ἱσταίην (ἱστα-ίη-ν) ἱσταῖεν (ι:στά-ιε-ν). The shorter forms in dual and plural occur in poetry and prose, the longer forms only in prose.

a. The middle (passive) has the secondary endings and the mood sign -ι_- throughout: τιθείμην (τιθε-ί_-μην), ἱσταίμην (ἱστα-ί_-μην), ἱσταίμεθα (ἱστα-ί_-μεθα), διδοῖντο (διδό-ι_-ντο). On τιθοῖτο, etc., see 746 c.

b. The accent follows 424 c, N. 1 (τιθεῖτο not τίθειτο). But the verbs of 749 b are exceptional: δύναιο δύναιτο; and so ὄναιο ὄναιτο from ὀνίνημι benefit (424 c, N. 2).

750 D. Hom. has the μι-forms δαινῦτο and δαινύ_ατο, Plato has πηγνῦτο.

751. Present Imperative.—τίθει and δίδου are formed (cp. ποίει and δήλου) from τίθε-ε, δίδο-ε. ἵστη and δείκνυ_ show the stronger stem forms.

For the middle endings and the retention of ς, see 466. 2. a.—On the forms τιθέτωσαν for τιθέντων, τιθέσθωσαν for τιθέσθων, see 466. 2. b.

751 D. Hom. has ἵστη and καθίστα_, δίδωθι, ἐμπίπληθι, ὄμνυθι, ὄρνυθι, ἵστασο and ἵσταο. τίθου, ἵστω occur in the drama. Pind. has δίδοι (active).

752. Present Infinitive.—The active adds -ναι, the middle -σθαι. δείκνυ_μι admits the form δεικνύειν.

752 D. Hom. has -μεναι or -ναι preceded by η in ἀήμεναι ἀῆναι from ἄημι blow, τιθήμεναι, κιχήμεναι and κιχῆναι as from κίχημι. Also ἱστάμεναι (and ἱστάμεν), ζευγνύμεναι (and ζευγνύμεν, once ζευγνῦμεν). -μεν after a short vowel, as τιθέμεν, διδόμεν (once διδοῦναι). Doric has τιθέμεν, διδόμεν. Theognis has τιθεῖν, συνιεῖν.

753. Present Participle.—The active adds -ντ-, the middle -μενος. Thus τιθείς (τιθε-ντ-ς), τιθεῖσα (τιθε-ντ-[ιγλιδε]α); τιθέ-μενος. For δεικνύ_ς we find δεικνύων.

753 D. Hom. has τιθήμενος K 34.

THE FUTURES

754. The futures of verbs in -μι do not differ in formation and inflection from those of verbs in -ω.

τίθημι: θήσω, θήσομαι, τεθήσομαι; ἵστημι: στήσω, στήσομαι, σταθήσομαι, ἑστήξω; ἵ_ημι: ἥσω, -ἤσομαι, -ἑθήσομαι; δίδωμι: δώσω, -δώσομαι, δοθήσομαι; δείκνυ_μι: δείξω, δείξομαι, δειχθήσομαι, δεδείξομαι (late) or δεδειγμένος ἔσομαι; μείγνυ_μι: μείξω, -μιχθήσομαι, μιγήσομαι (poet.), μεμείξομαι (poet.); πήγνυ_μι: πήξω, παγήσομαι.

a. ἑστήξω is the only future perfect from a μι-verb (584).

FIRST AORIST ACTIVE AND MIDDLE

755. The verbs τίθημι, ἵ_ημι, δίδωμι form the singular active of the first aorist in -κ-α, thus, ἔθηκα, ἔδωκα, ἧκα. The forms of the second aorist (756) are generally used in the dual and plural and in the other moods.

a. The form in κ rarely appears outside of the singular, chiefly in the 3 pl., as ἔδωκαν ( = ἔδοσαν), less frequently in the 1 and 2 pl., as ἐδώκαμεν, -ατε.

b. That κ was not a suffix but a part of an alternative root appears from a comparison of θηκ- in ἔθηκα and perf. τέθηκα with fēc- in fēci.

c. ἵστημι has ἔστησα I set, placed (mid. ἐστησάμην), to be distinguished from 2 aor. ἔστην I stood.

d. ἐθηκάμην is un-Attic; ἡκάμην (in comp.) is rare and probably found only in the indic.; ἐδωκάμην is very late.

755 D. Hom. has ἔθηκαν, ἔδωκαν, ἐνήκαμεν, θήκατο; Hdt. συνθήκαντο; Pind. θηκάμενος.

SECOND AORIST ACTIVE AND MIDDLE

756. Indicative.—τίθημι, ἵ_ημι, δίδωμι use the short grade forms in dual and plural active: ἔ-θε-τον, ἔ-θε-μεν, ἔθε-σαν; εἷ-τον, εἷ-μεν, εἷ-σαν (for ἐ-ἑ-τον, etc.); ἔ-δο-μεν, ἔ-δο-σαν. In the singular the κ-forms, ἔθηκα, ἧκα, ἔδωκα, are used. ἵστημι has ἔστην, ἔστης, ἔστη (for ἐστητ, 464 c), ἔστημεν, etc. (p. 138).

a. σβέννυ_μι extinguish is the only verb in -νυ_μι forming a second aorist (ἔσβην, σβῶ, σβείην, σβῆθι, σβῆναι, σβείς).

b. The middle uses the weak stems -θε-, -ἑ-, -δο- in ἑ-θί-μην, -εἵμην (for ἐ-ἑ-μην), ἐ-δό-μην (only in composition). For the loss of ς in -σο (ἔθου, ἔδου) see 465 b.

c. In prose the only uncompounded second aorists middle are ἐπριάμην bought (pres. ὠνέομαι) and ὠνήμην derived benefit (ὀνίνημι). ὠνήμην keeps η (poet. ὄνησο, ὀνήμενος). ἵστημι does not make the form ἐσταμην.

756 D. Hom. has older -ν for -σαν in ἔστα^ν (he uses ἔστησαν also), Dor. has ἔθεν, ἔστα^ν, ἔδον. For the iterative στά-σκε, δό-σκον see 495.

c. D. In poetry: ἐπτάμην (prose -ἐπτόμην) from πέταμαι fly; Hom. πλῆτο approached, ἔβλητο was hit (others, 688).

757. Second Aorist Subjunctive.—All the forms of the 2 aor. subj. are due to contraction of the thematic vowel with the weak stem-vowel. Thus θῶ, etc., from θέω, θέῃς, θέῃ, θέωμεν, etc.; , etc., from ἕω, ἕῃς, ἕωσι; δῶ, etc., from δόω, δόῃς, δόῃ; στῶ, etc., from στέω, στέῃς, etc., with ε from η before a vowel. Cp. 682.

a. ἐπριάμην has πρίωμαι with ώη in place of the final vowel of the stem (749 b).

757 D. The subjunctive shows traces of an earlier double form of inflection:

1. With short thematic vowel: θήεις, θήει, θήετον, θήομεν, θήετε, θήουσι. Homer: θήομεν, στήομεν, -στήετον, κιχήομεν, δώομεν, ἀποθήομαι.

2. With long thematic vowel: θήω, θήῃς, θήῃ, θήητον, θήωμεν, θήητε, θήωσι. Hom. θήω, θήῃς, θήῃ, στήῃς, στήῃ, ἀνήῃ, δώῃ or δώῃσι, περιστήωσι, δώωσι.

By shortening of the long vowel of the stem we obtain a third form:

3. θέω, θέῃς, θέῃ, θέητον, θέωμεν, θέητε, θέωσι. Hom. ἀφέῃ, θέωμεν, στέωμεν, Hdt. θέω, θέωμεν, θέωσι, θέωμαι, στέωμεν, ἀποστέωσι, Aeolic θέω.

4. From 3 are derived the contracted forms θῶ, θῇς, θῇ, etc. Hom. ἀναστῇ, δῷς, δῷ or δῷσι, δῶμεν; Dor. δῶντι; Hdt. -θῇ, -θῆται; δῶμεν, -δῶτε, δῶσι.

N.—In Hom. the Mss. often have ει for η of the stem, as θείω, βείω, θείομεν, κιχείομεν.

758. Second Aorist Optative.—The forms of the optative of the second aorist are made and inflected like those of the present except for the reduplication. Thus, in the active: θείην (θε-ίη-ν), σταίην (στα-ίη-ν), δοῖμεν (δό-ι_-μεν), δοῖεν (δό-ιε-ν). The shorter forms are preferred in the dual and plural, and poetry has only these; prose admits either the longer or the shorter forms.

a. In the 2 pl. cases of -ιη-τε (δοίητε) are more numerous than -ι-τε; but they usually lack metrical warrant.

b. Second aorists of stems in υ lack the optative in Attic.

c. In the middle: θείμην (θε-ί_-μην), δοίμην (δο-ί_-μην), -εἵμην (ἑ-ί_-μην). For θοίμεθα see 746 c. For the accent of πρίαιο see 424 c, N. 2.

758 D. Hom. has σταίησαν P 733, the only case of -ιη- outside of the singular; δύ_η (for δυ-ίη), ἐκδῦμεν (for -δύ-ι_-μεν), and φθῖτο (for φθί-ι_-το) from φθί_νω perish.

759. Second Aorist Imperative.—On θέ-ς, δό-ς, ἕ-ς, see 466. 1. b. These verbs show the weak form of the stem (θέ-τω, θέ-ντων). ἵστημι and σβέννυ_μι have -θι in στῆ-θι, σβῆ-θι. For στῆ-θι the poets may use -στα_ in composition, as ἀπόστα_ stand off.

a. The middle adds -σο, which loses its ς after a short vowel, as in θοῦ for θέ-σο, δοῦ for δό-σο, πρίω (and poet. πρία-σο). ς is not dropped after a long vowel (ὄνησο). Cp. 465 b, N. 2.

b. In composition περίθες, ἀπόδος, παράστηθι, ἐνθοῦ, προδοῦ; but κατάθου, περιδου, περίδοσθε (426 b-c).

c. For the 3 pl. θέτωσαν, δότωσαν, ἕσθωσαν, see 466. 2. b.

759 D. Hom. has θέο and ἔνθεο.

760. Second Aorist Infinitive.—The active adds -εναι in θεῖναι (θέ-εναι), στῆναι (στή-εναι), δοῦναι (δό-εναι), εἷναι (ἕ-εναι). The middle adds -σθαι, as θέ-σθαι.

760 D. Hom. has θέμεναι, θέμεν; στήμεναι; δόμεναι, δόμεν; and θεῖναι, στῆναι, δοῦναι. Dor. has θέμεν, δόμεν, στᾶμεν.

761. Second Aorist Participle.—The active adds -ντ- like the present: θείς (θε-ντ-ς), θεῖσα (θε-ντ-[ιγλιδε]α), θέν (θε-ντ); στά_ς (στα-ντ-ς), στᾶσα (στα-ντ-[ιγλιδε]α), στάν (στα-ντ). The middle adds -μενος, as θέ-μενος.

FIRST AND SECOND PERFECT (AND PLUPERFECT) ACTIVE

762. Indicative.—The perfect of τίθημι is τέθηκα. A later form τέθεικα, not found on Attic inscriptions till after 200 B.C. and due to the analogy of εἷκα, still appears in some texts. τέθεκα is Doric. For καθέστακα Attic used καταστήσα_ς ἔχω (cp. 599 b).

a. The dual and plural of the second perfect and pluperfect of ἵστημι (417) are formed without κ: ἕστατον, ἕσταμεν (without augment in the pluperf.), ἑστᾶσι from ἑ-στα-αντι, pluperf. ἕστα-σαν. The singular is supplied by the 1 perf. ἕστηκα I stand.

763. Subjunctive.—ἑστήκω and ἑστῶ appear in prose and poetry, ἑστηκὼς in prose.

764. Optative.—ἑστήκοιμι occurs in comp. in prose, ἀφεστῶτες εἶεν in Plato, τεθηκὼς εἴης and δεδωκότες εἶεν in Demosthenes. ἑσταίην is poetical.

765. Imperative.—ἕσταθι is poetical.

766. Infinitive and Participle.—ἑστάναι and ἑστώς are much more common than ἑστηκέναι and ἑστηκώς.

766 D. Hom. has ἑστάμεναι and ἑστάμεν, ἑσταώς, -αότος. Hdt. has ἑστεώς, -εῶτος. Doric has -εῖα for -υῖα (ἑστα_κεῖα).

PERFECT MIDDLE (PASSIVE)

767. τέθειμαι even in composition is rare and is unknown on Attic inscriptions. For the pass. perf. κεῖμαι (791) was used. Doric has τέθεμαι.

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