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800. Some verbs in the present appear in classical Greek in the active voice only, as βαίνω go, ἕρπω creep, τρέω tremble; others in the middle only, as ἅλλομαι leap, βούλομαι wish, κάθημαι sit, κεῖμαι lie.

801. Outside of the present some active verbs show middle forms especially in the future, as βήσομαι shall go, ἀκούσομαι shall hear (805); and some verbs exclusively or chiefly deponent show active forms especially in the perfect, as γίγνομαι become γέγονα, μαίνομαι rage μέμηνα, δέρκομαι poet., 2 aor. ἔδρακον, perf. δ<*>δορκα.

802. For the passive voice the middle forms sufficed in most cases; many middle futures are still used passively (807, as ἀδικήσο- μαι shall be wronged; and traces of the passive use of the aorist middle appear in Hom., as ἔβλητο was hit. This use was largely abandoned when -ην and -θην came to be used as special marks of the passive. Originally neither -ην nor -θην was passive in meaning.

802 D. Hom. has ἐκτάμην was killed, ἐσχόμην was stayed. Cp. also ᾐδεσάμην and αἴδεσθεν (αἰδέομαι respect), ὀἱ_σατο and ὠίσθην (οἴομαι think), ἐχολωσάμην and ἐχολώθην (χολόω enrage).

803. The second aorist in -ην is primarily intransitive and shows active inflection (as ἔστην stood). Many so-called passive forms are in fact merely intransitive aorists of active verbs, as ἐρρύην from ῥέω flow, κατεκλίνην from κατακλί_νω lie down, and do not differ in meaning from the aorists of deponent verbs, as ἐμάνην from μαίνομαι rage.

804. The aorists in -θην that are called passive are often active or middle in meaning, as ἥσθην took pleasure in from ἥδομαι, ᾐσχύνθην felt ashamed from αἰσχύ_νω disgrace, αἰσχύ_νομαι am ashamed; ὠργίσθην became angry from ὀργίζω anger.

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