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857. Adjectives are formed by the same suffixes as are used in substantives, the same formation producing in one case a substantive, in another an adjective. Many words formed with certain suffixes (ιο, μο, νο, ρο, το) are used as adjectives or as abstract substantives (usually feminine or neuter). Thus φιλία_ friendly or friendship; so στέφ-ανο-ς crown (στέφ-ω encircle) was originally an adjective. Many suffixes have no characteristic signification.

Adjectives are either primitive (from roots or verb-stems) or denominative (from substantives or other adjectives). But this distinction is often obliterated and difficult to determine.

858. The following are the chief adjectival suffixes:

1. ο, α_ (nom. -ο-ς, -η or -α_, -ο-ν): primary: λοιπ-ό-ς remaining (λείπ-ω leave, λιπ-, λειπ-, λοιπ-), λευκ-ό-ς bright (λεύσσω shine, λευκ-ῖω).

2. ιο, ια_: a common suffix expressing that which pertains or belongs in any way to a person or thing. By union with a preceding stem vowel we have αιο, ειο, οιο, ῳο, υιο.

Primary (rare): ἅγ-ιο-ς sacred (ἅγος expiation); with a comparative force: ἄλλος other (ἀλ-ῖο-ς alius), μέσος middle (μεθ-ῖο-ς medius, 113).

Secondary in τί_μ-ιο-ς worthy, costly (τι_μή honour); φίλ-ιο-ς friendly (φίλο-ς dear); ὄρθ-ιο-ς steep (ὀρθό-ς straight); πλούσ-ιο-ς rich (πλοῦτο-ς riches, 115); δίκα-ιο-ς just (δίκ-η right, 834 b); οἰκε-ῖο-ς domestic (οἶκο-ς house, 834 f); πάτρ-ιο-ς hereditary (πατήρ father, πατρ-, 262); βασίλειο-ς royal (βασιλεύ-ς king); θέρε-ιο-ς of summer (θέρος, stem θερεσ-); αἰδο-ῖο-ς venerable (αἰδώς shame, stem αἰδοσ-, 266); ἡρῷος heroic (ἥρως hero, ἡρωϝ-, 267); πήχυ-ιο-ς a cubit long (πῆχυ-ς, 268). The feminines are often abstract substantives, as φιλ-ία_ friendship.

a. The ending -αῖος has been transferred from α_ stems, as in χερσ-αῖο-ς of or from dry land (χέρσ-ος). The form ι-αῖος occurs: δραχμ-ιαῖο-ς worth a drachma (δραχμή). -εῖος has become independent in ἀνδρ-εῖος manly (ἀνήρ). On gentiles in -ιος, see 844. 3.

b. Ionic η-ϊο (nom. -ηϊος), properly from stems in ευ (ηυ), as Hom. χαλκή-ϊο-ς brazen (pertaining to a χαλκεύ-ς brazier; Attic χάλκεος, -οῦς, see 858. 4), βασιλή-ϊο-ς royal; and transferred in Ionic to other stems, as in πολεμήϊο-ς warlike, ἀνθρωπ-ήϊο-ς human (Attic ἀνθρώπειο-ς), ἀνδρ-ήϊο-ς manly.

3. εντ for ϝεντ (nom. -εις) forms denominative adjectives denoting fulness or abundance (mostly poetic).

τι_μή-εις (τι_μῆς) honoured, and by analogy δενδρ-ήεις woody (δένδρο-ν tree); χαρί-εις graceful (χάρι-ς), δολό-εις wily (δόλο-ς), and by analogy αἱματ-ό-εις bloody (αἷμα, -ατ-ος blood, 834 j), ἰχθυ-ό-εις full of fish, κρυ-ό-εις chilling (κρύ-ος chill). Also in εὐρώ-εις mouldy (εὐρώς, -ῶτος).

4. εο (nom. -εο-ς, -οῦς, 290) forms denominative adjectives denoting material: χρύ_σεος, χρυ_σοῦς golden (χρυ_σό-ς gold).

a. εο is derived from ε-ῖο, seen in χρύ_σειος (poetic). Here ε is part of the stem (834 f). On -ηϊος see 858. 2 b.

5. ες (nom. -ής, -ές): primitive: ψευδ-ής false (ψεύδ-ω deceive), σαφ-ής clear, πρην-ής prone, ὑγι-ής healthy. Very common in compounds, as ἀ-σφαλ-ής unharmed, secure (ἀ-priv. + σφαλ- in σφάλλω trip).

6. κο, ακο, ικο (nom. -κος, very common, cp. 864. 1): many denominatives formed by these suffixes denote relation, many others fitness or ability.

a. Denominatives: μαντι-κό-ς prophetic (μάντι-ς prophet); φυσι-κό-ς natural (φύσι-ς nature); θηλυ-κό-ς feminine (θῆλυ-ς female); Δα_ρει-κό-ς Daric (Δα_ρεῖο-ς Darius).

b. From φυσι-κό ς, etc., ικο was taken as an independent suffix in μουσ-ικό-ς musical (μοῦσα muse); βαρβαρ-ικό-ς barbaric (βάρβαρο-ς barbarian, foreigner); διδασκαλ-ικό-ς able to teach (διδάσκαλο-ς teacher); μαθηματικό-ς fond of learning (μάθημα, -ματος thing learnt); Κεραμε-ικό-ς Potters' quarter, Ceramīcus (κεραμεύ-ς potter); βασιλ-ικό-ς royal (βασιλεύ-ς king); ἡρω-ϊκό-ς heroic, from ἥρωϝ), -ος hero; Ἀχαι-ικό-ς or Ἀχα_-ικό-ς (38) Achaean (Ἀχαιό-ς Achaean).

N.—ἀρχ-ικό-ς able to rule (ἀρχ-ή), γραφ-ικό-ς able to write or draw (γραφ-ή), need not be derived directly from the root.

c. Κορινθι-ακό-ς Corinthian (Κορίνθ-ιο-ς Corinthian); σπονδει-ακό-ς consisting of spondees (σπονδ-εῖο-ς spondee).

d. τ-ικό represents ικό added to the verbal in τό- (cp. also μαθηματ-ικό-ς). Thus, λεκ-τικό-ς suited to speaking (λέγ-ω speak); αἰσθη-τικό-ς capable of feeling (αἰσθ-άνομαι feel); ἀριθμη-τικό-ς skilled in numbering (ἀριθμέω to number); πρα_κ-τικό-ς practical, able to do (πρά_ττω do); σκεπτικό-ς reflective (σκέπ-τ-ομαι look carefully, consider). Added to a noun-stem: ναυ-τικό-ς nautical (ναῦ-ς ship).

7. λο (nom. -λο-ς): primary (usually active) and secondary. Cp. 860. 1. Primary in δει-λό-ς cowardly (δέδοι-κα fear, δι-, δει-, δοι-); στρεβ-λό-ς twisted (στρέφ-ω turn); τυφ-λό-ς blind (τύ_φ-ω raise a smoke); κοῖλος hollow ( = κοϝ-ιλο-ς, Lat. cav-us); τροχ-αλό-ς running (τρέχ-ω run); εἴκ-ελο-ς like (ἔοικα am like, εἰκ-); καμπ-ύλο-ς bent (κάμπ-τ-ω bend); φειδ-ωλό-ς sparing (φείδ-ομαι spare). ἀπατ-η-λός deceitful (ἀπάτη deceit, ἀπατά-ω deceive) may be a primitive or a denominative. Cp. 860. 1.

α-λεο denoting quality in ἁρπ-αλέο-ς attractive, ravishing (ἁρπάζω seize), θαρσ-αλέο-ς bold (θάρσ-ος boldness).

8. μο (nom. -μο-ς, 861. 1): primary: θερ-μό-ς warm (θέρ-ω warm); secondary in ἕβδ-ο-μο-ς seventh.

9. ι-μο, σ-ιμο (nom. -ιμο-ς, -σιμο-ς): often denoting able to or fit to. Adjectives in ιμο are primitive or denominative, and are derived from ι-stems; those in -σιμο are denominative and come mostly from stems in σι ¨ μο (as χρή-σι-μο-ς useful, from χρῆ-σι-ς use); but σιμο has thence been abstracted as an independent suffix.

δόκ-ιμο-ς approved (δοκ-έ-ω seem good); μάχ-ιμο-ς warlike (μάχη battle); νόμ-ιμο-ς conformable to law (νόμο-ς); ἐͅδ-ώδ-ιμο-ς eatable (ἐδ-ωδ-ή food, poet. ἔδ-ω eat); καύσι-μο-ς combustible (κά_ω burn, καῦ-σι-ς burn- ing); λύσι-μο-ς able to loose (λύ-σι-ς loosing); ἱππά-σιμο-ς fit for riding (ἱππάζομαι ride); ἁλώ-σιμο-ς easy to take (ἁλίσκομαι, ἑά_λων).

10. μον (nom. -μων, -μον): primary in μνή-μων mindful (μι-μνῄ-σκομαι remember), τλή-μων enduring, wretched (ἔ-τλη-ν endured). Cp. 861. 8.

11. νο (nom. -νο-ς, 861. 11): primary (usually passive) and secondary (829 a). Sometimes denoting that which may, can, or must be done.

Primary in δει-νό-ς fearful (δέ-δοι-κα fear, δι-, δει-, δοι-); σεμ-νό-ς to be revered (σέβ-ομαι revere); πιθ-ανό-ς persuasive (πείθ-ω persuade, πιθ-, πειθ-, ποιθ-); πίσ-υνο-ς trusting (πείθ-ω). Secondary in σκοτει-νό-ς dark ( = σκοτεσ-νο-ς from σκότ-ος darkness).

12. ινο (nom. -ινο-ς, 861. 11): forms denominative adjectives of material, as λίθ-ινο-ς of stone (λίθο-ς), ξύλ-ινο-ς wooden (ξύλο-ν); to denote time, and derived from such forms as ἐαρι-νό-ς vernal (ἔαρ spring), as in ἡμερ-ινό-ς by day (ἡμέρα_), χθεσ-ινό-ς of yesterday (χθές); other uses: ἀνθρώπ-ινο-ς human (ἄνθρωπο-ς man), ἀληθ-ινό-ς genuine (ἀληθής true).

ινεο in λα-ΐνεο-ς λά-ϊνο-ς stony (λᾶς stone). On -ηνος, -ι_νος in gentiles, see 844. 3.

13. ρο, ρα_ (nom. -ρό-ς, -ρά_): primary, and secondary. Primary, in ἐχθ-ρό-ς hated, hostile (ἔχθ-ω hate), λαμπ-ρό-ς shining (λάμπ-ω shine), χαλα-ρό-ς slack (χαλά-ω slacken). Secondary, in φοβε-ρό-ς fearful (φόβο-ς fear, φοβόε-, 834 f), κρατ-ερό-ς mighty (κράτ-ος might); primary or secondary in ἀνια_-ρό-ς grievous (ἀνία_ grief, ἀνιά-ω grieve). See 860. 3.

14. τηρ-ιο (nom. -τήριο-ς): in denominatives, derived from substantives in -τηρ (or -της) by the suffix ιο; but the substantive is not always found.

σω-τήρ-ιο-ς preserving (σω-τήρ saviour), whence the abstract σωτηρία_ (858. 2) safety; θελκ-τήρ-ιο-ς enchanting (θελκ-τήρ charmer, θέλγ-ω enchant), whence θελκτήριον (842. 4), λυ-τήρ-ιο-ς delivering (λυ-τήρ), ὁρμητήριον starting-place (ὁρμάω, ὁρμῶμαι start).

15. υ (nom. -ύ-ς, -εῖα, -ύ): primitives are ἡδύ-ς sweet (ἥδ-ομαι am pleased), ταχ-ύ-ς swift (τάχ-ος swiftness), βαθ-ύ-ς deep (βάθ-ος depth). Cp. 859. 8.

16. ωδες (nom. -ώδης, -ῶδες): in primitives (rare), as πρεπ-ώδης proper (πρέπ-ω beseem); usually in denominatives denoting fulness or similarity: ποι-ώδης grassy (ποία_), αἱματ-ώδης looking like blood (αἷμα). See 833 a.

17. Suffixes of Degree: ι_ον and ιστο (318) usually form primitives; τερο and τατο (313 ff.), denominatives. τερο occurs also in πό-τερο-ς which of two? πρό-τερο-ς earlier, ὕσ-τερο-ς later, ἑκά-τερο-ς each. On the suffix τερο apparently without comparative force, see 1066, 1082 b. ἔν-τερο-ν is substantivized (bowel); from ἐν in.

18. Suffixes of Participles and Verbal Adjectives (primary): active ντ, οτ, 301 a, c; middle and passive μενο. Verbal adjectives denoting completion (usually passive) το; possibility and necessity το, τεο (471-473).

On the formation of ADVERBS, see 341 ff.

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