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869. A compound word is formed by the union of two or more parts; as λογο-γράφο-ς speech-writer, δι-έξ-οδο-ς outlet (lit. way out through).

a. Compounds of three or more parts usually fall into two separate units; as βατραχο-μυ_ο-μαχία_ battle of the frogs-and-mice. Such compounds are common in comedy; as στρεψο-δικο-παν-ουργία_ rascally perversion of justice.

b. In a compound word two or more members are united under one accent; as in bláckberry contrasted with black berry. Most compounds in Greek, an inflected language, are genuine compounds, not mere word-groups such as are common in English, which is for the most part devoid of inflections.

c. Every compound contains a defining part and a defined part. The defining part usually precedes: εὐ-τυχής fortunate, as opposed to δυσ-τυχής unfortunate. The parts of a compound stand in various syntactical relations to each other, as that of adjective or attributive genitive to a substantive, or that of adverb or object to a verb, etc. Compounds may thus be regarded as abbreviated forms of syntax. Cp. 895 a, 897 N. 1.


870. The first part of a compound may be a noun-stem, a verbstem, a numeral, a preposition or adverb, or an inseparable prefix.

a. The use of stems in composition is a survival of a period in the history of language in which inflections were not fully developed.


871. First Declension (α_-stems).—The first part may

a. end in α_ or η (rarely): ἀγορα_-νόμο-ς clerk of the market (ἀγορά_), νι_κη-φόρο-ς bringing victory (νί_κη).

b. end in ο: δικο-γράφο-ς writer of law-speeches (δίκη justice). Here ο is substituted for α_ of the stem by analogy to ο-stems.

N.—Compounds of γῆ earth have γεω- (for γηο- by 34); as γεω-μέτρης surveyor (land-measurer; μετρέω measure). Doric has γα_-μέτρης. Cp. 224 a.

c. lose its vowel before a vowel: κεφαλ-αλγής causing head-ache (κεφαλή head, ἄλγ-ος pain).

872. Second Declension (ο-stems).—The first part may

a. end in ο: λογο-γράφο-ς speech-writer.

b. end in α_ or η (rarely): ἐλαφη-βόλο-ς deer-shooting (ἔλαφος, βάλλω). Here η is due to the analogy of α_-stems.

c. lose ο before a vowel: μόν-αρχο-ς monarch (sole ruler: μόνο-ς alone, ἄρχ-ω rule).

N.—Words of the ‘Attic’ declension may end in ω, as νεω-κόρο-ς custodian of a temple (νεώς).

873. Third Declension (consonant stems).—The first part may

a. show the stem (ι, υ, αυ, ου): μαντι-πόλο-ς inspired (μάντι-ς seer, πέλ-ω, cp. -κολος), ἰχθυ-βόλο-ς catching-fish (ἰχθύ_ς, βάλλω), βου-κόλο-ς ox-herd (βοῦ-ς, -κολο-ς, cp. Lat. colo, and 131).

N.—A few consonant stems retain the consonant: μελάγ-χολος dipped in black bile (μέλα_ς, χολή). See also 876.

b. add ο to the stem: σωματ-ο-φύλαξ body-guard (σῶμα body, φυλάττω guard), μητρ-ό-πολις mother-city, metropolis (μήτηρ, πόλις), φυσι-ο-λόγος natural philosopher (φύσι-ς nature), ἰχθυ-ο-πώλης fishmonger (ἰχθύ_ς, πωλέω sell).

c. add α^ (rarely η): ποδ-ά-νιπτρο-ν water for washing the feet (ποῦς, νίπτω), λαμπαδ-η-δρομία_ torch-race.

874. Compounds of πᾶς all usually show πα^ν-, as πάν-σοφο-ς (and πάσ-σοφος 101 b) all-wise, παρ-ρησία_ frankness (‘all-speaking’); but also παντ- in πάνταρχος all-ruling; and παντ-ο- in παντ-ο-πώλιο-ν bazaar (πωλέω sell).

875. Neuter stems in ματ usually show ματ-ο, as ἀγαλματ-ο-ποιό-ς sculptor (ἄγαλμα statue, ποιέω make). Some have μα, as ὀνομα-κλυτό-ς of famous name; some show μο for ματο, as αἱμο-ρραγία_ hemorrhage (αἷμα, -ατος blood, ῥήγνυ_μι break, 80).

876. Stems in ες (nom. -ης or -ος) usually drop ες and add ο; as ψευδ-ο μαρτυρία_ false testimony (ψευδ-ής); and so stems in ας, as κρεο-φάγο-ς flesh-eating (κρέας, φαγεῖν 529. 5). Some stems in ες and ας retain ες and ας (in poetry), as σακεσ-πάλο-ς wielding a shield (σάκος, πάλλω), σελασ-φόρο-ς light-bringing (σέλας, φέρω); some add ι (for sake of the metre), as ὀρεσ-ί-τροφος mountain-bred (ὄρος, τρέφω); these may belong to 879.

877. Other abbreviations: γαλα-θηνό-ς nurse (γαλακτ- milk, θῆ-σθαι give suck), μελι-ηδής honey-sweet (μελιτ-), κελαι-νεφής black with clouds from κελαινό-ς black (cp. 129 c) and νέφος cloud.

878. Words once beginning with Ϝ or ς.—When the second part consists of a word beginning with digamma, a preceding vowel is often not elided: κακο-εργός (Epic) doing ill (later κακοῦργος) from ϝέργο-ν work; μηνο-ειδής crescent-shaped (μήνη moon, ϝεῖδος shape); τι_μά_-ορος (later τι_μωρός) avenging (τι_μή honour, ϝοράω observe, defend).—Compounds of -οχος, from ἔχω have (orig. σέχω, -σοχος) contract: κληροῦχος holding an allotment of land (κλῆρο-ς lot), πολι-οῦχος protecting a city (for πολι-ο-οχος).

879. Flectional Compounds.—A compound whose first part is a case form, not a stem, is called a flectional compound (cp. sportsman, kinsfolk): (1) nominative: τρεισ-καί-δεκα thirteen; (2) genitive: Διόσ-κουροι Dioscuri (sons of Zeus), Ἑλλήσ-ποντος Helle's sea, Πελοπόν-νησος (for Πελοποσ-νησος, 105 a) Pelops' island; (3) dative: δορί-ληπτος won by the spear; (4) locative: ὁδοι-πόρος wayfarer, Πυλοι-γενής born in Pylus.—From such compounds derivatives may be formed, as Ἑλλησπόντιος of the Hellespont, θεοισεχθρία_ hatred of the gods.


880. Some compounds have as their first part a verb-stem (cp. break-water, pick-pocket, catch-penny). Such compounds are usually poetic adjectives. The verb-stem is usually transitive and has the form that appears in the present or aorist.

881. Before a vowel the verb-stem remains unchanged or drops a final vowel; before a consonant it adds ε, ο, or ι: φέρ-ασπις shield-bearing, μι_σ-άνθρωπος man-hating (μι_σέ-ω), ἐκ-ε-χειρία_ (125 d) holding of hands, truce, λιπ-ο-στρατία_ desertion of the army, νι_κ-ό-βουλος prevailing in the Senate, ἀρχ-ι-τέκτων masterbuilder.

882. The verb-stem adds σι (before a vowel, ς). Some insert ε before σι (ς): σω-σί-πολις saving the state (σῴζω), ῥί_ψ-ασπις craven, lit. throwing away a shield (ῥί_π-τ-ω), δηξί-θυ_μος (and δακ-έ-θυ_μος) heart-eating (δάκ-ν-ω), ἑλκ-ε-σίπεπλος with long train, lit. trailing the robe (cp. ἑλκ-ε-χίτων)

a. This ε is the vowel added in many verb-stems (485).


883. The first part of a compound is often a numeral: δί-πους biped, τρί-πους tripod (having three feet), τέθρ-ιππον four-horse chariot, πέντ-α_θλον contest in five events.


884. A preposition or adverb is often the first part of a compound: εἴσ-οδος entrance, ἀπο-φεύγω flee from, εὐ-τυχής happy, ἀείμνηστος ever to be remembered.

a. Except when the substantive is treated as a verbal (as in εἴσ-οδος entrance, cp. εἰσ-ιέναι enter), prepositions are rarely compounded with substantives. Thus, σύν-δουλος fellow-slave, ὑπο-διδάσκαλος (= ὑπό τινι δ.) under-teacher; also ὑπό-λευκος whitish.

b. The ordinary euphonic changes occur. Observe that πρό before may contract with ο or ε to ου: προέχω or προὔχω hold before (cp. 449 b). See 124 a.

c. η sometimes is inserted after a preposition or takes the place of a final vowel: ὑπερ-ή-φανος conspicuous, ἐπ-ή-βολος having achieved.

d. Akin to adverbial compounds are some in φιλ-ο, as φιλο-μαθής one who gladly learns.


885. Several prefixes occur only in composition:

1. α᾽ν)- (ἀν- before a vowel, ἀ- before a consonant; alpha privative) with a negative force like Lat. in-, Eng. un- (or -less): ἀν-άξιος unworthy (= οὐκ ἄξιος), ἀν-όμοιος unlike, ἀν-ώδυνος anodyne (ὀδύνη pain, cp. 887), ἄ-νους silly, ἄ-τι_μος unhonoured, ἄ-θεος godless, γάμος ἄγαμος marriage that is no marriage. ἀ- is also found before words once beginning with digamma or sigma: ἀ-ηδής unpleasant (ϝηδύς), ἀ-όρα_τος unseen (ϝοράω), ἄ-οπλος without shields (σοπλον), and, by contraction with the following vowel, ἄ_κων (ἀ-ϝέκων unwilling). But ἀν- often appears: ἀν-έλπιστος (and ἄ-ελπτος) unhoped for (ϝελπίς), ἄν-οπλος without shield.

a. ἀ-, ἀν- (for , 35 b) represent weak forms of I. E. ne ‘not.’

2. ἡμι- half (Lat. sēmi-): ἡμι-κύκλιος semi-circular (κύκλος), ἡμι-όλιος half as much again (ὅλος whole), ἡμι-θνής half-dead.

3. δυσ- (opposed to εὖ well) ill, un-, mis-, denoting something difficult, bad, or unfortunate, as δυσ-τυχής unfortunate, δυσ-χερής hard to manage, δυσδαίμων of ill fortune (contrast εὐ-τυχής, εὐ-χερής, εὐ-δαίμων), δυσ-άρεστος ill-pleased, Δύσ-παρις ill-starred Paris.

4. ἀ- (or ἁ-) copulative denotes union, likeness (cp. Lat. con-); ἀ-κόλουθος attendant, agreeing with (κέλευθος path: i.e. going on the same road), ἀ-τάλαντος of the same weight, ἅ-πα_ς all together. A variation of ἀ-copulative is ἀ- intensive: ἀ-τενής stretched (τείνω stretch), ἄ-πεδος level (πέδον ground).

a. ἀ- copulative stands for σα- (from ς 20, 35 c), and is connected with ἅμα, ὁμοῦ, and ὁμο- together.

5. νη- (poetic) with the force of a negative (cp. Lat. ): νή-ποινος unavenged (ποινή punishment), νη-πενθής freeing from pain and sorrow (πένθος). In some cases νη- may be derived from ν (not) and the η of the second part, as ν-ῆστις not eating (poetic ἔδ-ω, cp. 887).

6. ἀρι-, ἐρι- (poetic) with intensive force (cp. ἄρι-στος best), ἀρι-πρεπής very distinguished (πρέπω), ἐρί-τι_μος precious.

7. ἀγα- (poetic) intensive (cp. ἄγαν very): ἀγά-στονος loud wailing (στένω groan).

8. ζα-, δα- (poetic) intensive (for δ[ιγλιδε]α δια- very, 116): ζα-μενής very courageous (μένος courage), δά-σκιος thick-shaded (σκιά_).


886. Compound Substantives and Adjectives.—The last part of a noun-compound consists of a noun-stem or of a verb-stem with a noun-suffix.

887. Nouns beginning with α^, ε, ο lengthen these vowels (α^ and ε to η, ο to ω) unless they are long by position. στρατ-ηγός army-leading, general (στρατός, ἄγω), εὐ-ήνεμος with fair wind (εὖ well, ἄνεμος), ξεν-ηλασία_ driving out of foreigners (ξένος, ἐλαύνω), ἀν-ώνυμος nameless (ἀν-, ὄνομα), ἀν-ώμαλος uneven (ἀν-, ὁμαλός).

a. Some compounds of ἄγω lead show α_: λοχ-α_γός captain (λόχος company).

b. By analogy to the compound the simple form sometimes assumes a long vowel: ἠνεμόεσσα windy. Cp. 28 D.

c. Lengthening rarely occurs when a preposition or πᾶς precedes: συν-ωμοσία_ conspiracy (ὄμνυ_μι swear), παν-ήγυρις general assembly (ἄγυρις ἀγορά_).

d. The lengthening in 887 is properly the result of early contraction (στρατο ¨ αγος). On the pattern of such contracted forms irrational lengthening occurs when the first part of the compound ends in a consonant, as δυσ-ηλεγής (for δυσ-αλεγής) cruel from ἀλέγω care for.

888. A noun forming the last part of a compound often changes its final syllable.

N. Masculine or feminine nouns of the second or third declensions usually remain unaltered: ἔν-θεος inspired, ἄ-παις childless.

a. -ος, -η, -ον: form compound adjectives from nouns of the first declension, neuters of the second declension, nouns of the third declension, and from many verb-stems. ἄ-τι_μος dishonoured (τι_μή), σύν-δειπνος companion at table (δεῖπνο-ν meal), ἄν-αιμος bloodless (αἷμα, 875), ἑκατόγ-χειρος hundred-handed (χείρ), δασμοφόρος bringing tribute (φέρ-ω), γεω-γράφος geographer 871 b. N. (γράφ-ω), ἰχθυο-φάγος fish-eating (φαγεῖν 529. 5).

b. -ης, -ες: form compound adjectives from nouns of the first and third declensions, and from many verb-stems: ἀ-τυχής unfortunate (τύχη), δεκα-ετής of ten years (ϝέτος), εὐ-ειδής beautiful in form (εἶδος), εὐ-μαθής quick at learning (μανθάνω, μαθ-), ἀ-φανής invisible (φαίνω, φαν-).

c. Other endings are -ης (gen. -ου), -της, -τηρ: γεω-μέτρης surveyor (871 b. N.), νομο-θέτης law-giver (νόμος, τίθημι, θε-), μηλο-βοτήρ shepherd (μῆλον, βό-σκω feed).

d. Neuters in -μα make adjectives in -μων: πρᾶγμα thing, ἀ-πρά_γμων inactive. φρήν mind becomes -φρων: εὔ-φρων well-minded, cheerful.—πατήρ father becomes -πάτωρ: ἀ-πάτωρ fatherless, φιλο-πάτωρ loving his father.

e. Compounds of γῆ land end in -γειος, -γεως: κατά-γειος subterranean, λεπτό-γεως of thin soil.—Compounds of ναῦς ship, κέρας horn, γῆρας old age end in -ως, as περί-νεως supercargo, ὑψί-κερως lofty-antlered (163 a), ἀ-γήρως free from old age.

889. The last member of a compound is often a verbal element that is not used separately: ἀγαλματ-ο-ποιός statue-maker, sculptor, ὑπ-ήκοος subject (ἀκούω hear, ἀκήκοα), λογο-γράφος speech-writer. -φορος bringing, -δομος building, -δρομος running are used separately in the meanings tribute, building, race.

890. An abstract word can enter into composition only by taking a derivative ending (usually -ια_) formed from a real or assumed compound adjective: ναῦ-ς ship, μάχη fight = ναύ-μαχος, whence ναυ-μαχία_ naval battle; εὖ well, βουλή counsel = εὔ-βουλος, whence εὐ-βουλία_ good counsel; ἀν-neg., ἀρχή rule = ἄν-αρχος, whence ἀν-αρχία_ anarchy; εὖ well, πρᾶξις doing = *εὐπρα_ξος, whence εὐ-πρα_ξία_ well-doing. Contrast εὐ-βουλία_ with προ-βουλή forethought, εὐ-λογία_ eulogy with πρό-λογος prologue.

a. Only after a preposition does an abstract word remain unchanged: προβουλή forethought. Exceptions are rare: μισθο-φορά_ receipt of wages (μισθός, φορά_).

891. Compound Verbs.—Verbs can be compounded directly only by prefixing a preposition, as συμ-μάχομαι fight along with.

a. A preposition (πρό-θεσις) derived its name from this use as a prefix. Originally all prepositions were adverbs modifying the verb, and in Homer are partly so used. See 1638, 1639. Cp. upheave and heave up.

892. All compound verbs not compounded with prepositions are denominatives (ending in -εω) and formed from real or assumed compound nouns. From ναῦς ship and μάχη fight comes ναύμαχος fighting in ships, whence ναυμαχέω fight in ships; so οἰκοδομέω build a house from οἰκο-δόμος house-builder (οἶκος, δέμω). Contrast ἀνα-πείθω bring over, convince with ἀ-πιστέω disbelieve (ἄ-πιστος); ἀντι-λέγω speak against with ὁμο-λογέω agree (ὁμόλογος agreeing).—εὖ ἀγγέλλω announce good news cannot form a verb εὐαγγελλω.

a. ἀτι_μάω (ἀτίω) dishonour, δακρυχέω shed tears are exceptions. ἀν-ομοιόω make unlike is not from ἀν- and ὁμοιόω but from ἀν-όμοιος unlike.


893. Compounds generally have recessive accent, as φιλό-τι_μος loving-<*> (τι_μή). But there are many exceptions, e.g.—

a. P<*>tives in -ά_, -ή, -ής, -εύς, -μός, and -έος usually keep their accent when compoun<*>; except dissyllabic words in -ά_, -ή, -ής whose first part is not a preposition. Thus, κριτής judge, ὑποκριτής actor, ὀνειροκρίτης interpreter of dreams.

b. Compound adjectives in -ης, -ες are usually oxytone: εὐ-γενής well-born.

894. Compounds in -ος (not -τος or -κος) formed by the union of a noun or adverb and the stem of a transitive verb are:

a. <*> when they have a long penult and an active meaning: στρατ-ηγός general.

b. <*> when they have short penult and an active meaning: πατροκτ<*> <*>icide, λιθο-βόλος throwing-stones, λαιμο-τόμος throat-cutting, ὑδροφο<*> <*>ter-carrier.

c. propar<*>, when they have a short penult and passive meaning: πατρόκτο<*> <*>ain by a father, λιθό-βολος pelted with stones, λαιμό-τομος with thr<*> out, αὐτό-γραφος written with one's own hand.

N.—A<*> compounds of -οχος (ἔχ-ω, 878), -αρχος (ἄρχ-ω), -συ_λος (συ_λά-ω rob<*> -πο<*> (πέρθ-ω destroy) are proparoxytone; ἡνί-οχος (rein-holder) charioteer, <*> commander of horses, ἱερό-συ_λος temple-robber, πτολί-πορθος sacking cities. <*> staff-bearer (ῥαβδός) is contracted from ῥαβδό-οχος.


895. Compound nouns (substantives and adjectives) are divided, according to their meaning, into three main classes: determinative, possessive, and prepositional-phrase, compounds.

a. The <*>ical relation of the parts of compounds varies so greatly that boundary-lines between the different classes are difficult to set up, and a complete formal division is impossible. The poets show a much wider range of usage than the pro<*>-writers.

896. Determinative Compounds.—In most determinative compounds the first part modifies or determines the second part: the modifier stands first, the principal word second.

Thus by hand-work a particular kind of work is meant, as contrasted with machine-work; cp. speech-writer and letter-writer, race-horse and horse-race.

a. The first part may be an adjective, an adverb, a preposition, an inseparable prefix, or, in a few cases, a substantive.

897. There are two kinds of determinative compounds.

(1) Descriptive determinative compounds.—The first part defines or explains the second part in the sense of an adjective or adverb. (This class is less numerous than the second class.)

ἀκρό-πολις upper city, citadel (ἄκρα_ πόλις), ὁμό-δουλος fellow-slave (ὁμοῦ δουλεύων, cp. 885. 4 a), ὀψί-γονος late-born (ὀψὲ γενόμενος), προ-βουλή forethought, ἀμφι-θέα_τρον amphitheatre (a place-for-seeing round about), ἄ-γραφος not written (οὐ γεγραμμένος).

a. Copulative compounds are formed by the coördination of two substantives or adjectives: ἰ_α_τρό-μαντις physician and seer, γλυκύ-πικρος sweetly-bitter. Similar is deaf-mute. So also in numerals: δώ-δεκα two (and) ten = 12.

b. Comparative compounds (generally poetic) are μελι-ηδής honey-sweet (μέλι, ἡδύς), ποδ-ήνεμος Ἶρις Iris, with feet swift as the wind. Cp. eagle-eyed, goldfish, blockhead. Such compounds are often possessive (898), as ῥοδο-δάκτυλος rosy-fingered, χρυ_σο-κόμης golden-haired.

(2) Dependent determinative compounds.—A substantive forming either the first or the second part stands in the sense of an oblique case (with or without a preposition) to the other part.

Accusative: λογο-γράφος speech-writer (λόγους γράφων), στρατ-ηγός armyleading, general (στρατὸν ἄγων), φιλ-άνθρωπος loving mankind (φιλῶν ἀνθρώπους), δεισι-δαίμων superstitious (δεδιὼς τοὺς δαίμονας); cp. pickpocket, sightseer, painstaking, soothsayer, laughter-loving.

Genitive: στρατό-πεδον camp (στρατοῦ πέδον ground on which an army is encamped). In ἀξιό-λογος worthy of mention (ἄξιος λόγου) the defining part stands second (869 c) and is governed by the adjective part like a preposition (cp. 899). Cp. ringmaster, law-offcer, jest-book.

(Ablative): ἀνεμο-σκεπής sheltering from the wind; cp. land-breeze, sea-breeze.

Dative: ἰσό-θεος godlike (ἴσος θεῷ); cp. churchgoer, blood-thirsty.

(Instrumental): χειρ-ο-ποίητος made by hand (χερσὶ ποιητός), χρυ_σό-δετος bound with gold (χρυ_σῷ δετός); cp. thunder-struck, storm-swept, star-sown.

(Locative): οἰκο-γενής born in the house (ἐν οἴκῳ γενόμενος), ὁδοι-πόρος wayfarer (879); cp. heart-sick.

N. 1.—The Greeks did not think of any actual case relation as existing in these compounds, and the case relation that exists is purely logical. The same form may be analysed in different ways, as φιλάνθρωπος φιλῶν ἀνθρώπους or = φίλος ἀνθρώπων.

N. 2.—Such compounds may often be analysed by a preposition and a dependent noun: θεό-δμητος god-built (ὑπὸ τῶν θεῶν δμητός).

898. Possessive Compounds.—In possessive compounds the first part defines the second as in determinatives; but the whole compound is an adjective expressing a quality, with the idea of possession understood. In most possessive compounds the idea of having (ἔχων) is to be supplied.

So, in English, redbreast is a bird having a red breast, the first part being an attribute of the second.

ἀργυρό-τοξος having a silver bow; μακρό-χειρ having long arms, long-armed; θεο-ειδής having the appearance (εἶδος) of a god, godlike; σώ-φρων having sound mind, temperate; τέθρ-ιππος having four horses; ὁμό-τροπος of like character (ὁμο-occurs only in compounds, but note ὅμοιος like); πολυ-κέφαλος many-headed; εὐ-τυχής having good fortune, fortunate; δεκα-ετής lasting ten years (cp. a twoyear-old); ἀμφι-κί_ων having pillars round about; ἔν-θεος inspired (having a god within: ἐν ἑαυτῷ θεὸν ἔχων).

a. Adjectives in -ειδής from εἶδος form (ἀστερ-ο-ειδής star-like, ἰχθυ-ο-ειδής fish-like, μην-ο-ειδής crescent, πολυ-ειδής of many kinds, σφαιρ-ο-ειδής spherical) are to be distinguished from those in -ώδης derived from ὄζω smell (833 a).

b. English possessive compounds in -ed apply that ending only to the compound as a whole and not to either member. In Milton: deep-throated, whitehanded, open-hearted; in Keats: subtle-cadenced. Besides those in -ed there are others such as Bluebeard.

c. Many possessive compounds begin with α᾽ν)-negative or δυσ- ill; as ἄ-παις childless (having no children or not having children, παῖδας οὐκ ἔχων), ἄ-τι_μος dishonoured (having no honour), δύσ-βουλος ill advised (having evil counsels).

899. Prepositional-phrase Compounds.—Many phrases made of a preposition and its object unite to form a compound and take on adjectival inflection. Such compounds are equivalent to the phrases in question with the idea of being or the like added.

ἄπ-οικος colonist (away from home: ἀπ᾽ οἴκου); ἐγχειρίδιος in the hand, dagger (ἐν χειρί); ἐγχώριος native (in the country: ἐν χώρᾳ); ἐπιθαλάττιος dwelling on the coast (ἐπὶ θαλάττῃ); ἐφέστιος on the hearth (ἐφ᾽ ἑστίᾳ); κατάγειος underground, cp. subterranean (κατὰ γῆς); παρά-δοξος contrary to opinion (παρὰ δόξαν); παρά-φρων out of one's mind, Lat. de-mens (παρὰ τὴν φρένα); ὑπ-εύθυ_νος under liability to give account (ὑπ᾽ εὐθύ_ναις); so φροῦδος gone (= πρὸ ὁδοῦ γενόμενος, cp. 124 a).

a. From such phrases are derived verbs and substantives: ἐγχειρίζω put into one's hands, entrust, διαχειρίζω have in hand, manage (διὰ χειρῶν), διαπα_σῶν octave-scale ( διὰ πα_σῶν χορδῶν συμφωνία_ the concord through all the notes). By analogy to ἐκποδών out of the way (ἐκ ποδῶν) come ἐμποδών in the way and ἐμπόδιος impeding, ἐμποδίζω impede.

b. The compounds of 899 represent bits of syntax used so frequently together that they have become adherent.

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