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1021. An attributive adjective (or participle) generally with the article, often dispenses with its substantive, and thus itself acquires the value of a substantive.

a. This occurs when the substantive may be supplied from the context; when it is a general notion; or when it is omitted in common expressions of a definite character, when the ellipsis is conscious.

1022. Masculine or feminine, when the substantive is a person: δίκαιος the just man, δίκαιος a just man, οἱ Ἀθηναῖοι the Athenians, οἱ πολλοί the many, the rabble, οἱ ὀλίγοι the oligarchical party, οἱ βουλόμενοι all who will, καλή the beautiful woman, τεκοῦσα the mother (poet., E. Alc. 167), ἐκκλησιάζουσαι women in assembly.

1023. Neuter, when the substantive idea is thing in general: τὸ ἀγαθόν the (highest) good P. R. 506b (but ““τὰ ἀγαθάgood thingsL. 12.33), ““τὸ ἀληθέςtruthP. G. 473b, τὸ κοινόν the commonwealth Ant. 3. β. 3, ““τὸ ἐσόμενονthe futureAes. 3.165, ““τὸ λεγόμενονas the saying isT. 7.68, ““ἀμφὶ μέσον ἡμέρα_ςabout mid-dayX. A. 4.4.1, ““ἐπὶ πολύover a wide spaceT. 1.18.

1024. In words denoting a collection (996) of persons or facts: ““τὸ ὑπήκοονthe subjectsT. 6.69, ““τὸ βαρβαρικόνthe barbarian forceX. A. 1.2.1, ““τὸ ξυμμαχικόνthe allied forcesT. 4.77 (and many words in -ικόν), ““τὰ ἙλληνικάGreek historyT. 1.97; and in words denoting festivals (““τὰ Ὀλύμπιαthe Olympian gamesX. H. 7.4.28).

1025. With participles, especially in Thucydides: ““τὸ ὀργιζόμενον τῆς ὀργῆςtheir angry feelingsT. 2.59, τῆς πόλεως τὸ τι_μώμενον the dignity of the State 2. 63. The action of the verb is here represented as taking place under particular circumstances or at a particular time. These participles are not dead abstractions, but abstract qualities in action.

1026. A substantivized adjective may appear in the neuter plural as well as in the neuter singular: ““τὰ δεξιὰ τοῦ κέρα_τοςthe right of the wingX. A. 1.8.4, ““τῆς Σαλαμῖνος τὰ πολλάthe greater part of SalamisT. 2.94, ἐπὶ πλεῖστον ἀνθρώπων to the greatest part of mankind 1. 1, ἐς τοῦτο δυστυχία_ς to this degree of misfortune 7. 86 (cp. 1325).

a. On the construction of ““τῆς γῆς πολλήthe greater part of the landT. 2.56, see 1313.

1027. In common expressions a definite noun is often implied (such as ἡμέρα_ day, ὁδός way, χείρ hand).

a. Masculine: κόλπος gulf, Ἰόνιος the Ionian gulf T. 6.34, στρατός force, πεζός the land force 1. 47.

b. Feminine: γῆ land (χώρα_ country)—ἀπὸ τῆς ἑαυτῶν from their own country T. 1.15; οὔθ᾽ Ἑλλὰς οὔθ᾽ βάρβαρος neither Greece nor barbaric land D. 9.27; γνώμη judgment: κατὰ τὴν ἐμήν according to my opinion Ar. Eccl. 153, ἐκ τῆς νι_κώσης according to the prevailing opinion X. A. 6.1.18; δίκη suit: ““ἐρήμην κατηγοροῦντεςbringing an accusation in a case where there is no defenceP. A. 18c; ἡμέρα_ day: ““τὴν ὑστεραία_νthe next dayX. C. 1.2.11, ““τῇ προτεραίᾳthe day beforeL. 19.22; κέρας wing: τὸ εὐώνυμον the left wing T. 4.96; μερίς part: εἰκοστή a twentieth 6. 54; μοῖρα portion: πεπρωμένη (I. 10.61) or εἱμαρμένη (D. 18.205) the allotted portion, destiny; ναῦς ship: τριήρης the ship with three banks of oars; ὁδός way: εὐθείᾳ by the straight road P. L. 716a, τὴν ταχίστην by the shortest way X. A. 1.3.14; τέχνη art: μουσική the art of music P. L. 668a; χείρ hand: ἐν δεξιᾷ on the right hand X. A. 1.5.1, ἐξ ἀριστέρα_ς on the left 4. 8. 2; ψῆφος vote: ““τὴν ἐναντία_ν Νι_κίᾳ ἔθετοhe voted in opposition to NiciasP. Lach. 184d.

1028. The context often determines the substantive to be supplied: τοῦτον ἀνέκραγον ὡς ὀλίγα_ς (πληγὰ_ς) παίσειεν they shouted that he had dealt him (too, 1063) few blows X. A. 5.8.12, τρία τάλαντα καὶ χι_λία_ς (δραχμά_ς) three talents and a thousand drachmas D. 27.34; cp. a dollar and twenty (cents). Cp. 1572.

1029. From such substantivized adjectives arose many prepositional and adverbial expressions of whose source the Greeks themselves had probably lost sight. Many of these seem to be analogues of phrases once containing ὁδός: ““τὴν ἄλλως ψηφίζεσθεyou vote to no purposeD. 19.181 (i.e. the way leading elsewhere than the goal), ““ἀπὸ τῆς πρώτηςat the very beginningT. 7.43, ἀπὸ τῆς ἴσης on an equality 1. 15, ἐξ ἐναντία_ς from an opposite direction, facing 7. 44.


1030. An attributive adjective belonging to more than one substantive agrees with the nearest: ““τὸν καλὸν κἀ_γαθὸν ἄνδρα καὶ γυναῖκα εὐδαίμονα εἶναί φημιthe perfect man and woman are happy I maintainP. G. 470e. In some cases it is repeated with each substantive (often for emphasis): ““ἓν σῶμ᾽ ἔχων καὶ ψυ_χὴν μίανhaving one body and one soulD. 19.227.

1031. But occasionally the adjective agrees with the more important substantive: ““ σίγλος δύναται ἑπτὰ ὀβολοὺς καὶ ἡμιωβόλιον Ἀττικούςthe siglus is worth seven and a half Attic obolsX. A. 1.5.6.

1032. Of two adjectives with one substantive, one may stand in closer relation to the substantive, while the other qualifies the expression thus formed: ““πόλις ἐρήμη μεγάληa large deserted-cityX. A. 1.5.4.

1033. If one substantive has several attributive adjectives, these are sometimes added without a conjunction (by Asyndeton): κρέα_ ἄρνεια, ἐρίφεια, χοίρεια flesh of lambs, kids, swine X. A. 4.5.31. This is commoner in poetry, especially when the adjectives are descriptive: ἔγχος βρι_θὺ μέγα στιβαρόν a spear heavy, huge, stout Π 141.

1034. Two adjectives joined by καί may form one combined notion in English, which omits the conjunction. So often with πολύς to emphasize the idea of plurality: ““πολλὰ κἀ_γαθάmany blessingsX. A. 5.6.4, ““πολλὰ καὶ δεινάmany dreadful sufferingsD. 37.57.

a. καλὸς κἀ_γαθός means an aristocrat (in the political sense), or is used of a perfect quality or action (in the moral sense) as T. 4.40, P. A. 21d.

1035. An attributive adjective is often used in poetry instead of the attributive genitive: βίη Ἡρα_κληείη B 658 the might of Heracles (cp. “a Niobean daughter” Tennyson); rarely in prose: ““ποταμός, εὖρος πλεθριαῖοςa river, a plethron in widthX. A. 4.6.4.

1036. An attributive adjective belonging logically to a dependent genitive is often used in poetry with a governing substantive: ““νεῖκος ἀνδρῶν ξύναιμονkindred strife of menS. A. 793 (for strife of kindred men). Rarely in prose in the case of the possessive pronoun: ““ἐν τῷ ὑ_μετέρῳ ἀσθενεῖ τῆς γνώμηςin the weakness of your purposeT. 2.61.

1037. An attributive adjective may dispense with its substantive when that substantive is expressed in the context: μετέχει τῆς καλλίστης (τέχνης) ““τῶν τεχνῶνhe shares in the fairest of the artsP. G. 448c.

1038. A substantivized participle may take the genitive rather than the case proper to the verb whence it is derived: ““βασιλέως προσήκοντεςrelations of the kingT. 1.128; contrast ““Περικλῆς ἐμοὶ προσήκωνPericles my relationX. H. 1.7.21.

1039. Adjectives used substantively may take an attributive: ““οἱ ὑ_μέτεροι δυσμενεῖςyour enemiesX. H. 5.2.33.

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