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AGREEMENT OF ATTRIBUTIVE ADJECTIVES

1030. An attributive adjective belonging to more than one substantive agrees with the nearest: ““τὸν καλὸν κἀ_γαθὸν ἄνδρα καὶ γυναῖκα εὐδαίμονα εἶναί φημιthe perfect man and woman are happy I maintainP. G. 470e. In some cases it is repeated with each substantive (often for emphasis): ““ἓν σῶμ᾽ ἔχων καὶ ψυ_χὴν μίανhaving one body and one soulD. 19.227.

1031. But occasionally the adjective agrees with the more important substantive: ““ σίγλος δύναται ἑπτὰ ὀβολοὺς καὶ ἡμιωβόλιον Ἀττικούςthe siglus is worth seven and a half Attic obolsX. A. 1.5.6.

1032. Of two adjectives with one substantive, one may stand in closer relation to the substantive, while the other qualifies the expression thus formed: ““πόλις ἐρήμη μεγάληa large deserted-cityX. A. 1.5.4.

1033. If one substantive has several attributive adjectives, these are sometimes added without a conjunction (by Asyndeton): κρέα_ ἄρνεια, ἐρίφεια, χοίρεια flesh of lambs, kids, swine X. A. 4.5.31. This is commoner in poetry, especially when the adjectives are descriptive: ἔγχος βρι_θὺ μέγα στιβαρόν a spear heavy, huge, stout Π 141.

1034. Two adjectives joined by καί may form one combined notion in English, which omits the conjunction. So often with πολύς to emphasize the idea of plurality: ““πολλὰ κἀ_γαθάmany blessingsX. A. 5.6.4, ““πολλὰ καὶ δεινάmany dreadful sufferingsD. 37.57.

a. καλὸς κἀ_γαθός means an aristocrat (in the political sense), or is used of a perfect quality or action (in the moral sense) as T. 4.40, P. A. 21d.

1035. An attributive adjective is often used in poetry instead of the attributive genitive: βίη Ἡρα_κληείη B 658 the might of Heracles (cp. “a Niobean daughter” Tennyson); rarely in prose: ““ποταμός, εὖρος πλεθριαῖοςa river, a plethron in widthX. A. 4.6.4.

1036. An attributive adjective belonging logically to a dependent genitive is often used in poetry with a governing substantive: ““νεῖκος ἀνδρῶν ξύναιμονkindred strife of menS. A. 793 (for strife of kindred men). Rarely in prose in the case of the possessive pronoun: ““ἐν τῷ ὑ_μετέρῳ ἀσθενεῖ τῆς γνώμηςin the weakness of your purposeT. 2.61.

1037. An attributive adjective may dispense with its substantive when that substantive is expressed in the context: μετέχει τῆς καλλίστης (τέχνης) ““τῶν τεχνῶνhe shares in the fairest of the artsP. G. 448c.

1038. A substantivized participle may take the genitive rather than the case proper to the verb whence it is derived: ““βασιλέως προσήκοντεςrelations of the kingT. 1.128; contrast ““Περικλῆς ἐμοὶ προσήκωνPericles my relationX. H. 1.7.21.

1039. Adjectives used substantively may take an attributive: ““οἱ ὑ_μέτεροι δυσμενεῖςyour enemiesX. H. 5.2.33.

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