THE ARTICLE—ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT[*] 1099. The article ὁ, ἡ, τό, was originally a demonstrative pronoun, and as such supplied the place of the personal pronoun of the third person. By gradual weakening it became the definite article. It also served as a relative pronoun (1105). (Cp. Germ. der, demonstrative article and relative; French le from ille.) ὁ as a demonstrative is still retained in part in Attic prose (1106), while the beginnings of its use as the article are seen even in Homer (1102).
[*] 1100. In Homer ὁ, ἡ, τό is usually a demonstrative pronoun and is used substantively or adjectively; it also serves as the personal pronoun of the third person: ““ἀλλὰ τὸ θαυμάζω” but I marvel at this” δ 655, τὸν λωβητῆρα ἐπεσβόλον this prating brawler B 275, τὴν δ᾽ ἐγὼ οὐ λύ_σω but her I will not release A 29. [*] 1101. In its substantival use ὁ either marks a contrast or recalls the subject (the anaphoric use). But with ἀλλά, δέ, αὐτάρ the subject is generally changed. It often precedes an explanatory relative clause: τῶν οἳ νῦν βροτοί εἰσι of those who are now mortal men A 272. [*] 1102. ὁ, ἡ, τό often approaches to its later use as the definite article or is actually so used: τὸν μέν . . . τὸν δ᾽ ἕτερον E 145 (cp. 1107). a. The substantive often stands in apposition, and is added, as an afterthought, to the demonstrative (especially ὁ δέ) which is still an independent pronoun: ““αὐτὰρ ὁ τοῖσι γέρων ὁδὸν ἡγεμόνευεν” but he, the old man, was leading the way for them” ω 225. In some cases the appositive is needed to complete the sense: ““ἐπεὶ τό γε καλὸν ἀκουέμεν ἐστὶν ἀοιδοῦ” since this—to listen to a minstrel—is a good thing” α 370. b. Often with adjectives and participles used substantively, with pronouns, and adverbs; especially when a contrast or distinction is implied: ““οἱ ἄλλοι” the others” Φ 371, τὰ ἐσσόμενα the things that are to be A 70, τὸ πάρος formerly N 228. The attributive adj. before the noun: ““τοὺς σούς” thy” Ψ 572, ““τὰ μέγιστα ἄεθλα” the greatest prizes” Ψ 640; and in apposition: Ἶρον τὸν ἀλήτην Irus, the beggar ς 333. Hom. has πατὴρ οὑμός Θ 360 (but does not use ὁ πατὴρ ὁ ἐμός). [*] 1103. In Hom. ὁ contrasts two objects, indicates a change of person, or a change of action on the part of the same person. Attic ὁ defines. [*] 1104. The transition from the demonstrative to the article is so gradual that it is often impossible to distinguish between the two. Ordinarily Homer does not use the article where it is required in Attic prose. The Epic use is adopted in general by the lyric poets and in the lyric parts of tragedy. Even in tragic dialogue the article is less common than in prose. Hdt. has ὁ δέ and he, ὁ γάρ for he.
[*] 1105. The demonstrative ὁ, ἡ, τό is used as a relative pronoun in Homer only when the antecedent is definite (cp. that): τεύχεα δ᾽ ἐξενάριξε, τά οἱ πόρε χάλκεος Ἄρης he stripped off the arms that brazen Ares had given him H 146. The tragic poets use only the forms in τ-, and chiefly to avoid hiatus or to produce position: ““κτείνουσα τοὺς οὐ χρὴ κτανεῖν” slaying those whom it is not right to slay” E. And. 810. (ὅ ῀ ὅς E. Hipp. 525.) On the use in Herodotus, see 338 D. 3.
[*] 1106. The demonstrative force of ὁ, ἡ, τό survives chiefly in connection with particles (μέν, δέ, γέ, τοί; and with καί preceding ὁ). [*] 1107. ὁ is a demonstrative commonly before μέν, δέ, and especially in contrasted expressions: ὁ μέν . . . ὁ δέ the one, this . . . the other, that, as in ““οἱ μὲν ἐπορεύοντο, οἱ δ᾽ εἵποντο” the one party proceeded, the other followed” X. A. 3.4.16. [*] 1108. The reference may be indefinite; in which case τὶς is often added: ““τοὺς μὲν ἀπέκτεινε, τοὺς δ᾽ ἐξέβαλεν” some he put to death, and others he expelled” X. A. 1.1.7, οἱ μέν τινες ἀπέθνῃσκον, οἱ δ᾽ ἔφευγον some were killed, but others escaped C. 3. 2. 10. [*] 1109. With prepositions the order is usually inverted: ἐκ μὲν τῶν, εἰς δὲ τά (1663 a). [*] 1110. In late writers (but in Demosthenes) the relative is used as in 1107: πόλεις, α_<*>ς μὲν ἀναιρῶν, εἰς α_<*>ς δὲ τοὺς φυγάδας κατάγων destroying some cities, into others bringing back their exiles D. 18.71 (the first instance). [*] 1111. Note the adverbial expressions: τὸ (τὰ) μέν . . . τὸ (τὰ) δέ on the one hand . . . on the other hand, partly . . . partly (so also τοῦτο μέν . . . τοῦτο δέ 1256); τὸ δέ τι partly, τῇ μέν . . . τῇ δέ in this way . . . in that way, τὸ δέ whereas (1112), τῷ τοι therefore. [*] 1112. ὁ δέ, ἡ δέ, τὸ δέ (without a preceding μέν clause) often mean but (or and) he, she, this. In the nominative the person referred to is usually different from the subject of the main verb: Κῦρος δίδωσιν αὐτῷ μυ_ρίους δα_ρεικούς: ὁ δὲ λαβὼν τὸ χρυ_σίον κ.τ.λ. Cyrus gives him (Clearchus) 10,000 darics; and he taking the money, etc. X. A. 1.1.9, ταῦτα ἀπαγγέλλουσι τοῖς στρατιώταις: τοῖς δὲ ὑποψία_ ἦν ὅτι ἄγοι πρὸς βασιλέα_ they report this to the soldiers; and they had a suspicion that he was leading (them) against the king X. A. 1.3.21, ““τὸ δ᾽ οὐκ ἔστι τοιοῦτον” whereas this is not so” P. A. 37a.
[*] 1113. As a personal pronoun, chiefly after καί, and in the nominative: καὶ ὅς (ἥ) and he (she): ““καὶ οἳ εἶπον” and they said” X. A. 7.6.4. Also in ““ἦ δ᾽ ὅς” and he said” P. R. 327c (792). So καὶ τόν (τήν) used as the accusative of καὶ ὅς, as subject of a following infinitive in indirect discourse: καὶ τὸν εἰπεῖν and (he said that) he said P. S. 174a. [*] 1114. In the nominative ὅς, ἥ, are usually thus written. Some write ὅ, ἥ, οἵ, αἵ when these words are used as demonstratives; but ὃ μέν . . . ὃ δέ is rare. a. The forms ὅς, ἥ, here apparently relatives with an older demonstrative force, may be in reality demonstratives, ὅς being the demonstrative (article) ὁ to which the nominative sign -ς has been added. From this ὅς may be derived, by analogy, the demonstrative use of ὅ, and of οἶς, οὕς in fixed expressions (1110). [*] 1115. Also in ““τὸν καὶ τόν” this one and that one” L. 1.23, ““τὸ καὶ τό” this and that” D. 9.68, τὰ καὶ τά D. 21.141, ““οὔτε τοῖς οὔτε τοῖς” neither to these nor to those” P. L. 701e. In the nom. ““ὃς καὶ ὅς” such and such an one” Hdt. 4.68. [*] 1116. In an oblique case before the relatives ὅς, ὅσος, οἶος: ““τόν τε Εὐθύκριτον . . . καὶ τὸν ὃς ἔρη δεσπότης τούτου εἶναι, μάρτυρας παρέξομαι” and as witness I will produce both Euthycritus and the man who said he was his master” L. 23.8, ““ὀρέγεται τοῦ ὃ ἔστιν ἴσον” he aims at that which is equal” P. Ph. 75b, and often in Plato in defining philosophical terms. [*] 1117. Rarely with prepositions, except in πρὸ τοῦ (or προτοῦ) before this time T. 1.118. On ἐν τοῖς with the superlative, see 1089.
[*] 1118. The article ὁ, ἣ, τό marks objects as definite and known, whether individuals (the particular article) or classes (the generic article). The context must determine the presence of the generic article. a. There is no indefinite article in Greek, but a, an is often represented by τὶς (1267).
THE PARTICULAR ARTICLE[*] 1119. The particular article denotes individual persons or things as distinguished from others of the same kind. Thus, μαίνεται ἅ_νθρωπος the man is mad (a definite person, distinguished from other men) P. Phae. 268c. [*] 1120. Special uses of the particular article. The particular article defines a. Objects well known: ὁ τῶν ἑπτὰ σοφώτατος Σόλων Solon the wisest of the Seven (Sages) P. Tim. 20d. b Objects already mentioned or in the mind of the speaker or writer (the anaphoric article): εἶπον ὅτι τάλαντον ἀργυρίου ἕτοιμος εἴην δοῦναι . . . ὁ δὲ λαβὼν τὸ τάλαντον κ.τ.λ. I said that I was ready to give him a talent of silver . . . and he taking the talent, etc. L. 12.9-10. c. Objects specially present to the senses or mind (the deictic article): ““λαβε τὸ βιβλίον” take the book” P. Th. 143c, ““βουλόμενος τὴν μάχην ποιῆσαι” wishing to fight the battle” T. 4.91. Hence the article is regularly used with demonstrative pronouns (1176). N.—The foregoing (a - c) uses recall the old demonstrative force of the article. Words that ordinarily have no article may receive the article when this older force is present. d. Objects particularized by an attributive or by a following description: ““ὁ δῆμος ὁ Ἀθηναίων” the people of the Athenians” Aes. 3.116, ““λέγε τὴν ἐπιστολήν, ἣν ἔπεμψεν” read the letter that he sent” D. 18.39. Cp. 1178 d. e. Objects marked as usual or proper under the circumstances: τὸ μέρος τῶν ψήφων ὁ διώκων οὐκ ἔλαβεν the prosecutor did not get the (requisite) part of the votes D. 18.103. f. Objects representative of their class (the distributive article, which resembles the generic use; often translated by a, each): ““ὑπισχνεῖται δώσειν τρία ἡμιδα_ρεικὰ τοῦ μηνὸς τῷ στρατιώτῃ” he promises to give each soldier three half-darics a month” X. A. 1.3.21. But the article may be omitted: καὶ εἵλοντο δέκα, ἕνα ἀπὸ φυ_λῆς and they chose ten, one from (each) tribe X. H. 2.4.23. [*] 1121. The article often takes the place of an unemphatic possessive pronoun when there is no doubt as to the possessor. ““Κῦρος καταπηδήσα_ς ἀπὸ τοῦ ἅρματος τὸν θώρα_κα ἐνέδυ_” Cyrus leaped down from his chariot and put on his breastplate” X. A. 1.8.3.
THE GENERIC ARTICLE[*] 1122. The generic article denotes an entire class as distinguished from other classes. Thus, ὁ ἄνθρωπος man (as distinguished from other beings), οἱ γέροντες the aged; δεῖ τὸν στρατιώτην φοβεῖσθαι μᾶλλον τὸν ἄρχοντα ἢ τοὺς πολεμίους the (a) soldier should fear his commander rather than the enemy X. A. 2.6.10, ““πονηρὸν ὁ συ_κοφάντης” the informer is a vile thing” D. 18.242. [*] 1123. In the singular the generic article makes a single object the representative of the entire class; in the plural it denotes all the objects belonging to a class. The generic article is especially common, in the plural, with adjectives used substantively: ““οὐκ ἄν τις εἴποι ὡς τοὺς κακούργους καὶ ἀδίκους εἴα_ καταγελᾶν” no one could say that he permitted the malefactor and the wrongdoer to deride him” X. A. 1.9.13. [*] 1124. The Article with Participles.—A participle with the article may denote an entire class: ὁ βουλόμενος any one who wishes. Cp. 2050, 2052. ὁ τυχών any chance comer, ὁ ἡγησόμενος a guide, ““οὐκ ἀπορήσετε τῶν ἐθελησόντων ὑπὲρ ὑ_μῶν κινδυ_νεύειν” you will not be in want of those who will be willing to encounter danger for you” D. 20.166, οἱ λογοποιοῦντες newsmongers 4. 49. The same sense is expressed by πᾶς ὁ with a participle or adjective. On the article with a participle in the predicate, see 1152. a. When the reference is to a particular occasion, the article may be particular (2052); as ὁ λέγων the speaker on a definite occasion.
THE ARTICLE WITH NUMERALS[*] 1125. The article may be used with cardinal numerals a. When the numeral states the definite part of a whole (expressed or understood): ἀπῆσαν τῶν λόχων δώδεκα ὄντων οἱ τρεῖς of the companies, numbering twelve (in all), there were absent three X. H. 7.5.10, εἷς παρὰ τοὺς δέκα one man in (comparison with) ten X. O. 20.16, ““τῶν πέντε τὰ_ς δύο μοίπα_ς” two fifths” T. 1.10, δύο μέρη two thirds 3. 15. (The genitive is omitted when the denominator exceeds the numerator by one.) b. When the numeral is approximate: ““ἔμειναν ἡμέρα_ς ἀμφὶ τὰ_ς τριά_κοντα” they remained about thirty days” X. A. 4.8.22, ““γεγονότες τὰ πεντήκοντα ἔτη” about fifty years of age” X. C. 1.2.13. c. When the number is used abstractly (without reference to any definite object): ““ὅπως μὴ ἐρεῖς ὅτι ἔστιν τὰ δώδεκα δὶς ἕξ” beware of saying 12 is twice 6” P. R. 337b. N. Ordinals usually omit the article and regularly do so in statements of time in the dative (1540): ““δευτέρῳ μηνὶ τὴν πόλιν ἐτείχιζον” in the second month they fortified the city” T. 8.64.
FLUCTUATION IN THE USE OF THE ARTICLE: OMISSION OF THE ARTICLE[*] 1126. The article is often omitted (1) in words and phrases which have survived from the period when ὁ, ἡ, τό was a demonstrative pronoun; (2) when a word is sufficiently definite by itself; (3) when a word expresses a general conception without regard to its application to a definite person. The generic article is frequently omitted, especially with abstracts (1132), without appreciable difference in meaning. Its presence or absence is often determined by the need of distinguishing subject from predicate (1150), by the rhythm of the sentence, etc. [*] 1127. The article is omitted in many adverbial designations of time, mostly with prepositions (except ἡμέρα_ς by day, νυκτός by night). Thus, περὶ μέσα_ς νύκτας about midnight, ἅμα ἕῳ just before daylight, ὥρᾳ ἕτους at the season of the year. So with ὄρθρος daybreak, δείλη afternoon, ἑσπέρα_ evening, ἔαρ spring; and ἐκ παίδων from childhood. Most of the above cases are survivals of the older period when the article had a demonstrative force. [*] 1128. The article is very often omitted in phrases containing a preposition: ““ἐν ἀρχῇ τοῦ λόγου” in the beginning of the speech” D. 37.23, ““ἔξω βελῶν” out of reach of the missiles” X. A. 3.4.15, ““Ἠιόνα τὴν ἐπὶ Στρυ_μόνι” Eion on the Strymon” T. 1.98. [*] 1129. Words denoting persons, when they are used of a class, may omit the article. So ἄνθρωπος, στρατηγός, θεός divinity, god (ὁ θεός the particular god). Thus, ““πάντων μέτρον ἄνθρωπός ἐστιν” man is the measure of all things” P. Th. 178b. [*] 1130. Adjectives and participles used substantively have no article when the reference is general: ““μέσον ἡμέρα_ς” midday” X. A. 1.8.8, ψυ_χρόν cold, ““θερμόν” heat” P. S. 186d, πέμψαι προκαταληψομένους τὰ ἄκρα to send men to preoccupy the heights X. A. 1.3.14. Rarely when an adverb is used adjectively: ““τῶν ἐχθρῶν ἄρδην ὄλεθρος” the utter destruction of the enemy” D. 19.141.
THE ARTICLE WITH ABSTRACT SUBSTANTIVES[*] 1131. Abstract substantives generally have the article: ““ἡ ἀρετὴ μᾶλλον ἢ ἡ φυγὴ σῴζει τὰ_ς ψυ_χά_ς” valour rather than flight saves men's lives” X. C. 4.1.5. [*] 1132. The names of the virtues, vices, arts, sciences, occupations often omit the article: τί σωφροσύνη, τί μανία_; what is temperance, what is madness? X. M. 1.1.16, ἀρχὴ φιλία_ς μὲν ἔπαινος, ἔχθρα_ς δὲ ψόγος praise is the beginning of friendship, blame of enmity I. 1.33. Similarly μουσική music, γεωργία_ agriculture. So also with δόξα opinion, νοῦς mind, τέχνη art, νόμος law. [*] 1133. The article must be used when reference is made to a definite person or thing or to an object well known: ““ἡ τῶν Ἑλλήνων εὔνοια” the goodwill of the Greeks” Aes. 3.70, (ὑ_μῖν) ““ἡ σχολή” your usual idleness” D. 8.53. [*] 1134. The article may be omitted in designations of space; as βάθος depth, ὕψος height; also μέγεθος size, πλῆθος size, amount. γένος and ὄνομα, used as accusatives of respect (1600), may omit the article. [*] 1135. The article may be omitted with some concrete words conveying a general idea, as ψυ_χή soul, σῶμα body (but the parts of the body regularly have the article).
THE ARTICLE WITH PROPER NAMES[*] 1136. Names of persons and places are individual and therefore omit the article unless previously mentioned (1120 b) or specially marked as well known: ““Θουκυ_δίδης Ἀθηναῖος” Thucydides an Athenian” T. 1.1, τοὺς στρατιώτα_ς αὐτῶν, τοὺς παρὰ Κλέαρχον ἀπελθόντας, εἴα_ Κῦρος τὸν Κλέαρχον ἔχειν their soldiers who seceded to Clearchus, Cyrus allowed Clearchus to retain X. A. 1.4.7, ὁ Σόλων D. 20.90, οἱ Ἡρα_<*>λέες the Heracleses P. Th. 169b. [*] 1137. Names of deities omit the article, except when emphatic (νὴ τὸν Δία by Zeus) or when definite cults are referred to: τὸ τῆς Ἀθηνᾶς ἕδος the sanctuary of Athena (at Athens) I. 15.2. Names of festivals vary in prose writers (no article in inscriptions): Παναθήναια the Panathenaea (but ““Παναθηναίοις τοῖς μι_κροῖς” at the Lesser Panathenaea” L. 21.4). Names of shrines have the article. [*] 1138. Names of nations may omit the article, but οἱ Ἕλληνες is usual when opposed to οἱ βάρβαροι the barbarians. When nations are opposed, the article is usually absent: ὁ πόλεμος Ἀθηναίων καὶ Πελοποννησίων T. 2.1 (but ὁ πόλεμος τῶν Πελοποννησίων καὶ Ἀθηναίων 1. 1). The name of a nation without the article denotes the entire people. Names of families may omit the article: Ἀσκληπιάδαι P. R. 406a. [*] 1139. Continents: ἡ Εὐρώπη Europe, ἡ Ἀσία_ Asia. Other names of countries, except those originally adjectives (as ἡ Ἀττική Attica), omit the article (Λιβύη Libya). γῆ and χώρα_ may be added only to such names as are treated as adjectives: ἡ Βοιωτία_ (γῆ) Boeotia. The names of countries standing in the genitive of the divided whole (1311) usually omit the article only when the genitive precedes the governing noun: ““Σικελία_ς τὸ πλεῖστον” the most of Sicily” T. 1.12. The article is generally used with names of mountains and rivers; but is often omitted with names of islands, seas (but ὁ Πόντος the Pontus), and winds. Names of cities usually omit the article. Names of cities, rivers, and mountains often add πόλις, ποταμός, ὄρος (1142 c). The article is omitted with proper names joined with αὐτός used predicatively (1206 b): ““αὐτοὺς Ἀθηναίους” the Athenians themselves” T. 4.73. [*] 1140. Several appellatives, treated like proper names, may omit the article: βασιλεύς the king of Persia (ὁ βασιλεύς is anaphoric (1120 b) or refers expressly to a definite person). Titles of official persons: πρυτάνεις the Prytans, στρατηγοί the Generals. Names of relationship, etc.: πατήρ father, ἀνήρ husband, γυνή wife (but the article is needed when a definite individual is spoken of). Thus: ““ἦκον δὲ τῷ μὲν μήτηρ, τῷ δὲ γυνὴ καὶ παῖδες” to one there came his mother, to another his wife and children” And. 1.48. So also πατρίς fatherland. [*] 1141. Similarly in the case of words forming a class by themselves, and some others used definitely: ἥλιος sun, οὐρανός heaven, ὧραι seasons, κεραυνός thunder, θάνατος death; ἄστυ, πόλις city, ἀκρόπολις citadel, ἀγορά_ market-place, τεῖχος city-wall, πρυτανεῖον prytaneum, νῆσος island (all used of definite places), θάλαττα sea as opposed to the mainland, but ἡ θάλαττα of a definite sea; similarly γῆ earth, land. [*] 1142. When the name of a person or place is defined by an appositive (916) or attributive, the following distinctions are to be noted: a. Persons: Περδίκκα_ς Ἀλεξάνδρου Perdiccas, son of Alexander T. 2.99: the official designation merely stating the parentage. Δημοσθένης ὁ Ἀλκισθένους (the popular designation) distinguishes Demosthenes, the son of Alcisthenes (T. 3.91) from other persons named Demosthenes. (Similarly with names of nations.) b. Deities: the article is used with the name and with the epithet or (less often) with neither: ““τῷ Διὶ τῷ Ὀλυμπίῳ” to Olympian Zeus” T. 5.31, Διὶ ἐλευθερίῳ to Zeus guardian of freedom 2. 71. c. Geographical Names are usually treated as attributives, as ““ὁ Εὐφρά_της ποταμός” the river Euphrates” X. A. 1.4.11, ““ἡ Βόλβη λίμνη” lake Bolbe” T. 4.103. In a very few cases (six times in Thuc.) ὁ is omitted with the name of a river when ποταμός is inserted; but Hdt. often omits ὁ. With the names of mountains the order is ““τὸ Πήλιον ὄρος” Mt. Pelion” Hdt. 7.129 when the gender agrees, but otherwise ““ἐς τὸ ὄρος τὴν Ἰστώνην” to Mt. Istone” T. 3.85 (rarely as ““ὑπὸ τῇ Αἴτνῃ τῷ ὄρει” at the foot of Mt. Aetna” T. 3.116). With names of islands, towns, etc., the order varies: ““τὸ Παρθένιον πόλισμα” the town of Parthenium” X. A. 7.8.21; ““ἡ Ψυττάλεια νῆσος” the island of Psyttalea” Hdt. 8.95; ““Τραγία_ ἡ νῆσος” the island of Tragia” T. 1.116; ““τοῦ Πειραιῶς τοῦ λιμένος” of the harbour of Peiraeus” T. 2.93; τὸ φρούριον τὸ Λάβδαλον fort Labdalon 7. 3. The city of Mende would be Μένδη πόλις, ἡ Μένδη ἡ πόλις, Μένδη ἡ πόλις.
OTHER USES OF THE ARTICLE[*] 1143. A single article, used with the first of two or more nouns connected by and, produces the effect of a single notion: οἱ στρατηγοὶ καὶ λοχα_γοί the generals and captains (the commanding officers) X. A. 2.2.8, τὰ_ς μεγίστα_ς καὶ ἐλαχίστα_ς ναῦς the largest and the smallest ships (the whole fleet) T. 1.10, ““ἡ τῶν πολλῶν διαβολή τε καὶ φθόνος” the calumniation and envy of the multitude” P. A. 28a. Rarely when the substantives are of different genders: ““περὶ τὰ_ς ἑαυτ ῶν ψυ_χὰ_ς καὶ σώματα” concerning their own lives and persons” X. A. 3.2.20. [*] 1144. A repeated article lays stress on each word: ““ὁ Θρᾷξ καὶ ὁ βάρβαρος” the Thracian and the barbarian” D. 23.132 (here the subject remains the same), ““οἱ στρατηγοὶ καὶ οἱ λοχα_γοί” the generals and the captains” X. A. 7.1.13. [*] 1145. Instead of repeating a noun with the article it may suffice to repeat the article: ““ὁ βίος ὁ τῶν ἰδιωτευόντων η:` ὁ τῶν τυραννευόντων” the life of persons in a private station or that of princes” I. 2.4. [*] 1146. A substantive followed by an attributive genitive and forming with it a compound idea, usually omits the article: τελευτὴ τοῦ βίου (the) end of his life (‘life-end’ as life-time) X. A. 1.1.1. (Less commonly ἡ τελευτὴ τοῦ βίου X. A. 1.9.30.) Cp. 1295 a. [*] 1147. When the genitive dependent on a substantive is a proper name: ““μετὰ Εὐβοία_ς ἅλωσιν” after the capture of Euboea” T. 2.2, and μετὰ τὴν Λέσβου ἅλωσιν after the capture of Lesbos 3. 51. A preceding genitive thus often takes the place of the article: ““διὰ χρόνου πλῆθος” by reason of the extent of time” T. 1.1. [*] 1148. Concrete coördinated words forming a copulative expression may omit the article: ““πρὸς οὖν παίδων καὶ γυναικῶν ἱκετεύω ὑ_μᾶς” by your children and wives I beseech you” L. 4.20, ““πόλιν καὶ οἰκία_ς ἡμῖν παράδοτε” surrender to us your city and houses” T. 2.72, ““ἱέρειαι καὶ ἱερεῖς” priestesses and priests” P. R. 461a. Cp. man and wife, horse and rider. [*] 1149. An appositive to the personal pronouns of the first and second persons has the article when the appositive would have it (as third person) with the pronoun omitted: ὑ_μεῖς οἱ ἡγεμόνες πρὸς ἐμὲ πάντες συμβάλλετε do you, captains, all confer with me (οἱ ἡγεμόνες συμβάλλοι<*>) X. C. 6.2.41, οὐ σφόδρα χρώμεθα οἱ Κρῆτες τοῖς ξενικοῖς ποιήμασιν we Cretans do not make very much use of foreign poems P. L. 680c, χαίρω ἀκούων ὑ_μῶν τῶν σοφῶν I delight in listening to you <*> P. Ion 532 d.
THE ARTICLE AND A PREDICATE NOUN[*] 1150. A predicate noun has no article, and is thus distinguished from the subject: καλεῖται ἡ ἀκρόπολις ἔτι ὑπ᾽ Ἀθηναίων πόλις the acropolis is still called ‘city’ by the Athenians T. 2.15. [*] 1151. Predicate comparatives and superlatives, possessive pronouns, and ordinals have no article: ᾤμην τὴν ἐμαυτοῦ γυναῖκα πα_σῶν σωφρονεστάτην <*> I thought that my wife was (the) most virtuous of all L. 1.10, Χαιρεφῶν <*> ἑταῖρος ἦν Chaerephon was a friend of mine P. A. 21a. Cp. 1125 d. [*] 1152. Even in the predicate the article is used with a noun referring to a definite object (an individual or a class) that is well known, previously mentioned or hinted at, or identical with the subject: οἱ δ᾽ ἄλλοι ἐπιχειροῦσι βάλλειν <*> Δέξιππον ἀνακαλοῦντες τὸν προδότην the rest try to strike Dexippus calling him ‘the traitor’ X. A. 6.6.7, οὗτοι ἦσαν οἱ φεύγοντες τὸν ἔλεγχον these men were those who (as I have said) avoided the inquiry Ant. 6.27. οἱ τιθέμενοι τοὺς νόμονς <*> ἀσθενεῖς ἄνθρωποί εἰσι καὶ οἱ πολλοί the enactors of the laws are the weak men and the multitude P. G. 483b, ““ὑπώπτευε δὲ εἶναι τὸν διαβάλλοντα Μένωνα” he suspected that it was Menon who traduced him” X. A. 2.5.28 (here subject and predicate could change places). So also with ὁ αὐτός the same (1209 a), θἄ_τερον one of two (69), τοὐναντίον the opposite.
SUBSTANTIVE-MAKING POWER OF THE ARTICLE[*] 1153. The article has the power to make substantival any word or words to which it is prefixed. a. Adjectives: ὁ σοφός the wise man, τὸ δίκαιον justice. b. Participles (with indefinite force): ὁ βουλόμενος whoever wills, the first that offers. Cp. 1124. N. 1.—Such participial nouns appear in active, middle, and passive forms, and admit the distinctions of tense: ““οἱ ἐθελήσοντες μένειν” those who shall be willing to remain” X. H. 7.5.24. N. 2.—Thucydides often substantivizes the neuter participle to form abstract expressions: τῆς πόλεως τὸ τι_μώμενον the dignity of the State 2. 63. Such participial nouns denote an action regulated by time and circumstance. Contrast τὸ δεδιός fear (in actual operation) 1. 36 with τὸ δέος (simply fear in the abstract). c. Preposition and case: ““οἱ ἐπὶ τῶν πρα_γμάτων” those in power, the government” D. 18.247, ““οἱ ἐν τῇ ἡλικίᾳ” those in the prime of life” T. 6.24. d. With the genitive, forming a noun-phrase (1299): ““τὰ τῶν στρατιωτῶν” the condition of the soldiers” X. A. 3.1.20, ““τὰ τῆς ὀργῆς” the outbursts of wrath” T. 2.60. e. Adverbs: ““οἵ τ᾽ ἔνδον συνελαμβάνοντο καὶ οἱ ἐκτὸς κατεκόπησαν” those who were inside were arrested and those outside were cut down” X. A. 2.5.32. Similarly οἱ τότε the men of that time, οἱ ἐκεῖ the dead, οἱ πάλαι the ancients. N.—An adverb preceded by the article may be used like an adjective: ““ὁ ὀρθῶς κυβερνήτης” the good pilot” P. R. 341c. The article is rarely omitted. f. Infinitives: ““καλοῦσί γε ἀκολασία_ν τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ἡδονῶν ἄρχεσθαι” they call intemperance being ruled by one's pleasures” P. Ph. 68e. g. Any single word or clause: τὸ ὑ_μεῖς ὅταν λέγω, τὴν πόλιν λέγω when I say You, I mean the State D. 18.88, ὑπερβὰ_ς τὸ δίκα_ς ὑπεχέτω τοῦ φόνου omitting (the words) ‘let him submit to judgment for the murder’ D. 23.220.
POSITION OF THE ARTICLE
Attributive Position of the Article[*] 1154. A word or group of words standing between the article and its noun, or immediately after the article if the noun, with or without the article, precedes, is an attributive. Thus, ὁ σοφὸς ἀνήρ, ὁ ἀνὴρ ὁ σοφός, or ἀνὴρ ὁ σοφός (cp. 1168). [*] 1155. This holds true except in the case of such post-positive words as μέν, δέ, γέ, τέ, γάρ, δή, οἶμαι, οὖν, τοίνυν; and τὶς in Hdt.: τῶν τις Περσέων one of the Persians 1. 85. In Attic, τὶς intervenes only when an attributive follows the article: ““τῶν βαρβάρων τινὲς ἱππέων” some of the barbarian cavalry” X. A. 2.5.32. [*] 1156. Adjectives, participles, adverbs, and (generally) prepositions with their cases, if preceded by the article, have attributive position. [*] 1157. (1) Commonly, as in English, the article and the attributive precede the noun: ὁ σοφὸς ἀνήρ the wise man. In this arrangement the emphasis is on the attributive. Thus, ““τῇ πρώτῃ ἡμέρᾳ” on the first day” T. 3.96, ““ἐν τῷ πρὸ τοῦ χρόνῳ” in former times” D. 53.12, ““τὸν ἐκ τῶν Ἑλλήνων εἰς τοὺς βαρβάρους φόβον ἰδών” seeing the terror inspired by the Greeks in the barbarians” X. A. 1.2.18. [*] 1158. (2) Less often, the article and the attributive follow the noun preceded by the article: ὁ ἀνὴρ ὁ σοφός the wise man. Thus, ““τὸ στράτευμα τὸ τῶν Ἀθηναίων” the army of the Athenians” T. 8.50, ““ἐν τῇ πορείᾳ τῇ μέχρι ἐπὶ θάλατταν” on the journey as far as the sea” X. A. 5.1.1. In this arrangement the emphasis is on the noun, as something definite or previously mentioned, and the attributive is added by way of explanation. So τοὺς κύνας τοὺς χαλεποὺς διδέα_σι they tie up the dogs, the savage ones (I mean) X. A. 5.8.24. [*] 1159. (3) Least often, the noun takes no article before it, when it would have none if the attributive were dropped: ἀνὴρ ὁ σοφός the wise man (lit. a man, I mean the wise one). Thus, ““μάχαις ταῖς πλείοσι” in the greater number of battles” T. 7.11, σύνειμι μὲν θεοῖς, σύνειμι δὲ ἀνθρώποις τοῖς ἀγαθοῖς I associate with gods, I associate with good men X. M. 2.1.32. In this arrangement the attributive is added by way of explanation; as in the last example: with men, the good (I mean). [*] 1160. A proper name, defining a preceding noun with the article, may itself have the article: ὁ ἀδελφὸς ὁ Ἀρεθούσιος (his) brother Arethusius D. 53.10. Cp. 1142 c. An appositive to a proper name has the article when it designates a characteristic or something well known: ““ὁ Σόλων ὁ παλαιὸς ἦν φιλόδημος” Solon of ancient times was a lover of the people” Ar. Nub. 1187, Πα_σίων ὁ Μεγαρεύς Pasion, the Megarian X. A. 1.4.7. [*] 1161. The genitive of a substantive limiting the meaning of another substantive may take any one of four positions:— a. τὸ τοῦ πατρὸς βιβλίον the father's book (very common). Thus, ἡ <*> τεθνεώτων ἀρετή the valour of the dead L. 12.36. b. τὸ βιβλίον τὸ τοῦ πατρός (less common). Thus, ““ἡ οἰκία_ ἡ Σίμωνος” the house of Simon” L. 3.32. c. τοῦ πατρὸς τὸ βιβλίον (to emphasize the genitive or when a genitive has just preceded). Thus, ““τῆς ϝί_κης τὸ μέγεθος” the greatness of the victory” X. H. 6.4.19. d. τὸ βιβλίον τοῦ πατρός (very common). Thus, ““ἡ τόλμα τῶν λεγόντων” the effrontery of the speakers” L. 12.41. The genitive of the divided whole (1306) is so placed or as in c. N. 1.—A substantive with no article is sometimes followed by the article and the attributive genitive: ἐπὶ σκηνὴν ἰόντες τὴν Ξενοφῶντος going to the ten<*> (namely, that) of Xenophon X. A. 6.4.19. Cp. 1159. [*] 1162. The order bringing together the same forms of the article (περὶ τοῦ τ<*> πατρὸς βιβλίου) is avoided, but two or three articles of different form may stand together: ““τὸ τῆς τοῦ ξαίνοντος τέχνης ἔργον” the work of the art of the wool-carder” P. Pol. 281a. [*] 1163. The attributive position is employed with the possessive pronouns and the possessive genitives of the reflexive and demonstrative pronouns (1184), αὐτο<*> meaning same (1173), and πᾶς expressing the sum total (1174). [*] 1164. Two or more attributives of a substantive are variously placed: (1) ““εἰς τὰ_ς ἄλλα_ς Ἀρκαδικὰ_ς πόλεις” to the other Arcadian cities” X. H. 7.4.38. (2) ““τὸ ἐν Ἀρκαδίᾳ τὸ τοῦ Διὸς τοῦ Λυκαίου ἱερόν” the sanctuary of Lycean Zeus in Arcadia” P. R. 565d. (3) ““ἐς τὸν ἐπὶ τῷ στόματι τοῦ λιμένος στενοῦ ὄντος τὸν ἕτερον πύργον” to the other tower at the mouth of the harbour which was narrow” T. 8.90. (4) ““ἐν τῇ οἰκίᾳ τῇ Χαρμίδου τῇ παρὰ τὸ Ὀλυμπιεῖον” in the house of Charmides by the Olympieum” And. 1.16. (5) ““ἀπὸ τῶν ἐν τῇ Ἀσίᾳ πόλεων Ἑλληνίδων” from the Greek cities in Asia” X. H. 4.3.15. (6) ““πρὸς τὴν ἐκ τῆς Σικελία_ς τῶν Ἀθηναίων μεγάλην κακοπρα_γία_ν” with regard to the great failure of the Athenians in Sicily” T. 8.2. (7) ““τὸ τεῖχος τὸ μακρὸν τὸ νότιον” the long southern wall” And. 3.7. [*] 1165. A relative or temporal clause may be treated as an attributive: ““Σόλων ἐμί_σει τοὺς οἷος οὗτος ἀνθρώπους” Solon detested men like this man here” D. 19.254. [*] 1166. Position of an attributive participle with its modifiers (A = article, N = noun, P = participle, D = word or words dependent on P): (1) APND: ““τὸν ἐφεστηκότα κίνδυ_νον τῇ πόλει” the danger impending over the State” D. 18.176. (2) APDN: τοὺς περιεστηκότας τῇ πόλει κινδύ_νους D. 18.179. (3) ADPN: τὸν τότε τῇ πόλει περιστάντα κίνδυ_νον D. 18.188. (4) NADP: ““ἕτοιμον ἔχει δύναμιν τὴν . . . καταδουλωσουένην ἄπαντας” he has in readiness a force to enslave all” D. 8.46. [*] 1167. a. Especially after verbal substantives denoting an action or a state an attributive prepositional phrase is added without the article being repeated: ““τὴν μεγάλην στρατεία_ν Ἀθηναίων καὶ τῶν ξυμμάχων ἐς Αἴγυπτον” the great expedition of the Athenians and their allies to Egypt” T. 1.110. b. A word defining a substantivized participle, adjective, or infinitive may be placed before the article for emphasis: ““καὶ ταῦτα τοὺς εἰδότας καλοῦμεν” and we will summon those who have knowledge of this” D. 57.65, ““τούτων τοῖς ἐναντίοις” with the opposite of these” T. 7.75.
Predicate Position of Adjectives[*] 1168. A predicate adjective either precedes or follows the article and its noun: σοφὸς ὁ ἀνήρ or ὁ ἀνὴρ σοφός the man is wise. Thus, ““ἀτελεῖ τῇ νί_κῃ ἀνέστησαν” they retired with their victory incomplete” T. 8.27, ““ψι_λὴν ἔχων τὴν κεφαλήν” with his head bare” X. A. 1.8.6, ““τὰ_ς τριήρεις ἀφείλκυσαν κενά_ς” they towed off the ships without their crews” T. 2.93. a. This is called the predicate position, which often lends emphasis. [*] 1169. A predicate adjective or substantive may thus be the equivalent of a clause of a complex sentence: ““ἀθάνατον τὴν περὶ αὑτῶν μνήμην καταλείψουσιν” they will leave behind a remembrance of themselves that will never die” I. 9.3, ἐπήρετο πόσον τι ἄγοι τὸ στράτευμα he asked about how large the force was that he was leading ( = πόσον τι εἴη τὸ στράτευμα ὃ ἄγοι 2647) X. C. 2.1.2, παρ᾽ ἑκόντων τῶν ξυμμάχων τὴν ἡγεμονία_ν ἔλαβον they received the leadership from their allies (being willing) who were willing to confer it I. 1.17. [*] 1170. A predicate expression may stand inside an attributive phrase: ὁ δεινὸς (pred.) ““λεγόμενος γεωργός” he who is called a skilful agriculturist” X. O. 19.14. This is common with participles of naming with the article. [*] 1171. The predicate position is employed with the demonstratives οὗτος, ὅδε, ἐκεῖνος, and ἄμφω, ἀμφότερος, ἑκάτερος, and ἕκαστος; with the possessive genitives of personal and relative pronouns (1185, 1196) and of αὐτός (1201); with αὐτός meaning self (1206 b); with the genitive of the divided whole (1306), as ““τούτων οἱ πλεῖστοι” the most of these” X. A. 1.5.13, οἱ ἄριστοι τῶν περὶ αὐτόν the bravest of his companions 1. 8. 27; and with πᾶς meaning all (1174 b). a. This wise man is οὗτος ὁ σοφὸς ἀνήρ, ὁ σοφὸς ἀνὴρ οὗτος (and also ὁ σοφὸς οὗτος ἀνήρ).
PECULIARITIES OF POSITION WITH THE ARTICLE[*] 1172. Adjectives of Place.—When used in the predicate position (1168) ἄκρος (high) means the top of, μέσος (middle) means the middle of, ἔσχατος (extreme) means the end of. Cp. summus, medius, extremus.
|Attributive Position||Predicate Position|
|τὸ ἄκρον ὅρος the lofty mountain||ἄκρον τὸ ὄρος )||the top of|
|τὸ ὄρος ἄκρον )||the mountain|
|ἡ μέση ἀγορά_ the central market||μέση ἡ ἀγορά_ )||the centre of|
|ἡ ἀγορὰ_ μέση )||the market|
|ἡ ἐσχάτη νῆσος the farthest island||ἐσχάτη ἡ νῆσος )||the verge of|
|ἡ νῆσος ἐσχάτη )||the island|
POSITION OF THE GENITIVE OF PRONOUNS AND THE ARTICLE[*] 1184. In the attributive position (1154) stands the genitive of the demonstrative, reflexive, and reciprocal pronouns. τὸ τούτου βιβλίον or τὸ βιβλίον τὸ τούτου his book, τὸ ἐμαυτοῦ βιβλίον or τὸ βιβλίον τὸ ἐμαυτοῦ my own book; ““μετεπέμψατο τὴν ἑαυτοῦ θυγατέρα καὶ τὸν παῖδα αὐτῆς” he sent for his daughter and her child” X. C. 1.3.1. a. The type τὸ βιβλίον τούτου is rare and suspected except when another attributive is added: τῇ νῦν ὕβρει τούτου D. 4.3. The types τὸ βιβλίον ἐμαυτοῦ (Hdt. 6.23) and τὸ αὐτοῦ βιβλίον (T. 6.102) are rare. [*] 1185. In the predicate position stands a. The genitive of the personal pronouns (whether partitive or not): τὸ βιβλίον μου (σου, αὐτοῦ, etc.), or μου σου, αὐτοῦ. etc.) τὸ βιβλίον when other words precede, as ““ὃς ἔχει σου τὴν ὰδελοην” who has your sister to wife” And. 1.50. b. The genitive of the other pronouns used partitively. N. 1.—Homer does not use the article in the above cases, and often employs the orthotone forms (““σεῖο μέγα κλέος” thy great fame” π 241). Even in Attic ἐμοῦ for μου occurs (““ἐμοῦ τὰ φορτία” my wares” Ar. Vesp. 1398). N. 2.—The differences of position between 1184 and 1185 may be thus illustrated:
|My book is pretty:||καλόν ἐστί τὸ βιβλίον μου.|
|καλόν ἐστί μου τὸ βιβλίον.|
|My pretty book:||τὸ καλόν μου βιβλίον.|
|They read their books:||τὰ έαυτῶν <*>βιβλία ἀναγιγνώσκουσι.|
[*] 1186. The interrogatives τίς, ποῖος may take the article when a question is asked about an object before mentioned: ΣΩ. νῦν δ<*> ἐκε <*>να, ὦ Φαῖδρε, δυνάμεθα κρί_νειν. ΦΑΙ. τὰ ποῖα; SOCR. Now at last we can decide those questions. PH. The what questions? P. Phae. 277a. [*] 1187. So even with a personal pronoun: A. δεῦρο δὴ εὐθὺ ἡμῶν . . . B. ποῖ λέγεις καὶ παρὰ τίνας τοὺς ὑ_μᾶς; A. Come hither straight to us. B. Whither do you mean and who are you that I am to come to (you being who)? P. Lys. 203b. [*] 1188. ἄλλος other.—ὁ ἄλλος in the singular usually means the rest (ἡ ἄλλη Ἑλλάς the rest of Greece); in the plural. the others (οἱ ἄλλοι Ἕλληνες the other (ceteri) Greeks, but ἄλλοι Ἕλληνες other <*>lii) Greeks). A substantivized adjective or participle usually has the article when it stands in apposition to οἱ ἄλλοι: ““τἆλλα τὰ πολι_τικά” the other civic affairs” X. Hi. 9.5. On ἄλλος, ὁ ἄλλος (sometimes ἕτερος) besides, see 1272. [*] 1189. πολύς, ὀλίγος: τὸ πολύ usually means the great（er) part, οἱ πολλοί the multitude, the vulgar crowd; πλείονες several, οἱ πλείονες the majority, the mass; πλεῖστοι very many, οἱ πλεῖστοι the most; ὁλίγοι few, οἱ ὀλίγοι the oligarchs (as opposed to οἱ πολλοί). Note πολύς predicative: ““ἐπεὶ ἑώρα_ πολλὰ τὰ κρέα_” when he saw that there was abundance of meat” X. C. 1.3.6.