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1099. The article , , τό, was originally a demonstrative pronoun, and as such supplied the place of the personal pronoun of the third person. By gradual weakening it became the definite article. It also served as a relative pronoun (1105). (Cp. Germ. der, demonstrative article and relative; French le from ille.) as a demonstrative is still retained in part in Attic prose (1106), while the beginnings of its use as the article are seen even in Homer (1102).

, , τό IN HOMER

1100. In Homer , , τό is usually a demonstrative pronoun and is used substantively or adjectively; it also serves as the personal pronoun of the third person: ““ἀλλὰ τὸ θαυμάζωbut I marvel at thisδ 655, τὸν λωβητῆρα ἐπεσβόλον this prating brawler B 275, τὴν δ᾽ ἐγὼ οὐ λύ_σω but her I will not release A 29.

1101. In its substantival use either marks a contrast or recalls the subject (the anaphoric use). But with ἀλλά, δέ, αὐτάρ the subject is generally changed. It often precedes an explanatory relative clause: τῶν οἳ νῦν βροτοί εἰσι of those who are now mortal men A 272.

1102. , , τό often approaches to its later use as the definite article or is actually so used: τὸν μέν . . . τὸν δ᾽ ἕτερον E 145 (cp. 1107). a. The substantive often stands in apposition, and is added, as an afterthought, to the demonstrative (especially δέ) which is still an independent pronoun: ““αὐτὰρ τοῖσι γέρων ὁδὸν ἡγεμόνευενbut he, the old man, was leading the way for themω 225. In some cases the appositive is needed to complete the sense: ““ἐπεὶ τό γε καλὸν ἀκουέμεν ἐστὶν ἀοιδοῦsince this—to listen to a minstrel—is a good thingα 370. b. Often with adjectives and participles used substantively, with pronouns, and adverbs; especially when a contrast or distinction is implied: ““οἱ ἄλλοιthe othersΦ 371, τὰ ἐσσόμενα the things that are to be A 70, τὸ πάρος formerly N 228. The attributive adj. before the noun: ““τοὺς σούςthyΨ 572, ““τὰ μέγιστα ἄεθλαthe greatest prizesΨ 640; and in apposition: Ἶρον τὸν ἀλήτην Irus, the beggar ς 333. Hom. has πατὴρ οὑμός Θ 360 (but does not use πατὴρ ἐμός).

1103. In Hom. contrasts two objects, indicates a change of person, or a change of action on the part of the same person. Attic defines.

1104. The transition from the demonstrative to the article is so gradual that it is often impossible to distinguish between the two. Ordinarily Homer does not use the article where it is required in Attic prose. The Epic use is adopted in general by the lyric poets and in the lyric parts of tragedy. Even in tragic dialogue the article is less common than in prose. Hdt. has δέ and he, γάρ for he.


1105. The demonstrative , , τό is used as a relative pronoun in Homer only when the antecedent is definite (cp. that): τεύχεα δ᾽ ἐξενάριξε, τά οἱ πόρε χάλκεος Ἄρης he stripped off the arms that brazen Ares had given him H 146. The tragic poets use only the forms in τ-, and chiefly to avoid hiatus or to produce position: ““κτείνουσα τοὺς οὐ χρὴ κτανεῖνslaying those whom it is not right to slayE. And. 810. ( ὅς E. Hipp. 525.) On the use in Herodotus, see 338 D. 3.


1106. The demonstrative force of , , τό survives chiefly in connection with particles (μέν, δέ, γέ, τοί; and with καί preceding ).

1107. is a demonstrative commonly before μέν, δέ, and especially in contrasted expressions: μέν . . . δέ the one, this . . . the other, that, as in ““οἱ μὲν ἐπορεύοντο, οἱ δ᾽ εἵποντοthe one party proceeded, the other followedX. A. 3.4.16.

1108. The reference may be indefinite; in which case τὶς is often added: ““τοὺς μὲν ἀπέκτεινε, τοὺς δ᾽ ἐξέβαλενsome he put to death, and others he expelledX. A. 1.1.7, οἱ μέν τινες ἀπέθνῃσκον, οἱ δ᾽ ἔφευγον some were killed, but others escaped C. 3. 2. 10.

1109. With prepositions the order is usually inverted: ἐκ μὲν τῶν, εἰς δὲ τά (1663 a).

1110. In late writers (but in Demosthenes) the relative is used as in 1107: πόλεις, α_<*>ς μὲν ἀναιρῶν, εἰς α_<*>ς δὲ τοὺς φυγάδας κατάγων destroying some cities, into others bringing back their exiles D. 18.71 (the first instance).

1111. Note the adverbial expressions: τὸ (τὰ) μέν . . . τὸ (τὰ) δέ on the one hand . . . on the other hand, partly . . . partly (so also τοῦτο μέν . . . τοῦτο δέ 1256); τὸ δέ τι partly, τῇ μέν . . . τῇ δέ in this way . . . in that way, τὸ δέ whereas (1112), τῷ τοι therefore.

1112. δέ, δέ, τὸ δέ (without a preceding μέν clause) often mean but (or and) he, she, this. In the nominative the person referred to is usually different from the subject of the main verb: Κῦρος δίδωσιν αὐτῷ μυ_ρίους δα_ρεικούς: δὲ λαβὼν τὸ χρυ_σίον κ.τ.λ. Cyrus gives him (Clearchus) 10,000 darics; and he taking the money, etc. X. A. 1.1.9, ταῦτα ἀπαγγέλλουσι τοῖς στρατιώταις: τοῖς δὲ ὑποψία_ ἦν ὅτι ἄγοι πρὸς βασιλέα_ they report this to the soldiers; and they had a suspicion that he was leading (them) against the king X. A. 1.3.21, ““τὸ δ᾽ οὐκ ἔστι τοιοῦτονwhereas this is not soP. A. 37a.


1113. As a personal pronoun, chiefly after καί, and in the nominative: καὶ ὅς () and he (she): ““καὶ οἳ εἶπονand they saidX. A. 7.6.4. Also in ““ δ᾽ ὅςand he saidP. R. 327c (792). So καὶ τόν (τήν) used as the accusative of καὶ ὅς, as subject of a following infinitive in indirect discourse: καὶ τὸν εἰπεῖν and (he said that) he said P. S. 174a.

1114. In the nominative ὅς, , are usually thus written. Some write , , οἵ, αἵ when these words are used as demonstratives; but μέν . . . δέ is rare.

a. The forms ὅς, , here apparently relatives with an older demonstrative force, may be in reality demonstratives, ὅς being the demonstrative (article) to which the nominative sign -ς has been added. From this ὅς may be derived, by analogy, the demonstrative use of , and of οἶς, οὕς in fixed expressions (1110).

1115. Also in ““τὸν καὶ τόνthis one and that oneL. 1.23, ““τὸ καὶ τόthis and thatD. 9.68, τὰ καὶ τά D. 21.141, ““οὔτε τοῖς οὔτε τοῖςneither to these nor to thoseP. L. 701e. In the nom. ““ὃς καὶ ὅςsuch and such an oneHdt. 4.68.

1116. In an oblique case before the relatives ὅς, ὅσος, οἶος: ““τόν τε Εὐθύκριτον . . . καὶ τὸν ὃς ἔρη δεσπότης τούτου εἶναι, μάρτυρας παρέξομαιand as witness I will produce both Euthycritus and the man who said he was his masterL. 23.8, ““ὀρέγεται τοῦ ἔστιν ἴσονhe aims at that which is equalP. Ph. 75b, and often in Plato in defining philosophical terms.

1117. Rarely with prepositions, except in πρὸ τοῦ (or προτοῦ) before this time T. 1.118. On ἐν τοῖς with the superlative, see 1089.


1118. The article , , τό marks objects as definite and known, whether individuals (the particular article) or classes (the generic article). The context must determine the presence of the generic article.

a. There is no indefinite article in Greek, but a, an is often represented by τὶς (1267).


1119. The particular article denotes individual persons or things as distinguished from others of the same kind. Thus, μαίνεται ἅ_νθρωπος the man is mad (a definite person, distinguished from other men) P. Phae. 268c.

1120. Special uses of the particular article. The particular article defines

a. Objects well known: τῶν ἑπτὰ σοφώτατος Σόλων Solon the wisest of the Seven (Sages) P. Tim. 20d.

b Objects already mentioned or in the mind of the speaker or writer (the anaphoric article): εἶπον ὅτι τάλαντον ἀργυρίου ἕτοιμος εἴην δοῦναι . . . δὲ λαβὼν τὸ τάλαντον κ.τ.λ. I said that I was ready to give him a talent of silver . . . and he taking the talent, etc. L. 12.9-10.

c. Objects specially present to the senses or mind (the deictic article): ““λαβε τὸ βιβλίονtake the bookP. Th. 143c, ““βουλόμενος τὴν μάχην ποιῆσαιwishing to fight the battleT. 4.91. Hence the article is regularly used with demonstrative pronouns (1176).

N.—The foregoing (a - c) uses recall the old demonstrative force of the article. Words that ordinarily have no article may receive the article when this older force is present.

d. Objects particularized by an attributive or by a following description: ““ δῆμος Ἀθηναίωνthe people of the AtheniansAes. 3.116, ““λέγε τὴν ἐπιστολήν, ἣν ἔπεμψενread the letter that he sentD. 18.39. Cp. 1178 d.

e. Objects marked as usual or proper under the circumstances: τὸ μέρος τῶν ψήφων διώκων οὐκ ἔλαβεν the prosecutor did not get the (requisite) part of the votes D. 18.103.

f. Objects representative of their class (the distributive article, which resembles the generic use; often translated by a, each): ““ὑπισχνεῖται δώσειν τρία ἡμιδα_ρεικὰ τοῦ μηνὸς τῷ στρατιώτῃhe promises to give each soldier three half-darics a monthX. A. 1.3.21. But the article may be omitted: καὶ εἵλοντο δέκα, ἕνα ἀπὸ φυ_λῆς and they chose ten, one from (each) tribe X. H. 2.4.23.

1121. The article often takes the place of an unemphatic possessive pronoun when there is no doubt as to the possessor. ““Κῦρος καταπηδήσα_ς ἀπὸ τοῦ ἅρματος τὸν θώρα_κα ἐνέδυ_Cyrus leaped down from his chariot and put on his breastplateX. A. 1.8.3.


1122. The generic article denotes an entire class as distinguished from other classes. Thus, ἄνθρωπος man (as distinguished from other beings), οἱ γέροντες the aged; δεῖ τὸν στρατιώτην φοβεῖσθαι μᾶλλον τὸν ἄρχοντα τοὺς πολεμίους the (a) soldier should fear his commander rather than the enemy X. A. 2.6.10, ““πονηρὸν συ_κοφάντηςthe informer is a vile thingD. 18.242.

1123. In the singular the generic article makes a single object the representative of the entire class; in the plural it denotes all the objects belonging to a class. The generic article is especially common, in the plural, with adjectives used substantively: ““οὐκ ἄν τις εἴποι ὡς τοὺς κακούργους καὶ ἀδίκους εἴα_ καταγελᾶνno one could say that he permitted the malefactor and the wrongdoer to deride himX. A. 1.9.13.

1124. The Article with Participles.—A participle with the article may denote an entire class: βουλόμενος any one who wishes. Cp. 2050, 2052.

τυχών any chance comer, ἡγησόμενος a guide, ““οὐκ ἀπορήσετε τῶν ἐθελησόντων ὑπὲρ ὑ_μῶν κινδυ_νεύεινyou will not be in want of those who will be willing to encounter danger for youD. 20.166, οἱ λογοποιοῦντες newsmongers 4. 49. The same sense is expressed by πᾶς with a participle or adjective. On the article with a participle in the predicate, see 1152.

a. When the reference is to a particular occasion, the article may be particular (2052); as λέγων the speaker on a definite occasion.


1125. The article may be used with cardinal numerals

a. When the numeral states the definite part of a whole (expressed or understood): ἀπῆσαν τῶν λόχων δώδεκα ὄντων οἱ τρεῖς of the companies, numbering twelve (in all), there were absent three X. H. 7.5.10, εἷς παρὰ τοὺς δέκα one man in (comparison with) ten X. O. 20.16, ““τῶν πέντε τὰ_ς δύο μοίπα_ςtwo fifthsT. 1.10, δύο μέρη two thirds 3. 15. (The genitive is omitted when the denominator exceeds the numerator by one.)

b. When the numeral is approximate: ““ἔμειναν ἡμέρα_ς ἀμφὶ τὰ_ς τριά_κονταthey remained about thirty daysX. A. 4.8.22, ““γεγονότες τὰ πεντήκοντα ἔτηabout fifty years of ageX. C. 1.2.13.

c. When the number is used abstractly (without reference to any definite object): ““ὅπως μὴ ἐρεῖς ὅτι ἔστιν τὰ δώδεκα δὶς ἕξbeware of saying 12 is twice 6P. R. 337b.

N. Ordinals usually omit the article and regularly do so in statements of time in the dative (1540): ““δευτέρῳ μηνὶ τὴν πόλιν ἐτείχιζονin the second month they fortified the cityT. 8.64.


1126. The article is often omitted (1) in words and phrases which have survived from the period when , , τό was a demonstrative pronoun; (2) when a word is sufficiently definite by itself; (3) when a word expresses a general conception without regard to its application to a definite person. The generic article is frequently omitted, especially with abstracts (1132), without appreciable difference in meaning. Its presence or absence is often determined by the need of distinguishing subject from predicate (1150), by the rhythm of the sentence, etc.

1127. The article is omitted in many adverbial designations of time, mostly with prepositions (except ἡμέρα_ς by day, νυκτός by night).

Thus, περὶ μέσα_ς νύκτας about midnight, ἅμα ἕῳ just before daylight, ὥρᾳ ἕτους at the season of the year. So with ὄρθρος daybreak, δείλη afternoon, ἑσπέρα_ evening, ἔαρ spring; and ἐκ παίδων from childhood. Most of the above cases are survivals of the older period when the article had a demonstrative force.

1128. The article is very often omitted in phrases containing a preposition: ““ἐν ἀρχῇ τοῦ λόγουin the beginning of the speechD. 37.23, ““ἔξω βελῶνout of reach of the missilesX. A. 3.4.15, ““Ἠιόνα τὴν ἐπὶ Στρυ_μόνιEion on the StrymonT. 1.98.

1129. Words denoting persons, when they are used of a class, may omit the article. So ἄνθρωπος, στρατηγός, θεός divinity, god ( θεός the particular god). Thus, ““πάντων μέτρον ἄνθρωπός ἐστινman is the measure of all thingsP. Th. 178b.

1130. Adjectives and participles used substantively have no article when the reference is general: ““μέσον ἡμέρα_ςmiddayX. A. 1.8.8, ψυ_χρόν cold, ““θερμόνheatP. S. 186d, πέμψαι προκαταληψομένους τὰ ἄκρα to send men to preoccupy the heights X. A. 1.3.14. Rarely when an adverb is used adjectively: ““τῶν ἐχθρῶν ἄρδην ὄλεθροςthe utter destruction of the enemyD. 19.141.


1131. Abstract substantives generally have the article: ““ ἀρετὴ μᾶλλον φυγὴ σῴζει τὰ_ς ψυ_χά_ςvalour rather than flight saves men's livesX. C. 4.1.5.

1132. The names of the virtues, vices, arts, sciences, occupations often omit the article: τί σωφροσύνη, τί μανία_; what is temperance, what is madness? X. M. 1.1.16, ἀρχὴ φιλία_ς μὲν ἔπαινος, ἔχθρα_ς δὲ ψόγος praise is the beginning of friendship, blame of enmity I. 1.33. Similarly μουσική music, γεωργία_ agriculture. So also with δόξα opinion, νοῦς mind, τέχνη art, νόμος law.

1133. The article must be used when reference is made to a definite person or thing or to an object well known: ““ τῶν Ἑλλήνων εὔνοιαthe goodwill of the GreeksAes. 3.70, (ὑ_μῖν) ““ σχολήyour usual idlenessD. 8.53.

1134. The article may be omitted in designations of space; as βάθος depth, ὕψος height; also μέγεθος size, πλῆθος size, amount. γένος and ὄνομα, used as accusatives of respect (1600), may omit the article.

1135. The article may be omitted with some concrete words conveying a general idea, as ψυ_χή soul, σῶμα body (but the parts of the body regularly have the article).


1136. Names of persons and places are individual and therefore omit the article unless previously mentioned (1120 b) or specially marked as well known: ““Θουκυ_δίδης ἈθηναῖοςThucydides an AthenianT. 1.1, τοὺς στρατιώτα_ς αὐτῶν, τοὺς παρὰ Κλέαρχον ἀπελθόντας, εἴα_ Κῦρος τὸν Κλέαρχον ἔχειν their soldiers who seceded to Clearchus, Cyrus allowed Clearchus to retain X. A. 1.4.7, Σόλων D. 20.90, οἱ Ἡρα_<*>λέες the Heracleses P. Th. 169b.

1137. Names of deities omit the article, except when emphatic (νὴ τὸν Δία by Zeus) or when definite cults are referred to: τὸ τῆς Ἀθηνᾶς ἕδος the sanctuary of Athena (at Athens) I. 15.2. Names of festivals vary in prose writers (no article in inscriptions): Παναθήναια the Panathenaea (but ““Παναθηναίοις τοῖς μι_κροῖςat the Lesser PanathenaeaL. 21.4). Names of shrines have the article.

1138. Names of nations may omit the article, but οἱ Ἕλληνες is usual when opposed to οἱ βάρβαροι the barbarians. When nations are opposed, the article is usually absent: πόλεμος Ἀθηναίων καὶ Πελοποννησίων T. 2.1 (but πόλεμος τῶν Πελοποννησίων καὶ Ἀθηναίων 1. 1). The name of a nation without the article denotes the entire people. Names of families may omit the article: Ἀσκληπιάδαι P. R. 406a.

1139. Continents: Εὐρώπη Europe, Ἀσία_ Asia. Other names of countries, except those originally adjectives (as Ἀττική Attica), omit the article (Λιβύη Libya). γῆ and χώρα_ may be added only to such names as are treated as adjectives: Βοιωτία_ (γῆ) Boeotia. The names of countries standing in the genitive of the divided whole (1311) usually omit the article only when the genitive precedes the governing noun: ““Σικελία_ς τὸ πλεῖστονthe most of SicilyT. 1.12. The article is generally used with names of mountains and rivers; but is often omitted with names of islands, seas (but Πόντος the Pontus), and winds. Names of cities usually omit the article. Names of cities, rivers, and mountains often add πόλις, ποταμός, ὄρος (1142 c). The article is omitted with proper names joined with αὐτός used predicatively (1206 b): ““αὐτοὺς Ἀθηναίουςthe Athenians themselvesT. 4.73.

1140. Several appellatives, treated like proper names, may omit the article: βασιλεύς the king of Persia ( βασιλεύς is anaphoric (1120 b) or refers expressly to a definite person). Titles of official persons: πρυτάνεις the Prytans, στρατηγοί the Generals. Names of relationship, etc.: πατήρ father, ἀνήρ husband, γυνή wife (but the article is needed when a definite individual is spoken of). Thus: ““ἦκον δὲ τῷ μὲν μήτηρ, τῷ δὲ γυνὴ καὶ παῖδεςto one there came his mother, to another his wife and childrenAnd. 1.48. So also πατρίς fatherland.

1141. Similarly in the case of words forming a class by themselves, and some others used definitely: ἥλιος sun, οὐρανός heaven, ὧραι seasons, κεραυνός thunder, θάνατος death; ἄστυ, πόλις city, ἀκρόπολις citadel, ἀγορά_ market-place, τεῖχος city-wall, πρυτανεῖον prytaneum, νῆσος island (all used of definite places), θάλαττα sea as opposed to the mainland, but θάλαττα of a definite sea; similarly γῆ earth, land.

1142. When the name of a person or place is defined by an appositive (916) or attributive, the following distinctions are to be noted:

a. Persons: Περδίκκα_ς Ἀλεξάνδρου Perdiccas, son of Alexander T. 2.99: the official designation merely stating the parentage. Δημοσθένης Ἀλκισθένους (the popular designation) distinguishes Demosthenes, the son of Alcisthenes (T. 3.91) from other persons named Demosthenes. (Similarly with names of nations.)

b. Deities: the article is used with the name and with the epithet or (less often) with neither: ““τῷ Διὶ τῷ Ὀλυμπίῳto Olympian ZeusT. 5.31, Διὶ ἐλευθερίῳ to Zeus guardian of freedom 2. 71.

c. Geographical Names are usually treated as attributives, as ““ Εὐφρά_της ποταμόςthe river EuphratesX. A. 1.4.11, ““ Βόλβη λίμνηlake BolbeT. 4.103. In a very few cases (six times in Thuc.) is omitted with the name of a river when ποταμός is inserted; but Hdt. often omits . With the names of mountains the order is ““τὸ Πήλιον ὄροςMt. PelionHdt. 7.129 when the gender agrees, but otherwise ““ἐς τὸ ὄρος τὴν Ἰστώνηνto Mt. IstoneT. 3.85 (rarely as ““ὑπὸ τῇ Αἴτνῃ τῷ ὄρειat the foot of Mt. AetnaT. 3.116). With names of islands, towns, etc., the order varies: ““τὸ Παρθένιον πόλισμαthe town of PartheniumX. A. 7.8.21; ““ Ψυττάλεια νῆσοςthe island of PsyttaleaHdt. 8.95; ““Τραγία_ νῆσοςthe island of TragiaT. 1.116; ““τοῦ Πειραιῶς τοῦ λιμένοςof the harbour of PeiraeusT. 2.93; τὸ φρούριον τὸ Λάβδαλον fort Labdalon 7. 3. The city of Mende would be Μένδη πόλις, Μένδη πόλις, Μένδη πόλις.


1143. A single article, used with the first of two or more nouns connected by and, produces the effect of a single notion: οἱ στρατηγοὶ καὶ λοχα_γοί the generals and captains (the commanding officers) X. A. 2.2.8, τὰ_ς μεγίστα_ς καὶ ἐλαχίστα_ς ναῦς the largest and the smallest ships (the whole fleet) T. 1.10, ““ τῶν πολλῶν διαβολή τε καὶ φθόνοςthe calumniation and envy of the multitudeP. A. 28a. Rarely when the substantives are of different genders: ““περὶ τὰ_ς ἑαυτ ῶν ψυ_χὰ_ς καὶ σώματαconcerning their own lives and personsX. A. 3.2.20.

1144. A repeated article lays stress on each word: ““ Θρᾷξ καὶ βάρβαροςthe Thracian and the barbarianD. 23.132 (here the subject remains the same), ““οἱ στρατηγοὶ καὶ οἱ λοχα_γοίthe generals and the captainsX. A. 7.1.13.

1145. Instead of repeating a noun with the article it may suffice to repeat the article: ““ βίος τῶν ἰδιωτευόντων η: τῶν τυραννευόντωνthe life of persons in a private station or that of princesI. 2.4.

1146. A substantive followed by an attributive genitive and forming with it a compound idea, usually omits the article: τελευτὴ τοῦ βίου (the) end of his life (‘life-end’ as life-time) X. A. 1.1.1. (Less commonly τελευτὴ τοῦ βίου X. A. 1.9.30.) Cp. 1295 a.

1147. When the genitive dependent on a substantive is a proper name: ““μετὰ Εὐβοία_ς ἅλωσινafter the capture of EuboeaT. 2.2, and μετὰ τὴν Λέσβου ἅλωσιν after the capture of Lesbos 3. 51. A preceding genitive thus often takes the place of the article: ““διὰ χρόνου πλῆθοςby reason of the extent of timeT. 1.1.

1148. Concrete coördinated words forming a copulative expression may omit the article: ““πρὸς οὖν παίδων καὶ γυναικῶν ἱκετεύω ὑ_μᾶςby your children and wives I beseech youL. 4.20, ““πόλιν καὶ οἰκία_ς ἡμῖν παράδοτεsurrender to us your city and housesT. 2.72, ““ἱέρειαι καὶ ἱερεῖςpriestesses and priestsP. R. 461a. Cp. man and wife, horse and rider.

1149. An appositive to the personal pronouns of the first and second persons has the article when the appositive would have it (as third person) with the pronoun omitted: ὑ_μεῖς οἱ ἡγεμόνες πρὸς ἐμὲ πάντες συμβάλλετε do you, captains, all confer with me (οἱ ἡγεμόνες συμβάλλοι<*>) X. C. 6.2.41, οὐ σφόδρα χρώμεθα οἱ Κρῆτες τοῖς ξενικοῖς ποιήμασιν we Cretans do not make very much use of foreign poems P. L. 680c, χαίρω ἀκούων ὑ_μῶν τῶν σοφῶν I delight in listening to you <*> P. Ion 532 d.


1150. A predicate noun has no article, and is thus distinguished from the subject: καλεῖται ἀκρόπολις ἔτι ὑπ᾽ Ἀθηναίων πόλις the acropolis is still calledcityby the Athenians T. 2.15.

1151. Predicate comparatives and superlatives, possessive pronouns, and ordinals have no article: ᾤμην τὴν ἐμαυτοῦ γυναῖκα πα_σῶν σωφρονεστάτην <*> I thought that my wife was (the) most virtuous of all L. 1.10, Χαιρεφῶν <*> ἑταῖρος ἦν Chaerephon was a friend of mine P. A. 21a. Cp. 1125 d.

1152. Even in the predicate the article is used with a noun referring to a definite object (an individual or a class) that is well known, previously mentioned or hinted at, or identical with the subject: οἱ δ᾽ ἄλλοι ἐπιχειροῦσι βάλλειν <*> Δέξιππον ἀνακαλοῦντες τὸν προδότην the rest try to strike Dexippus calling himthe traitorX. A. 6.6.7, οὗτοι ἦσαν οἱ φεύγοντες τὸν ἔλεγχον these men were those who (as I have said) avoided the inquiry Ant. 6.27. οἱ τιθέμενοι τοὺς νόμονς <*> ἀσθενεῖς ἄνθρωποί εἰσι καὶ οἱ πολλοί the enactors of the laws are the weak men and the multitude P. G. 483b, ““ὑπώπτευε δὲ εἶναι τὸν διαβάλλοντα Μένωναhe suspected that it was Menon who traduced himX. A. 2.5.28 (here subject and predicate could change places). So also with αὐτός the same (1209 a), θἄ_τερον one of two (69), τοὐναντίον the opposite.


1153. The article has the power to make substantival any word or words to which it is prefixed.

a. Adjectives: σοφός the wise man, τὸ δίκαιον justice.

b. Participles (with indefinite force): βουλόμενος whoever wills, the first that offers. Cp. 1124.

N. 1.—Such participial nouns appear in active, middle, and passive forms, and admit the distinctions of tense: ““οἱ ἐθελήσοντες μένεινthose who shall be willing to remainX. H. 7.5.24.

N. 2.—Thucydides often substantivizes the neuter participle to form abstract expressions: τῆς πόλεως τὸ τι_μώμενον the dignity of the State 2. 63. Such participial nouns denote an action regulated by time and circumstance. Contrast τὸ δεδιός fear (in actual operation) 1. 36 with τὸ δέος (simply fear in the abstract).

c. Preposition and case: ““οἱ ἐπὶ τῶν πρα_γμάτωνthose in power, the governmentD. 18.247, ““οἱ ἐν τῇ ἡλικίᾳthose in the prime of lifeT. 6.24.

d. With the genitive, forming a noun-phrase (1299): ““τὰ τῶν στρατιωτῶνthe condition of the soldiersX. A. 3.1.20, ““τὰ τῆς ὀργῆςthe outbursts of wrathT. 2.60.

e. Adverbs: ““οἵ τ᾽ ἔνδον συνελαμβάνοντο καὶ οἱ ἐκτὸς κατεκόπησανthose who were inside were arrested and those outside were cut downX. A. 2.5.32. Similarly οἱ τότε the men of that time, οἱ ἐκεῖ the dead, οἱ πάλαι the ancients.

N.—An adverb preceded by the article may be used like an adjective: ““ ὀρθῶς κυβερνήτηςthe good pilotP. R. 341c. The article is rarely omitted.

f. Infinitives: ““καλοῦσί γε ἀκολασία_ν τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ἡδονῶν ἄρχεσθαιthey call intemperance being ruled by one's pleasuresP. Ph. 68e.

g. Any single word or clause: τὸ ὑ_μεῖς ὅταν λέγω, τὴν πόλιν λέγω when I say You, I mean the State D. 18.88, ὑπερβὰ_ς τὸ δίκα_ς ὑπεχέτω τοῦ φόνου omitting (the words) ‘let him submit to judgment for the murderD. 23.220.


Attributive Position of the Article

1154. A word or group of words standing between the article and its noun, or immediately after the article if the noun, with or without the article, precedes, is an attributive. Thus, σοφὸς ἀνήρ, ἀνὴρ σοφός, or ἀνὴρ σοφός (cp. 1168).

1155. This holds true except in the case of such post-positive words as μέν, δέ, γέ, τέ, γάρ, δή, οἶμαι, οὖν, τοίνυν; and τὶς in Hdt.: τῶν τις Περσέων one of the Persians 1. 85. In Attic, τὶς intervenes only when an attributive follows the article: ““τῶν βαρβάρων τινὲς ἱππέωνsome of the barbarian cavalryX. A. 2.5.32.

1156. Adjectives, participles, adverbs, and (generally) prepositions with their cases, if preceded by the article, have attributive position.

1157. (1) Commonly, as in English, the article and the attributive precede the noun: σοφὸς ἀνήρ the wise man. In this arrangement the emphasis is on the attributive. Thus, ““τῇ πρώτῃ ἡμέρᾳon the first dayT. 3.96, ““ἐν τῷ πρὸ τοῦ χρόνῳin former timesD. 53.12, ““τὸν ἐκ τῶν Ἑλλήνων εἰς τοὺς βαρβάρους φόβον ἰδώνseeing the terror inspired by the Greeks in the barbariansX. A. 1.2.18.

1158. (2) Less often, the article and the attributive follow the noun preceded by the article: ἀνὴρ σοφός the wise man. Thus, ““τὸ στράτευμα τὸ τῶν Ἀθηναίωνthe army of the AtheniansT. 8.50, ““ἐν τῇ πορείᾳ τῇ μέχρι ἐπὶ θάλαττανon the journey as far as the seaX. A. 5.1.1. In this arrangement the emphasis is on the noun, as something definite or previously mentioned, and the attributive is added by way of explanation. So τοὺς κύνας τοὺς χαλεποὺς διδέα_σι they tie up the dogs, the savage ones (I mean) X. A. 5.8.24.

1159. (3) Least often, the noun takes no article before it, when it would have none if the attributive were dropped: ἀνὴρ σοφός the wise man (lit. a man, I mean the wise one). Thus, ““μάχαις ταῖς πλείοσιin the greater number of battlesT. 7.11, σύνειμι μὲν θεοῖς, σύνειμι δὲ ἀνθρώποις τοῖς ἀγαθοῖς I associate with gods, I associate with good men X. M. 2.1.32. In this arrangement the attributive is added by way of explanation; as in the last example: with men, the good (I mean).

1160. A proper name, defining a preceding noun with the article, may itself have the article: ἀδελφὸς Ἀρεθούσιος (his) brother Arethusius D. 53.10. Cp. 1142 c. An appositive to a proper name has the article when it designates a characteristic or something well known: ““ Σόλων παλαιὸς ἦν φιλόδημοςSolon of ancient times was a lover of the peopleAr. Nub. 1187, Πα_σίων Μεγαρεύς Pasion, the Megarian X. A. 1.4.7.

1161. The genitive of a substantive limiting the meaning of another substantive may take any one of four positions:—

a. τὸ τοῦ πατρὸς βιβλίον the father's book (very common). Thus, <*> τεθνεώτων ἀρετή the valour of the dead L. 12.36.

b. τὸ βιβλίον τὸ τοῦ πατρός (less common). Thus, ““ οἰκία_ Σίμωνοςthe house of SimonL. 3.32.

c. τοῦ πατρὸς τὸ βιβλίον (to emphasize the genitive or when a genitive has just preceded). Thus, ““τῆς ϝί_κης τὸ μέγεθοςthe greatness of the victoryX. H. 6.4.19.

d. τὸ βιβλίον τοῦ πατρός (very common). Thus, ““ τόλμα τῶν λεγόντωνthe effrontery of the speakersL. 12.41. The genitive of the divided whole (1306) is so placed or as in c.

N. 1.—A substantive with no article is sometimes followed by the article and the attributive genitive: ἐπὶ σκηνὴν ἰόντες τὴν Ξενοφῶντος going to the ten<*> (namely, that) of Xenophon X. A. 6.4.19. Cp. 1159.

1162. The order bringing together the same forms of the article (περὶ τοῦ τ<*> πατρὸς βιβλίου) is avoided, but two or three articles of different form may stand together: ““τὸ τῆς τοῦ ξαίνοντος τέχνης ἔργονthe work of the art of the wool-carderP. Pol. 281a.

1163. The attributive position is employed with the possessive pronouns and the possessive genitives of the reflexive and demonstrative pronouns (1184), αὐτο<*> meaning same (1173), and πᾶς expressing the sum total (1174).

1164. Two or more attributives of a substantive are variously placed: (1) ““εἰς τὰ_ς ἄλλα_ς Ἀρκαδικὰ_ς πόλειςto the other Arcadian citiesX. H. 7.4.38. (2) ““τὸ ἐν Ἀρκαδίᾳ τὸ τοῦ Διὸς τοῦ Λυκαίου ἱερόνthe sanctuary of Lycean Zeus in ArcadiaP. R. 565d. (3) ““ἐς τὸν ἐπὶ τῷ στόματι τοῦ λιμένος στενοῦ ὄντος τὸν ἕτερον πύργονto the other tower at the mouth of the harbour which was narrowT. 8.90. (4) ““ἐν τῇ οἰκίᾳ τῇ Χαρμίδου τῇ παρὰ τὸ Ὀλυμπιεῖονin the house of Charmides by the OlympieumAnd. 1.16. (5) ““ἀπὸ τῶν ἐν τῇ Ἀσίᾳ πόλεων Ἑλληνίδωνfrom the Greek cities in AsiaX. H. 4.3.15. (6) ““πρὸς τὴν ἐκ τῆς Σικελία_ς τῶν Ἀθηναίων μεγάλην κακοπρα_γία_νwith regard to the great failure of the Athenians in SicilyT. 8.2. (7) ““τὸ τεῖχος τὸ μακρὸν τὸ νότιονthe long southern wallAnd. 3.7.

1165. A relative or temporal clause may be treated as an attributive: ““Σόλων ἐμί_σει τοὺς οἷος οὗτος ἀνθρώπουςSolon detested men like this man hereD. 19.254.

1166. Position of an attributive participle with its modifiers (A = article, N = noun, P = participle, D = word or words dependent on P): (1) APND: ““τὸν ἐφεστηκότα κίνδυ_νον τῇ πόλειthe danger impending over the StateD. 18.176. (2) APDN: τοὺς περιεστηκότας τῇ πόλει κινδύ_νους D. 18.179. (3) ADPN: τὸν τότε τῇ πόλει περιστάντα κίνδυ_νον D. 18.188. (4) NADP: ““ἕτοιμον ἔχει δύναμιν τὴν . . . καταδουλωσουένην ἄπανταςhe has in readiness a force to enslave allD. 8.46.

1167. a. Especially after verbal substantives denoting an action or a state an attributive prepositional phrase is added without the article being repeated: ““τὴν μεγάλην στρατεία_ν Ἀθηναίων καὶ τῶν ξυμμάχων ἐς Αἴγυπτονthe great expedition of the Athenians and their allies to EgyptT. 1.110.

b. A word defining a substantivized participle, adjective, or infinitive may be placed before the article for emphasis: ““καὶ ταῦτα τοὺς εἰδότας καλοῦμενand we will summon those who have knowledge of thisD. 57.65, ““τούτων τοῖς ἐναντίοιςwith the opposite of theseT. 7.75.

Predicate Position of Adjectives

1168. A predicate adjective either precedes or follows the article and its noun: σοφὸς ἀνήρ or ἀνὴρ σοφός the man is wise.

Thus, ““ἀτελεῖ τῇ νί_κῃ ἀνέστησανthey retired with their victory incompleteT. 8.27, ““ψι_λὴν ἔχων τὴν κεφαλήνwith his head bareX. A. 1.8.6, ““τὰ_ς τριήρεις ἀφείλκυσαν κενά_ςthey towed off the ships without their crewsT. 2.93.

a. This is called the predicate position, which often lends emphasis.

1169. A predicate adjective or substantive may thus be the equivalent of a clause of a complex sentence: ““ἀθάνατον τὴν περὶ αὑτῶν μνήμην καταλείψουσινthey will leave behind a remembrance of themselves that will never dieI. 9.3, ἐπήρετο πόσον τι ἄγοι τὸ στράτευμα he asked about how large the force was that he was leading ( = πόσον τι εἴη τὸ στράτευμα ἄγοι 2647) X. C. 2.1.2, παρ᾽ ἑκόντων τῶν ξυμμάχων τὴν ἡγεμονία_ν ἔλαβον they received the leadership from their allies (being willing) who were willing to confer it I. 1.17.

1170. A predicate expression may stand inside an attributive phrase: δεινὸς (pred.) ““λεγόμενος γεωργόςhe who is called a skilful agriculturistX. O. 19.14. This is common with participles of naming with the article.

1171. The predicate position is employed with the demonstratives οὗτος, ὅδε, ἐκεῖνος, and ἄμφω, ἀμφότερος, ἑκάτερος, and ἕκαστος; with the possessive genitives of personal and relative pronouns (1185, 1196) and of αὐτός (1201); with αὐτός meaning self (1206 b); with the genitive of the divided whole (1306), as ““τούτων οἱ πλεῖστοιthe most of theseX. A. 1.5.13, οἱ ἄριστοι τῶν περὶ αὐτόν the bravest of his companions 1. 8. 27; and with πᾶς meaning all (1174 b).

a. This wise man is οὗτος σοφὸς ἀνήρ, σοφὸς ἀνὴρ οὗτος (and also σοφὸς οὗτος ἀνήρ).


1172. Adjectives of Place.—When used in the predicate position (1168) ἄκρος (high) means the top of, μέσος (middle) means the middle of, ἔσχατος (extreme) means the end of. Cp. summus, medius, extremus.

Attributive PositionPredicate Position
τὸ ἄκρον ὅρος the lofty mountainἄκρον τὸ ὄρος )the top of
τὸ ὄρος ἄκρον )the mountain
μέση ἀγορά_ the central marketμέση ἀγορά_ )the centre of
ἀγορὰ_ μέση )the market
ἐσχάτη νῆσος the farthest islandἐσχάτη νῆσος )the verge of
νῆσος ἐσχάτη )the island

Thus, περὶ ἄκραις ταῖς χερσὶ χειρῖδες gloves on the fingers (points of the hands) X. C. 8.8.17, ““διὰ μέσου τοῦ παραδείσου ῥεῖflows through the middle of the parkX. A. 1.2.7. The meaning of the predicate position is also expressed by (τὸ) ἄκρον τοῦ ὄρους, (τὸ) μέσον τῆς ἀγορᾶς, etc.

1173. μόνος, ἥμισυς.—(1) Attributive: μόνος παῖς the only son, αἱ ἡμίσειαι χάριτες half-favours. (2) Predicate: μόνος παῖς (or παῖς μόνος) παίζει the boy plays alone, ἥμισυς βίος (or βίος ἥμισυς) half of life, τὰ ἅρματα τὰ ἡμίσεα half of the chariots.

αὐτός: (1) Attributive: αὐτὸς ἀνήρ the same man. (2) Predicate: αὐτὸς ἀνήρ or ἀνὴρ αὐτός the man himself.

1174. πᾶς (and in the strengthened forms ἅπα_ς, σύμπα_ς all together). a. In the attributive position πᾶς denotes the whole regarded as the sum of all its parts (the sum total, the collective body): οἱ πάντες πολῖται the whole body of citizens, πᾶσα Σικελία_ the whole of Sicily, ““ἀποκτεῖναι τοὺς ἅπαντας Μυτιληναίουςto put to death the entire Mitylenean populationT. 3.36.

N.—Hence, with numbers, οἱ πάντες, τὰ σύμπαντα in all: ““ἑξακόσιοι καὶ χί_λιοι οἱ πάντες1600 in allT. 1.60.

b. In the predicate (and usual) position πᾶς means all: πάντες οἱ πολῖται or (often emphatic) οἱ πολῖται πάντες all the citizens (individually), ““περὶ πάντας τοὺς θεοὺς ἠσεβήκα_σι καὶ εἰς ἅπα_σαν τὴν πόλιν ἡμαρτήκα_σινthey have committed impiety towards all the gods and have sinned against the whole StateL. 14.42.

c. Without the article: πάντες πολῖται all (conceivable) citizens, ““μισθωσάμενοι πάντας ἀνθρώπουςhiring every conceivable personL. 12.60.

N. 1.—In the meaning pure, nothing but, πᾶς is strictly a predicate and has no article: κύκλῳ φρουρούμενος ὑπὸ πάντων πολεμίων hemmed in by a ring of guards all of whom are his enemies ( = πάντες ὑφ᾽ ὧν φρουρεῖται πολέμιοί εἰσι) P. R. 579b. So πᾶσα κακία_ utter baseness.

N. 2.—The article is not used with πᾶς if the noun, standing alone, would have no article.

N. 3.—In the singular, πᾶς often means every: ““σὺν σοὶ πᾶσα ὁδὸς εὔποροςwith you every road is easy to travelX. A. 2.5.9, ““πᾶσα θάλασσαevery seaT. 2.41.

1175. ὅλος: (1) Attributive: τὸ ὅλον στράτευμα the whole army; (2) Predicate: ὅλον τὸ στράτευμα (or τὸ στράτευμα ὅλον) the army as a whole, τὴν νύκτα ὅλην the entire night. With no article: ὅλον στράτευμα a whole army, ὅλα στρατεύματα whole armies.

1176. The demonstrative pronouns οὗτος, ὅδε, ἐκεῖνος, and αὐτός self, in agreement with a noun, usually take the article, and stand in the predicate position (1168): οὗτος ἀνήρ or ἀνὴρ οὗτος (never οὗτος ἀνήρ) this man, αὐτὸς ἀνήρ or ἀνὴρ αὐτός the man himself ( αὐτὸς ἀνήρ the same man 1173).

1177. One or more words may separate the demonstrative from its noun: ““ τούτου ἔρως τοῦ ἀνθρώπουthe love of this manP. S. 213c. Note also τῶν οἰκείων τινὲς τῶν ἐκείνων some of their slaves (some of the slaves of those men) P. A. 33d.

1178. οὗτος, ὅδε, ἐκεῖνος sometimes omit the article.

a. Regularly, when the noun is in the predicate: ““αὕτη ἔστω ἱκανὴ ἀπολογία_let this be a sufficient defenceP. A. 24b, ““οἶμαι ἐμὴν ταύτην πατρίδα εἶναιI think this is my native countryX. A. 4.8.4.

b. Usually, with proper names, except when anaphoric (1120 b): ἐκεῖνος Θουκυ_δίδης that (well-known) Thucydides Ar. Ach. 708.

c. Usually, with definite numbers: ““ταύτα_ς τριά_κοντα μνᾶςthese thirty minaeD. 27.23.

d. Optionally, when a relative clause follows: ““ἐπὶ γῆν τήνδε ἤλθομεν, ἐν οἱ πατέρες ἡμῶν Μήδων ἐκράτησανwe have come against this land, in which our fathers conquered the MedesT. 2.74.

e. In the phrase (often contemptuous) οὗτος ἀνήρ P. G. 505c; and in other expressions denoting some emotion: ἄνθρωπος οὑτοσί_ D. 18.243.

f. Sometimes, when the demonstrative follows its noun: ἐπίγραμμα τόδε T. 6.59. So often in Hdt.

g. Frequently, in poetry.

1179. ἄμφω, ἀμφότερος both, ἑκάτερος each (of two), ἕκαστος each (of several) have the predicate position. But with ἕκαστος the article is often omitted: κατὰ τὴν ἡμέρα_ν ἑκάστην (day by day and) every day, καθ᾽ ἑκάστην ἡμέρα_ν every day.

1180. The demonstratives of quality and quantity, τοιοῦτος, τοιόσδε, τοσοῦτος, τοσόσδε, τηλικοῦτος, when they take the article, usually follow it: ““τῶν τοσούτων καὶ τοιούτων ἀγαθῶνof so many and such blessingsD. 18.305, τοῦτο τὸ τοιοῦτον ἔθος such a practice as this 21. 123. δεῖνα such a one (336) regularly takes the article.

a. But the predicate position occurs: ““τοσαύτη πρώτη παρασκευὴ πρὸς τὸν πόλεμον διέπλειso great was the first armament which crossed over for the warT. 6.44.

1181. An attributive, following the article, may be separated from its noun by a pronoun: ““ πάλαι ἡμῶν φύσιςour old natureP. S. 189d, στενὴ αὕτη ὁδός (for αὕτη στενὴ ὁδός) this narrow road X. A. 4.2.6.

1182. Possessive pronouns take the article only when a definite person or thing is meant, and stand between article and noun: τὸ ἐμὸν βιβλίον my book, τὰ ἡμέτερα βιβλία our books.

a. But names of relationship, πόλις, πατρίς, etc., do not require the article (1140).

1183. The article is not used with possessive pronouns or the genitive of personal and reflexive pronouns (cp. 1184, 1185):

a. When no particular object is meant: ἐμὸν βιβλίον or βιβλίον μου a book of mine.

b. When these pronouns belong to the predicate: ““μαθητὴς γέγονα σόςI have become a pupil of yoursP. Euth. 5a, ““οὐ λόγους ἐμαυτοῦ λέγωνnot speaking words of my ownD. 9.41.


1184. In the attributive position (1154) stands the genitive of the demonstrative, reflexive, and reciprocal pronouns. τὸ τούτου βιβλίον or τὸ βιβλίον τὸ τούτου his book, τὸ ἐμαυτοῦ βιβλίον or τὸ βιβλίον τὸ ἐμαυτοῦ my own book; ““μετεπέμψατο τὴν ἑαυτοῦ θυγατέρα καὶ τὸν παῖδα αὐτῆςhe sent for his daughter and her childX. C. 1.3.1.

a. The type τὸ βιβλίον τούτου is rare and suspected except when another attributive is added: τῇ νῦν ὕβρει τούτου D. 4.3. The types τὸ βιβλίον ἐμαυτοῦ (Hdt. 6.23) and τὸ αὐτοῦ βιβλίον (T. 6.102) are rare.

1185. In the predicate position stands

a. The genitive of the personal pronouns (whether partitive or not): τὸ βιβλίον μου (σου, αὐτοῦ, etc.), or μου σου, αὐτοῦ. etc.) τὸ βιβλίον when other words precede, as ““ὃς ἔχει σου τὴν ὰδελοηνwho has your sister to wifeAnd. 1.50.

b. The genitive of the other pronouns used partitively.

N. 1.—Homer does not use the article in the above cases, and often employs the orthotone forms (““σεῖο μέγα κλέοςthy great fameπ 241). Even in Attic ἐμοῦ for μου occurs (““ἐμοῦ τὰ φορτίαmy waresAr. Vesp. 1398).

N. 2.—The differences of position between 1184 and 1185 may be thus illustrated:

My book is pretty:καλόν ἐστί τὸ βιβλίον μου.
καλόν ἐστί μου τὸ βιβλίον.
My pretty book:τὸ καλόν μου βιβλίον.
They read their books:τὰ έαυτῶν <*>βιβλία ἀναγιγνώσκουσι.


1186. The interrogatives τίς, ποῖος may take the article when a question is asked about an object before mentioned: ΣΩ. νῦν δ<*> ἐκε <*>να, Φαῖδρε, δυνάμεθα κρί_νειν. ΦΑΙ. τὰ ποῖα; SOCR. Now at last we can decide those questions. PH. The what questions? P. Phae. 277a.

1187. So even with a personal pronoun: A. δεῦρο δὴ εὐθὺ ἡμῶν . . . B. ποῖ λέγεις καὶ παρὰ τίνας τοὺς ὑ_μᾶς; A. Come hither straight to us. B. Whither do you mean and who are you that I am to come to (you being who)? P. Lys. 203b.

1188. ἄλλος other.— ἄλλος in the singular usually means the rest ( ἄλλη Ἑλλάς the rest of Greece); in the plural. the others (οἱ ἄλλοι Ἕλληνες the other (ceteri) Greeks, but ἄλλοι Ἕλληνες other <*>lii) Greeks). A substantivized adjective or participle usually has the article when it stands in apposition to οἱ ἄλλοι: ““τἆλλα τὰ πολι_τικάthe other civic affairsX. Hi. 9.5. On ἄλλος, ἄλλος (sometimes ἕτερος) besides, see 1272.

1189. πολύς, ὀλίγος: τὸ πολύ usually means the greater) part, οἱ πολλοί the multitude, the vulgar crowd; πλείονες several, οἱ πλείονες the majority, the mass; πλεῖστοι very many, οἱ πλεῖστοι the most; ὁλίγοι few, οἱ ὀλίγοι the oligarchs (as opposed to οἱ πολλοί). Note πολύς predicative: ““ἐπεὶ ἑώρα_ πολλὰ τὰ κρέα_when he saw that there was abundance of meatX. C. 1.3.6.

hide References (188 total)
  • Cross-references from this page (188):
    • Aeschines, Against Ctesiphon, 116
    • Aeschines, Against Ctesiphon, 70
    • Andocides, On the Mysteries, 16
    • Andocides, On the Mysteries, 48
    • Andocides, On the Mysteries, 50
    • Andocides, On the Peace, 7
    • Antiphon, On the Choreutes, 27
    • Aristophanes, Acharnians, 708
    • Aristophanes, Clouds, 1187
    • Aristophanes, Wasps, 1398
    • Demosthenes, On the Chersonese, 46
    • Demosthenes, On the Chersonese, 53
    • Demosthenes, Philippic 3, 41
    • Demosthenes, Philippic 3, 68
    • Demosthenes, Philippic 1, 3
    • Demosthenes, On the Crown, 103
    • Demosthenes, On the Crown, 176
    • Demosthenes, On the Crown, 179
    • Demosthenes, On the Crown, 188
    • Demosthenes, On the Crown, 242
    • Demosthenes, On the Crown, 243
    • Demosthenes, On the Crown, 39
    • Demosthenes, On the Crown, 71
    • Demosthenes, On the Crown, 247
    • Demosthenes, On the Crown, 305
    • Demosthenes, On the Crown, 88
    • Demosthenes, On the False Embassy, 141
    • Demosthenes, On the False Embassy, 254
    • Demosthenes, Against Leptines, 166
    • Demosthenes, Against Leptines, 90
    • Demosthenes, Against Midias, 141
    • Demosthenes, Against Aristocrates, 132
    • Demosthenes, Against Aristocrates, 220
    • Demosthenes, Against Aphobus 1, 23
    • Demosthenes, Against Pantaenetus, 23
    • Demosthenes, Against Nicostratus, 10
    • Demosthenes, Against Nicostratus, 12
    • Demosthenes, Against Eubulides, 65
    • Euripides, Andromache, 810
    • Euripides, Hippolytus, 525
    • Herodotus, Histories, 4.68
    • Herodotus, Histories, 6.23
    • Herodotus, Histories, 8.95
    • Herodotus, Histories, 7.129
    • Homer, Odyssey, 18.333
    • Homer, Odyssey, 1.370
    • Homer, Odyssey, 24.225
    • Homer, Odyssey, 4.655
    • Isocrates, Antidosis, 2
    • Isocrates, To Demonicus, 17
    • Isocrates, To Demonicus, 33
    • Isocrates, To Nicocles, 4
    • Isocrates, Evagoras, 3
    • Lysias, Against Eratosthenes, 60
    • Lysias, Against Eratosthenes, 9
    • Lysias, Against Alcibiades 1, 42
    • Lysias, Defence against a Charge of Taking Bribes, 4
    • Lysias, Against Pancleon, 8
    • Lysias, Against Simon, 32
    • Lysias, On a Wound by Premeditation, 20
    • Lysias, Against Eratosthenes, 36
    • Lysias, Against Eratosthenes, 41
    • Lysias, On the Murder of Eratosthenes, 10
    • Lysias, On the Murder of Eratosthenes, 23
    • Plato, Laws, 680c
    • Plato, Laws, 701e
    • Plato, Republic, 406a
    • Plato, Republic, 327c
    • Plato, Republic, 337b
    • Plato, Republic, 341c
    • Plato, Republic, 461a
    • Plato, Republic, 565d
    • Plato, Republic, 579b
    • Plato, Apology, 21a
    • Plato, Apology, 24b
    • Plato, Apology, 28a
    • Plato, Apology, 33d
    • Plato, Apology, 37a
    • Plato, Phaedo, 68e
    • Plato, Phaedo, 75b
    • Plato, Euthyphro, 5a
    • Plato, Statesman, 281a
    • Plato, Theaetetus, 169b
    • Plato, Theaetetus, 143c
    • Plato, Theaetetus, 178b
    • Plato, Phaedrus, 268c
    • Plato, Symposium, 174a
    • Plato, Symposium, 186d
    • Plato, Symposium, 189d
    • Plato, Symposium, 213c
    • Plato, Phaedrus, 277a
    • Plato, Lysis, 203b
    • Plato, Gorgias, 483b
    • Plato, Gorgias, 505c
    • Plato, Timaeus, 20d
    • Thucydides, Histories, 2.1
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.1
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.10
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.110
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.116
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.12
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.60
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.98
    • Thucydides, Histories, 2.15
    • Thucydides, Histories, 2.41
    • Thucydides, Histories, 2.60
    • Thucydides, Histories, 2.72
    • Thucydides, Histories, 2.74
    • Thucydides, Histories, 2.93
    • Thucydides, Histories, 3.116
    • Thucydides, Histories, 3.36
    • Thucydides, Histories, 3.91
    • Thucydides, Histories, 3.96
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.103
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.73
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.91
    • Thucydides, Histories, 6.102
    • Thucydides, Histories, 6.24
    • Thucydides, Histories, 6.44
    • Thucydides, Histories, 6.59
    • Thucydides, Histories, 7.11
    • Thucydides, Histories, 7.75
    • Thucydides, Histories, 8.2
    • Thucydides, Histories, 8.27
    • Thucydides, Histories, 8.50
    • Thucydides, Histories, 8.64
    • Thucydides, Histories, 8.90
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 1.1.1
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 1.2.18
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 1.2.7
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 1.3.21
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 1.4.11
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 1.4.7
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 1.5.13
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 1.8.3
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 1.8.6
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 1.8.8
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 1.9.30
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 2.5.28
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 2.5.32
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 2.5.9
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 2.6.10
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 3.1.20
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 3.2.20
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 3.4.15
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 3.4.16
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 4.2.6
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 4.8.22
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 4.8.4
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 5.1.1
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 5.8.24
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 7.1.13
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 7.8.21
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 1.1.7
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 1.1.9
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 1.3.14
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 1.9.13
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 2.2.8
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 6.4.19
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 6.6.7
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 7.6.4
    • Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 1.2.13
    • Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 1.3.1
    • Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 1.3.6
    • Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 2.1.2
    • Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 4.1.5
    • Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 6.2.41
    • Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 8.8.17
    • Xenophon, Hellenica, 4.3.15
    • Xenophon, Hellenica, 6.4.19
    • Xenophon, Hellenica, 7.4.38
    • Xenophon, Hellenica, 7.5.10
    • Xenophon, Hellenica, 7.5.24
    • Xenophon, Hellenica, 2.4.23
    • Xenophon, Memorabilia, 1.1.16
    • Xenophon, Memorabilia, 2.1.32
    • Xenophon, Hiero, 9.5
    • Xenophon, Economics, 19.14
    • Xenophon, Economics, 20.16
    • Homer, Iliad, 21.371
    • Homer, Iliad, 23.572
    • Homer, Iliad, 23.640
    • Homer, Odyssey, 16.241
    • Thucydides, Histories, 3.85
    • Thucydides, Histories, 5.31
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.118
    • Thucydides, Histories, 2.2
    • Thucydides, Histories, 2.99
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