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POSITION OF THE ARTICLE


Attributive Position of the Article

1154. A word or group of words standing between the article and its noun, or immediately after the article if the noun, with or without the article, precedes, is an attributive. Thus, σοφὸς ἀνήρ, ἀνὴρ σοφός, or ἀνὴρ σοφός (cp. 1168).

1155. This holds true except in the case of such post-positive words as μέν, δέ, γέ, τέ, γάρ, δή, οἶμαι, οὖν, τοίνυν; and τὶς in Hdt.: τῶν τις Περσέων one of the Persians 1. 85. In Attic, τὶς intervenes only when an attributive follows the article: ““τῶν βαρβάρων τινὲς ἱππέωνsome of the barbarian cavalryX. A. 2.5.32.

1156. Adjectives, participles, adverbs, and (generally) prepositions with their cases, if preceded by the article, have attributive position.

1157. (1) Commonly, as in English, the article and the attributive precede the noun: σοφὸς ἀνήρ the wise man. In this arrangement the emphasis is on the attributive. Thus, ““τῇ πρώτῃ ἡμέρᾳon the first dayT. 3.96, ““ἐν τῷ πρὸ τοῦ χρόνῳin former timesD. 53.12, ““τὸν ἐκ τῶν Ἑλλήνων εἰς τοὺς βαρβάρους φόβον ἰδώνseeing the terror inspired by the Greeks in the barbariansX. A. 1.2.18.

1158. (2) Less often, the article and the attributive follow the noun preceded by the article: ἀνὴρ σοφός the wise man. Thus, ““τὸ στράτευμα τὸ τῶν Ἀθηναίωνthe army of the AtheniansT. 8.50, ““ἐν τῇ πορείᾳ τῇ μέχρι ἐπὶ θάλαττανon the journey as far as the seaX. A. 5.1.1. In this arrangement the emphasis is on the noun, as something definite or previously mentioned, and the attributive is added by way of explanation. So τοὺς κύνας τοὺς χαλεποὺς διδέα_σι they tie up the dogs, the savage ones (I mean) X. A. 5.8.24.

1159. (3) Least often, the noun takes no article before it, when it would have none if the attributive were dropped: ἀνὴρ σοφός the wise man (lit. a man, I mean the wise one). Thus, ““μάχαις ταῖς πλείοσιin the greater number of battlesT. 7.11, σύνειμι μὲν θεοῖς, σύνειμι δὲ ἀνθρώποις τοῖς ἀγαθοῖς I associate with gods, I associate with good men X. M. 2.1.32. In this arrangement the attributive is added by way of explanation; as in the last example: with men, the good (I mean).

1160. A proper name, defining a preceding noun with the article, may itself have the article: ἀδελφὸς Ἀρεθούσιος (his) brother Arethusius D. 53.10. Cp. 1142 c. An appositive to a proper name has the article when it designates a characteristic or something well known: ““ Σόλων παλαιὸς ἦν φιλόδημοςSolon of ancient times was a lover of the peopleAr. Nub. 1187, Πα_σίων Μεγαρεύς Pasion, the Megarian X. A. 1.4.7.

1161. The genitive of a substantive limiting the meaning of another substantive may take any one of four positions:—

a. τὸ τοῦ πατρὸς βιβλίον the father's book (very common). Thus, <*> τεθνεώτων ἀρετή the valour of the dead L. 12.36.

b. τὸ βιβλίον τὸ τοῦ πατρός (less common). Thus, ““ οἰκία_ Σίμωνοςthe house of SimonL. 3.32.

c. τοῦ πατρὸς τὸ βιβλίον (to emphasize the genitive or when a genitive has just preceded). Thus, ““τῆς ϝί_κης τὸ μέγεθοςthe greatness of the victoryX. H. 6.4.19.

d. τὸ βιβλίον τοῦ πατρός (very common). Thus, ““ τόλμα τῶν λεγόντωνthe effrontery of the speakersL. 12.41. The genitive of the divided whole (1306) is so placed or as in c.

N. 1.—A substantive with no article is sometimes followed by the article and the attributive genitive: ἐπὶ σκηνὴν ἰόντες τὴν Ξενοφῶντος going to the ten<*> (namely, that) of Xenophon X. A. 6.4.19. Cp. 1159.

1162. The order bringing together the same forms of the article (περὶ τοῦ τ<*> πατρὸς βιβλίου) is avoided, but two or three articles of different form may stand together: ““τὸ τῆς τοῦ ξαίνοντος τέχνης ἔργονthe work of the art of the wool-carderP. Pol. 281a.

1163. The attributive position is employed with the possessive pronouns and the possessive genitives of the reflexive and demonstrative pronouns (1184), αὐτο<*> meaning same (1173), and πᾶς expressing the sum total (1174).

1164. Two or more attributives of a substantive are variously placed: (1) ““εἰς τὰ_ς ἄλλα_ς Ἀρκαδικὰ_ς πόλειςto the other Arcadian citiesX. H. 7.4.38. (2) ““τὸ ἐν Ἀρκαδίᾳ τὸ τοῦ Διὸς τοῦ Λυκαίου ἱερόνthe sanctuary of Lycean Zeus in ArcadiaP. R. 565d. (3) ““ἐς τὸν ἐπὶ τῷ στόματι τοῦ λιμένος στενοῦ ὄντος τὸν ἕτερον πύργονto the other tower at the mouth of the harbour which was narrowT. 8.90. (4) ““ἐν τῇ οἰκίᾳ τῇ Χαρμίδου τῇ παρὰ τὸ Ὀλυμπιεῖονin the house of Charmides by the OlympieumAnd. 1.16. (5) ““ἀπὸ τῶν ἐν τῇ Ἀσίᾳ πόλεων Ἑλληνίδωνfrom the Greek cities in AsiaX. H. 4.3.15. (6) ““πρὸς τὴν ἐκ τῆς Σικελία_ς τῶν Ἀθηναίων μεγάλην κακοπρα_γία_νwith regard to the great failure of the Athenians in SicilyT. 8.2. (7) ““τὸ τεῖχος τὸ μακρὸν τὸ νότιονthe long southern wallAnd. 3.7.

1165. A relative or temporal clause may be treated as an attributive: ““Σόλων ἐμί_σει τοὺς οἷος οὗτος ἀνθρώπουςSolon detested men like this man hereD. 19.254.

1166. Position of an attributive participle with its modifiers (A = article, N = noun, P = participle, D = word or words dependent on P): (1) APND: ““τὸν ἐφεστηκότα κίνδυ_νον τῇ πόλειthe danger impending over the StateD. 18.176. (2) APDN: τοὺς περιεστηκότας τῇ πόλει κινδύ_νους D. 18.179. (3) ADPN: τὸν τότε τῇ πόλει περιστάντα κίνδυ_νον D. 18.188. (4) NADP: ““ἕτοιμον ἔχει δύναμιν τὴν . . . καταδουλωσουένην ἄπανταςhe has in readiness a force to enslave allD. 8.46.

1167. a. Especially after verbal substantives denoting an action or a state an attributive prepositional phrase is added without the article being repeated: ““τὴν μεγάλην στρατεία_ν Ἀθηναίων καὶ τῶν ξυμμάχων ἐς Αἴγυπτονthe great expedition of the Athenians and their allies to EgyptT. 1.110.

b. A word defining a substantivized participle, adjective, or infinitive may be placed before the article for emphasis: ““καὶ ταῦτα τοὺς εἰδότας καλοῦμενand we will summon those who have knowledge of thisD. 57.65, ““τούτων τοῖς ἐναντίοιςwith the opposite of theseT. 7.75.


Predicate Position of Adjectives

1168. A predicate adjective either precedes or follows the article and its noun: σοφὸς ἀνήρ or ἀνὴρ σοφός the man is wise.

Thus, ““ἀτελεῖ τῇ νί_κῃ ἀνέστησανthey retired with their victory incompleteT. 8.27, ““ψι_λὴν ἔχων τὴν κεφαλήνwith his head bareX. A. 1.8.6, ““τὰ_ς τριήρεις ἀφείλκυσαν κενά_ςthey towed off the ships without their crewsT. 2.93.

a. This is called the predicate position, which often lends emphasis.

1169. A predicate adjective or substantive may thus be the equivalent of a clause of a complex sentence: ““ἀθάνατον τὴν περὶ αὑτῶν μνήμην καταλείψουσινthey will leave behind a remembrance of themselves that will never dieI. 9.3, ἐπήρετο πόσον τι ἄγοι τὸ στράτευμα he asked about how large the force was that he was leading ( = πόσον τι εἴη τὸ στράτευμα ἄγοι 2647) X. C. 2.1.2, παρ᾽ ἑκόντων τῶν ξυμμάχων τὴν ἡγεμονία_ν ἔλαβον they received the leadership from their allies (being willing) who were willing to confer it I. 1.17.

1170. A predicate expression may stand inside an attributive phrase: δεινὸς (pred.) ““λεγόμενος γεωργόςhe who is called a skilful agriculturistX. O. 19.14. This is common with participles of naming with the article.

1171. The predicate position is employed with the demonstratives οὗτος, ὅδε, ἐκεῖνος, and ἄμφω, ἀμφότερος, ἑκάτερος, and ἕκαστος; with the possessive genitives of personal and relative pronouns (1185, 1196) and of αὐτός (1201); with αὐτός meaning self (1206 b); with the genitive of the divided whole (1306), as ““τούτων οἱ πλεῖστοιthe most of theseX. A. 1.5.13, οἱ ἄριστοι τῶν περὶ αὐτόν the bravest of his companions 1. 8. 27; and with πᾶς meaning all (1174 b).

a. This wise man is οὗτος σοφὸς ἀνήρ, σοφὸς ἀνὴρ οὗτος (and also σοφὸς οὗτος ἀνήρ).


PECULIARITIES OF POSITION WITH THE ARTICLE

1172. Adjectives of Place.—When used in the predicate position (1168) ἄκρος (high) means the top of, μέσος (middle) means the middle of, ἔσχατος (extreme) means the end of. Cp. summus, medius, extremus.

Attributive PositionPredicate Position
τὸ ἄκρον ὅρος the lofty mountainἄκρον τὸ ὄρος )the top of
τὸ ὄρος ἄκρον )the mountain
μέση ἀγορά_ the central marketμέση ἀγορά_ )the centre of
ἀγορὰ_ μέση )the market
ἐσχάτη νῆσος the farthest islandἐσχάτη νῆσος )the verge of
νῆσος ἐσχάτη )the island

Thus, περὶ ἄκραις ταῖς χερσὶ χειρῖδες gloves on the fingers (points of the hands) X. C. 8.8.17, ““διὰ μέσου τοῦ παραδείσου ῥεῖflows through the middle of the parkX. A. 1.2.7. The meaning of the predicate position is also expressed by (τὸ) ἄκρον τοῦ ὄρους, (τὸ) μέσον τῆς ἀγορᾶς, etc.

1173. μόνος, ἥμισυς.—(1) Attributive: μόνος παῖς the only son, αἱ ἡμίσειαι χάριτες half-favours. (2) Predicate: μόνος παῖς (or παῖς μόνος) παίζει the boy plays alone, ἥμισυς βίος (or βίος ἥμισυς) half of life, τὰ ἅρματα τὰ ἡμίσεα half of the chariots.

αὐτός: (1) Attributive: αὐτὸς ἀνήρ the same man. (2) Predicate: αὐτὸς ἀνήρ or ἀνὴρ αὐτός the man himself.

1174. πᾶς (and in the strengthened forms ἅπα_ς, σύμπα_ς all together). a. In the attributive position πᾶς denotes the whole regarded as the sum of all its parts (the sum total, the collective body): οἱ πάντες πολῖται the whole body of citizens, πᾶσα Σικελία_ the whole of Sicily, ““ἀποκτεῖναι τοὺς ἅπαντας Μυτιληναίουςto put to death the entire Mitylenean populationT. 3.36.

N.—Hence, with numbers, οἱ πάντες, τὰ σύμπαντα in all: ““ἑξακόσιοι καὶ χί_λιοι οἱ πάντες1600 in allT. 1.60.

b. In the predicate (and usual) position πᾶς means all: πάντες οἱ πολῖται or (often emphatic) οἱ πολῖται πάντες all the citizens (individually), ““περὶ πάντας τοὺς θεοὺς ἠσεβήκα_σι καὶ εἰς ἅπα_σαν τὴν πόλιν ἡμαρτήκα_σινthey have committed impiety towards all the gods and have sinned against the whole StateL. 14.42.

c. Without the article: πάντες πολῖται all (conceivable) citizens, ““μισθωσάμενοι πάντας ἀνθρώπουςhiring every conceivable personL. 12.60.

N. 1.—In the meaning pure, nothing but, πᾶς is strictly a predicate and has no article: κύκλῳ φρουρούμενος ὑπὸ πάντων πολεμίων hemmed in by a ring of guards all of whom are his enemies ( = πάντες ὑφ᾽ ὧν φρουρεῖται πολέμιοί εἰσι) P. R. 579b. So πᾶσα κακία_ utter baseness.

N. 2.—The article is not used with πᾶς if the noun, standing alone, would have no article.

N. 3.—In the singular, πᾶς often means every: ““σὺν σοὶ πᾶσα ὁδὸς εὔποροςwith you every road is easy to travelX. A. 2.5.9, ““πᾶσα θάλασσαevery seaT. 2.41.

1175. ὅλος: (1) Attributive: τὸ ὅλον στράτευμα the whole army; (2) Predicate: ὅλον τὸ στράτευμα (or τὸ στράτευμα ὅλον) the army as a whole, τὴν νύκτα ὅλην the entire night. With no article: ὅλον στράτευμα a whole army, ὅλα στρατεύματα whole armies.

1176. The demonstrative pronouns οὗτος, ὅδε, ἐκεῖνος, and αὐτός self, in agreement with a noun, usually take the article, and stand in the predicate position (1168): οὗτος ἀνήρ or ἀνὴρ οὗτος (never οὗτος ἀνήρ) this man, αὐτὸς ἀνήρ or ἀνὴρ αὐτός the man himself ( αὐτὸς ἀνήρ the same man 1173).

1177. One or more words may separate the demonstrative from its noun: ““ τούτου ἔρως τοῦ ἀνθρώπουthe love of this manP. S. 213c. Note also τῶν οἰκείων τινὲς τῶν ἐκείνων some of their slaves (some of the slaves of those men) P. A. 33d.

1178. οὗτος, ὅδε, ἐκεῖνος sometimes omit the article.

a. Regularly, when the noun is in the predicate: ““αὕτη ἔστω ἱκανὴ ἀπολογία_let this be a sufficient defenceP. A. 24b, ““οἶμαι ἐμὴν ταύτην πατρίδα εἶναιI think this is my native countryX. A. 4.8.4.

b. Usually, with proper names, except when anaphoric (1120 b): ἐκεῖνος Θουκυ_δίδης that (well-known) Thucydides Ar. Ach. 708.

c. Usually, with definite numbers: ““ταύτα_ς τριά_κοντα μνᾶςthese thirty minaeD. 27.23.

d. Optionally, when a relative clause follows: ““ἐπὶ γῆν τήνδε ἤλθομεν, ἐν οἱ πατέρες ἡμῶν Μήδων ἐκράτησανwe have come against this land, in which our fathers conquered the MedesT. 2.74.

e. In the phrase (often contemptuous) οὗτος ἀνήρ P. G. 505c; and in other expressions denoting some emotion: ἄνθρωπος οὑτοσί_ D. 18.243.

f. Sometimes, when the demonstrative follows its noun: ἐπίγραμμα τόδε T. 6.59. So often in Hdt.

g. Frequently, in poetry.

1179. ἄμφω, ἀμφότερος both, ἑκάτερος each (of two), ἕκαστος each (of several) have the predicate position. But with ἕκαστος the article is often omitted: κατὰ τὴν ἡμέρα_ν ἑκάστην (day by day and) every day, καθ᾽ ἑκάστην ἡμέρα_ν every day.

1180. The demonstratives of quality and quantity, τοιοῦτος, τοιόσδε, τοσοῦτος, τοσόσδε, τηλικοῦτος, when they take the article, usually follow it: ““τῶν τοσούτων καὶ τοιούτων ἀγαθῶνof so many and such blessingsD. 18.305, τοῦτο τὸ τοιοῦτον ἔθος such a practice as this 21. 123. δεῖνα such a one (336) regularly takes the article.

a. But the predicate position occurs: ““τοσαύτη πρώτη παρασκευὴ πρὸς τὸν πόλεμον διέπλειso great was the first armament which crossed over for the warT. 6.44.

1181. An attributive, following the article, may be separated from its noun by a pronoun: ““ πάλαι ἡμῶν φύσιςour old natureP. S. 189d, στενὴ αὕτη ὁδός (for αὕτη στενὴ ὁδός) this narrow road X. A. 4.2.6.

1182. Possessive pronouns take the article only when a definite person or thing is meant, and stand between article and noun: τὸ ἐμὸν βιβλίον my book, τὰ ἡμέτερα βιβλία our books.

a. But names of relationship, πόλις, πατρίς, etc., do not require the article (1140).

1183. The article is not used with possessive pronouns or the genitive of personal and reflexive pronouns (cp. 1184, 1185):

a. When no particular object is meant: ἐμὸν βιβλίον or βιβλίον μου a book of mine.

b. When these pronouns belong to the predicate: ““μαθητὴς γέγονα σόςI have become a pupil of yoursP. Euth. 5a, ““οὐ λόγους ἐμαυτοῦ λέγωνnot speaking words of my ownD. 9.41.


POSITION OF THE GENITIVE OF PRONOUNS AND THE ARTICLE

1184. In the attributive position (1154) stands the genitive of the demonstrative, reflexive, and reciprocal pronouns. τὸ τούτου βιβλίον or τὸ βιβλίον τὸ τούτου his book, τὸ ἐμαυτοῦ βιβλίον or τὸ βιβλίον τὸ ἐμαυτοῦ my own book; ““μετεπέμψατο τὴν ἑαυτοῦ θυγατέρα καὶ τὸν παῖδα αὐτῆςhe sent for his daughter and her childX. C. 1.3.1.

a. The type τὸ βιβλίον τούτου is rare and suspected except when another attributive is added: τῇ νῦν ὕβρει τούτου D. 4.3. The types τὸ βιβλίον ἐμαυτοῦ (Hdt. 6.23) and τὸ αὐτοῦ βιβλίον (T. 6.102) are rare.

1185. In the predicate position stands

a. The genitive of the personal pronouns (whether partitive or not): τὸ βιβλίον μου (σου, αὐτοῦ, etc.), or μου σου, αὐτοῦ. etc.) τὸ βιβλίον when other words precede, as ““ὃς ἔχει σου τὴν ὰδελοηνwho has your sister to wifeAnd. 1.50.

b. The genitive of the other pronouns used partitively.

N. 1.—Homer does not use the article in the above cases, and often employs the orthotone forms (““σεῖο μέγα κλέοςthy great fameπ 241). Even in Attic ἐμοῦ for μου occurs (““ἐμοῦ τὰ φορτίαmy waresAr. Vesp. 1398).

N. 2.—The differences of position between 1184 and 1185 may be thus illustrated:

My book is pretty:καλόν ἐστί τὸ βιβλίον μου.
καλόν ἐστί μου τὸ βιβλίον.
My pretty book:τὸ καλόν μου βιβλίον.
They read their books:τὰ έαυτῶν <*>βιβλία ἀναγιγνώσκουσι.


INTERROGATIVES, ἄλλος, πολύς, ὀλίγος WITH THE ARTICLE

1186. The interrogatives τίς, ποῖος may take the article when a question is asked about an object before mentioned: ΣΩ. νῦν δ<*> ἐκε <*>να, Φαῖδρε, δυνάμεθα κρί_νειν. ΦΑΙ. τὰ ποῖα; SOCR. Now at last we can decide those questions. PH. The what questions? P. Phae. 277a.

1187. So even with a personal pronoun: A. δεῦρο δὴ εὐθὺ ἡμῶν . . . B. ποῖ λέγεις καὶ παρὰ τίνας τοὺς ὑ_μᾶς; A. Come hither straight to us. B. Whither do you mean and who are you that I am to come to (you being who)? P. Lys. 203b.

1188. ἄλλος other.— ἄλλος in the singular usually means the rest ( ἄλλη Ἑλλάς the rest of Greece); in the plural. the others (οἱ ἄλλοι Ἕλληνες the other (ceteri) Greeks, but ἄλλοι Ἕλληνες other <*>lii) Greeks). A substantivized adjective or participle usually has the article when it stands in apposition to οἱ ἄλλοι: ““τἆλλα τὰ πολι_τικάthe other civic affairsX. Hi. 9.5. On ἄλλος, ἄλλος (sometimes ἕτερος) besides, see 1272.

1189. πολύς, ὀλίγος: τὸ πολύ usually means the greater) part, οἱ πολλοί the multitude, the vulgar crowd; πλείονες several, οἱ πλείονες the majority, the mass; πλεῖστοι very many, οἱ πλεῖστοι the most; ὁλίγοι few, οἱ ὀλίγοι the oligarchs (as opposed to οἱ πολλοί). Note πολύς predicative: ““ἐπεὶ ἑώρα_ πολλὰ τὰ κρέα_when he saw that there was abundance of meatX. C. 1.3.6.

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