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THE REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS

1218. Direct Reflexives.—The reflexive pronouns are used directly when they refer to the chief word (usually the subject) of the sentence or clause in which they stand.

““γνῶθι σεαυτόνlearn to know thyselfP. Charm. 164e, ““σφάττει ἑαυτήνshe kills herselfX. C. 7.3.14, καθ᾽ ἑαυτοὺς βουλευσάμενοι τὰ ὅπλα παρέδοσαν καὶ σφᾶς αὐτούς after deliberating apart by themselves they surrendered their arms and themselves (their persons) T. 4.38. Less commonly the reference is to the object, which often stands in a prominent place: ““τοὺς δὲ περιοίκους ἀφῆκεν ἐπὶ τὰ_ς ἑαυτῶν πόλειςbut the perioeci he dismissed to their own citiesX. H. 6.5.21.

1219. The direct reflexives are regular in prose if, in the same clause, the pronoun refers emphatically to the subject and is the direct object of the main verb: ἐμαυτὸν (not ἐμὲ) ἐπαινῶ I praise myself. The usage of poetry is freer: ““στένω σὲ μᾶλλον ᾿μέI mourn thee rather than myselfE. Hipp. 1409.

1220. The reflexives may retain or abandon their differentiating force. Contrast the third example in 1218 with παρέδοσαν σφᾶς αὐτούς they surrendered (themselves) T. 7.82.

1221. The reflexives of the first and second persons are not used in a subordinate clause to refer to the subject of the main clause.

1222. The personal pronouns are sometimes used in a reflexive sense: ““θρηνοῦντός τέ μου καὶ λέγοντος πολλὰ καὶ ἀνάξια ἐμοῦwailing and saying much unworthy of myselfP. A. 38e (contrast ““ἀκούσει πολλὰ καὶ ἀνάξια σαυτοῦyou will hear much unworthy of yourselfP. Cr. 53e), δοκῶ μοι ἀδύνατος εἶναι I (seem to myself to be) think I am unable P. R. 368b (less usually δοκῶ ἐμαυτῷ). So in Hom.: ἐγὼν ἐμὲ λύ_σομαι I will ransom myself K 378. Cp. 1195.

1223. ἐμέ, σέ, not ἐμαυτόν, σεαυτόν, are generally used as subject of the infinitive: ““ἐγὼ οἶμαι καὶ ἐμὲ καὶ σὲ τὸ ἀδικεῖν τοῦ ἀδικεῖσθαι κάκι_ον ἡγεῖσθαιI think that both you and I believe that it is worse to do wrong than to be wrongedP. G. 474b.

1224. The use in 1222, 1223 generally occurs when there is a contrast between two persons, or when the speaker is not thinking of himself to the exclusion of others. Cp. 1974.

1225. Indirect Reflexives.—The reflexive pronouns are used indirectly when, in a dependent clause, they refer to the subject of the main clause.

Ὀρέστης ἔπεισεν Ἀθηναίους ἑαυτὸν κατάγειν Orestes persuaded the Athenians to restore him (self) T. 1.111, ““ἐβούλετο Κλέαρχος ἅπαν τὸ στράτευμα πρὸς ἑαυτὸν ἔχειν τὴν γνώμηνClearchus wished the entire army to be devoted to himselfX. A. 2.5.29. Cp. sibi, se.

1226. When the subject of the leading clause is not the same as the subject of the subordinate clause or of the accusative with the infinitive (1975), the context must decide to which subject the reflexive pronoun refers: ( κατήγορος) ἔφη . . . ἀναπείθοντα τοὺς νέους αὐτὸν . . . οὕτω διατιθέναι τοὺς ἐαυτῷ συνόντας κ.τ.λ. the accuser said that, by persuading the young, he (Socrates) so disposed his (i.e. Socrates') pupils, etc. X. M. 1.2.52.

1227. ἑαυτοῦ, etc., are rarely used as indirect reflexives in adjectival clauses: τὰ ναυά_για, ὅσα πρὸς τῇ ἑαυτῶν (γῇ) ““ἦν, ἀνείλοντοthey took up the wrecks, as many as were close to their own landT. 2.92.

1228. Instead of the indirect ἑαυτοῦ, etc., there may be used

a. The oblique cases of αὐτός: ““ἐπειρᾶτο τοὺς Ἀθηναίους τῆς ἐς αὐτὸν ὀργῆς παραλύ_εινhe tried to divert the Athenians from their anger against himselfT. 2.65. When ἑαυτοῦ, etc. precede, αὐτοῦ, etc. are usual instead of the direct reflexive: ““τὴν ἑαυτοῦ γνώμην ἀπεφαίνετο Σωκράτης πρὸς τοὺς ὁμι_λοῦντας αὐτῷSocrates was wont to set forth his opinion to those who conversed with himX. M. 4.7.1.

b. Of the forms of the third personal pronoun, οἷ and σφίσι (rarely οὗ, σφεῖς, σφῶν, and σφᾶς). Thus, ““ἠρώτα_ αὐτὴν εἰ ἐθελήσοι δια_κονῆσαί οἱhe asked her if she would be willing to do him a serviceAnt. 1.16, ““τοὺς παῖδας ἐκέλευον τοῦ Κύ_ρου δεῖσθαι διαπρά_ξασθαι σφίσινthey ordered their boys to ask Cyrus to get it done for themX. C. 1.4.1, ““κελεύουσι γὰρ ἡμᾶς κοινῇ μετὰ σφῶν πολεμεῖνfor they urge us to make war in common with themAnd. 3.27, ἔφη δέ, ἐπειδὴ οὗ ἐκβῆναι τὴν ψυ_χὴν . . . . . . ἀφικνεῖσθαι σφᾶς εἰς τόπον τινὰ δαιμόνιον he said that when his soul had departed out of him, they (he and others) came to a mysterious place P. R. 614b. See 1195.

N. 1.—σφεῖς may be employed in a dependent sentence if the pronoun is itself the subject of a subordinate statement, and when the reference to the subject of the leading verb is demanded by way of contrast or emphasis: ““εἰσαγαγὼν τοὺς ἄλλους στρατηγοὺς . . . λέγειν ἐκέλευεν αὐτοὺς ὅτι οὐδὲν ἂν ἧττον σφεῖς ἀγάγοιεν τὴν στρατιὰ_ν Ξενοφῶνafter bringing in the rest of the generals he urged them to say that they could lead the army just as well as XenophonX. A. 7.5.9. Here αὐτοί (ipsi) is possible. In the singular αὐτός is necessary.

N. 2.—Thucydides often uses the plural forms in reference to the nearest subject: τοὺς ξυμμάχους ἐδέδισαν σφῶν they were afraid of their own allies ( = σφῶν αὐτῶν) 5. 14.

N. 3.—ἑαυτοῦ, etc., are either direct or indirect reflexives, οἷ and σφίσι are only indirect reflexives.

1229. οὗ, σφίσι, etc., and the oblique cases of αὐτός are used when the subordinate clause does not form a part of the thought of the principal subject. This is usual in subordinate indicative clauses, and very common in ὅτι and ὡς clauses, in indirect questions, and in general in subordinate clauses not directly dependent on the main verb: τῶν πρέσβεων, οἳ σφίσι (1481) περὶ τῶν σπονδῶν ἔτυχον ἀπόντες, ἠμέλουν they thought no more about their envoys, who were absent on the subject of the truce T. 5.44, ἐφοβοῦντο μὴ ἐπιθοῖντο αὐτοῖς οἱ πολέμιοι they were afraid lest the enemy should attack them (selves) X. A. 3.4.1.

1230. The reflexive pronoun of the third person is sometimes used for that of the first or second: ““δεῖ ἡμᾶς ἀνερέσθαι ἑαυτούςwe must ask ourselvesP. Ph. 78b, ““παράγγελλε τοῖς ἑαυτοῦgive orders to your menX. C. 6.3.27.

a. In Homer ὅς his is used for ἐμός or σός: ““οὔτοι ἔγωγε ἧς γαίης δύναμαι γλυκερώτερον ἄλλο ἰδέσθαιI can look on nothing sweeter than my own landι 28.

1231. Reciprocal Reflexive.—The plural forms of the reflexive pronouns are often used for the reciprocal ἀλλήλων, ἀλλήλοις, etc.: ἡμῖν αὐτοῖς διαλεξόμεθα we will converse with (ourselves) one another D. 48.6.

1232. But the reciprocal must be used when the idea ‘each for or with himself’ is expressed or implied: μᾶλλον χαίρουσιν ἐπὶ τοῖς ἀλλήλων κακοῖς τοῖς αὑτῶν ἰδίοις ἀγαθοῖς ( = ἐπὶ τοῖς αὑτοῦ ἕκαστος ἀγαθοῖς) they take greater pleasure in one another's troubles than each man in his own good fortune I. 4.168, ““οὔτε γὰρ ἑαυτοῖς οὔτε ἀλλήλοις ὁμολογοῦσινthey are in agreement neither with themselves nor with one anotherP. Phae. 237c. Reciprocal and reflexive may occur in the same sentence without difference of meaning (D. 48.9). The reflexive is regularly used when there is a contrast (expressed or implied) with ἄλλοι: φθονοῦσιν ἑαυτοῖς μᾶλλον τοῖς ἄλλοις ἀνθρώποις they envy one another more than (they envy) the rest of mankind X. M. 3.5.16.


αὐτός EMPHATIC OR REFLEXIVE WITH OTHER PRONOUNS

1233. Of the plural forms, ἡμῶν αὐτῶν, etc. may be either emphatic or reflexive; αὐτῶν ἡμῶν, etc. are emphatic only; but σφῶν αὐτῶν is only reflexive (αὐτῶν σφῶν is not used). In Hom. αὐτόν may mean myself, thyself , or himself, and αὐτόν, οἷ αὐτῷ, etc. are either emphatic or reflexive.

1234. ἡμῶν (ὑ_μῶν, σφῶν) αὐτῶν often mean ‘their own men,’ ‘their own side’: φυλακὴν σφῶν τε αὐτῶν καὶ τῶν ξυμμάχων καταλιπόντες leaving a garrison (consisting) of their own men and of the allies T. 5.114.

1235. αὐτός, in agreement with the subject, may be used in conjunction with a reflexive pronoun for the sake of emphasis: ““αὐτοὶ ἐφ᾽ ἑαυτῶν ἐχώρουνthey marched by themselvesX. A. 2.4.10, ““αὐτὸς . . . ἑαυτὸν ἐν μέσῳ κατετίθετο τοῦ στρατοπέδουhe located himself in the centre of the campX. C. 8.5.8.

1236. αὐτός may be added to a personal pronoun for emphasis. The forms ἐμὲ αὐτόν, αὐτόν με, etc. are not reflexive like ἐμαυτόν, etc. Thus, ““τοὺς παῖδας τοὺς ἐμοὺς ᾔσχυ_νε καὶ ἐμὲ αὐτὸν ὕ_βρισεhe disgraced my children and insulted me myselfL. 1.4. Cp. αὐτῷ μοι ἐπέσσυτο he sprang upon me myself E 459. Cp. 329 D.

1237. The force of αὐτός thus added is to differentiate. Thus ἐμὲ αὐτόν means myself and no other, ἐμαυτόν means simply myself without reference to others. ὑ_μᾶς αὐτούς is the usual order in the reflexive combination; but the differentiating you yourselves (and no others) may be ὑ_μᾶς αὐτούς or αὐτοὺς ὑ_μᾶς.

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