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1391. The same verb may govern both a true genitive and an ablatival genitive. So ἄρχεσθαι to begin (1348 a) and to start from, ἔχεσθαι to hold to (1345) and to keep oneself from. In many cases it is difficult to decide whether the genitive in question was originally the true genitive or the ablatival genitive, or whether the two have been combined; e.g. in κυνέη ῥι_νοῦ ποιητή a cap made of hide K 262, ““κύπελλον ἐδέξατο ἧς ἀλόχοιοhe received a goblet from his wifeΩ 305. So with verbs to hear from, know of (1364, 1411), and verbs of emotion (1405), the partitive idea, cause, and source are hard to distinguish. Other cases open to doubt are verbs of missing (1352), being deceived (1392), and the exclamatory genitive (1407).


1392. With verbs signifying to cease, release, remove, restrain, give up, fail, be distant from, etc., the genitive denotes separation.

““λήγειν τῶν πόνωνto cease from toilI. 1.14, ““ἐπιστήμη χωριζομένη δικαιοσύνηςknowledge divorced from justiceP. Menex. 246e, ““μεταστὰ_ς τῆς Ἀθηναίων ξυμμαχία_ςwithdrawing from the alliance with the AtheniansT. 2.67, ““παύσαντες αὐτὸν τῆς στρατηγία_ςremoving him from his office of generalX. H. 6.2.13, ““εἴργεσθαι τῆς ἀγορᾶςto be excluded from the forumL. 6.24, ““σῶσαι κακοῦto save from evilS. Ph. 919, ““ἐκώλυ_ον τῆς πορεία_ς αὐτόνthey prevented him from passingX. Ages. 2.2, ““πᾶς ἀσκὸς δύο ἄνδρας ἕξει τοῦ μὴ καταδῦναιeach skin will keep two men from sinkingX. A. 3.5.11, ““λόγου τελευτᾶνto end a speechT. 3.59, ““τῆς ἐλευθερία_ς παραχωρῆσαι Φιλίππῳto surrender their freedom to PhilipD. 18.68, οὐ πόνων ὑφί_ετο, οὐ κινδύ_νων ἀφί_στατο, οὐ χρημάτων ἐφείδετο he did not relax his toil, stand aloof from dangers, or spare his money X. Ages. 7.1, ““ψευσθέντες τῶν ἐλπίδωνdisappointed of their expectationsI. 4.58 (but cp. 1352), ““ νῆσος οὐ πολὺ διέχουσα τῆς ἠπείρουthe island being not far distant from the mainlandT. 3.51.

1393. Several verbs of separation, such as ἐλευθεροῦν (especially with a personal subject), may take ἀπό or ἐξ when the local idea is prominent. Many take also the accusative.

1394. The genitive, instead of the accusative (1628), may be used with verbs of depriving: ““ἀποστερεῖ με τῶν χρημάτωνhe deprives me of my propertyI. 17.35, ““τῶν ἄλλων ἀφαιρούμενοι χρήματαtaking away property from othersX. M. 1.5.3.

1395. The genitive of the place whence is employed in poetry where a compound verb would be used in prose: ““βάθρων ἵστασθεrise from the stepsS. O. T. 142 (cp. ““ὑπανίστανται θά_κωνthey rise from their seatsX. S. 4. 31), ““χθονὸς ἀείρα_ςraising from the groundS. Ant. 417.

1396. The genitive with verbs signifying to want, lack, empty, etc. may be classed with the genitive of separation.

““τῶν ἐπιτηδείων οὐκ ἀπορήσομενwe shall not want provisionsX. A. 2.2.11, ““ἐπαίνου οὔποτε σπανίζετεyou never lack praiseX. Hi. 1.14, ““ἀνδρῶν τά_νδε πόλιν κενῶσαιto empty this city of its menA. Supp. 660. So with ἐλλείπειν and στέρεσθαι lack, ἐρημοῦν deliver from.

1397. δέω I lack (the personal construction) usually takes the genitive of quantity: ““πολλοῦ γε δέωnothing of the sortP. Phae. 228a, ““μι_κροῦ ἔδεον ἐν χερσὶ τῶν ὁπλι_τῶν εἶναιthey were nearly at close quarters with the hoplitesX. H. 4.6.11, ““τοσούτου δέω ζηλοῦνI am so far from admiringD. 8.70 (also τοσοῦτον δέω).

1398. δέομαι I want, request may take the genitive, or the accusative (regularly of neuter pronouns and adjectives), of the thing wanted; and the genitive of the person: ἐρωτώμενος ὅτου δέοιτο, Ἀσκῶν, ἔφη, δισχι_λίων δεήσομαι being asked what he needed, he saidI shall have need of two thousand skinsX. A. 3.5.9, ““τοῦτο ὑ_μῶν δέομαιI ask this of youP. A. 17c. The genitive of the thing and of the person is unusual: ““δεόμενοι Κύ_ρου ἄλλης ἄλλης πρά_ξεωςpetitioning Cyrus about different mattersX. C. 8.3.19.

1399. δεῖ (impersonal) is frequently used with genitives of quantity: ““πολλοῦ δεῖ οὕτως ἔχεινfar from that being the caseP. A. 35d, οὐδὲ πολλοῦ δεῖ D. 8.42 (only in D.) and οὐδ᾽ ὀλίγου δεῖ no, far from it D. 19.184. δεῖν may be omitted (but not with πολλοῦ), leaving ὀλίγου and μι_κροῦ in the sense of almost, all but; <*>λίγου πάντες almost all P. R. 552d, ““ὀλίγου εἷλον τὴν πόλινthey all but. took the cityT. 8.35. On δεῖν used absolutely, see 2012 d; on δέων with numerals, 350 c.

1400. δεῖ μοί τινος means I have need of something. In place of the dative (1467) an accusative of the person is rarely allowed in poetry on the analogy of δεῖ with the infinitive (1985): ““οὐ πόνου πολλοῦ με δεῖI have need of no great toilE. Hipp. 23 (often in E.). The thing needed is rarely put in the accusative: ““εἴ τι δέοι τῷ χορῷif the chorus need anythingAnt. 6.12 (here some regard τὶ as nominative). Cp. 1562.


1401. The genitive is used with verbs of differing.

““ἄρχων ἀγαθὸς οὐδὲν διαφέρει πατρὸς ἀγαθοῦa good ruler differs in no respect from a good fatherX. C. 8.1.1.

1402. With verbs signifying to surpass, be inferior to, the genitive denotes that with which anything is compared.

““τι_μαῖς τούτων ἐπλεονεκτεῖτεyou had the advantage over them in honoursX. A. 3.1.37, ““ἡττῶντο τοῦ ὕδατοςthey were overpowered by the waterX. H. 5.2.5, ““ὑστερεῖν τῶν ἔργωνto be too late for operationsD. 4.38, ““ἡμῶν λειφθέντεςinferior to usX. A. 7.7.31. So with πρεσβεύειν hold the first place, ἀριστεύειν be best (poet.), μειοῦσθαι fall short of, μειονεκτεῖν be worse off, ἐλαττοῦσθαι be at a disadvantage. νικᾶσθαί τινος is chiefly poetic. ἡττᾶσθαι often takes ὑπό. Akin to this genitive is that with verbs of ruling (1370), which are often derived from a substantive signifying ruler.

1403. Many verbs compounded with πρό, περί, ὑπέρ denoting superiority take the genitive, which may depend on the preposition (1384): ““τάχει περιεγένου αὐτοῦyou excelled him in speedX. C. 3.1.19, ““γνώμῃ προέχειν τῶν ἐναντίωνto excel the enemy in spiritT. 2.62, τοῖς ὅπλοις αὐτῶν ὑπερφέρομεν we surpass them in our infantry 1. 81. So with περιεῖναι, ὑπερέχειν. προτι_μᾶν, προκρί_νειν, and προαιρεῖσθαι prefer, προεστηκέναι be at the head of certainly take the genitive by reason of the preposition. ὑπερβάλλειν and ὑπερβαίνειν surpass take the accusative.

1404. The object compared may be expressed by πρό, ἀντί with the genitive, or by παρά, πρός with the accusative. See under Prepositions. That in which one thing is superior or inferior to another usually stands in the dative (1513, 1515).


1405. With verbs of emotion the genitive denotes the cause. Such verbs are to wonder at, admire, envy, praise, blame. hate, pity, grieve for, be angry at, take vengeance on, and the like.

““ἐθαύμασα τῆς τόλμης τῶν λεγόντωνI wondered at the hardihood of the speakersL. 12.41, ““τοῦτον ἀγασθεὶς τῆς πρᾳότητοςadmiring him for his mildnessX. C. 2.3.21, ζηλῶ σε τοῦ νοῦ, τῆς δὲ δειλία_ς στυγῶ I envy thee for thy prudence, I hate thee for thy cowardice S. El. 1027, σὲ ηὐδαιμόνισα τοῦ τρόπου I thought you happy because of your disposition P. Cr. 43b, ““συγχαίρω τῶν γεγενημένωνI share the joy at what has happenedD. 15.15, ““ἀνέχεσθαι τῶν οἰκείων ἀμελουμένωνto put up with the neglect of my household affairsP. A. 31b, ““τὸν ξένον δίκαιον αἰνέσαι προθυ_μία_ςit is right to praise the stranger for his zealE. I. A. 1371, ““οὔποτ᾽ ἀνδρὶ τῷδε κηρυ_κευμάτων μέμψῃnever wilt thou blame me for my tidingsA. Sept. 651, ““τοῦ πάθους ᾤκτι_ρεν αὐτόνhe pitied him for his miseryX. C. 5.4.32, ““οὐδ᾽ εἰκὸς χαλεπῶς φέρειν αὐτώνnor is it reasonable to grieve about themT. 2.62, οὐκέτι ὧν οὗτοι κλέπτουσιν ὀργίζεσθε, ἀλλ᾽ ὧν αὐτοὶ λαμβάνετε χάριν ἴστε you are no longer angry at their thefts, but you are grateful for what you get yourselves L. 27.11, ““τι_μωρήσασθαι αὐτοὺς τῆς ἐπιθέσεωςto take revenge on them for their attackX. A. 7.4.23. Here belongs, by analogy, ““συγγιγνώσκειν αὐτοῖς χρὴ τῆς ἐπιθυ_μία_ςit is necessary to forgive them for their desireP. Eu. 306c (usually συγγιγνώσκειν τὴν ἐπιθυ_μία_ν τινί or τῇ ἐπιθυ_μίᾳ τινός).

a. The genitive of cause is partly a true genitive, partly ablatival.

1406. With the above verbs the person stands in the accusative or dative. Some of these verbs take the dative or ἐπί and the dative (e.g. ἀλγεῖν, στένειν, ἄχθεσθαι, φθονεῖν) to express the cause of the emotion. See the Lexicon.

1407. The genitive of cause is used in exclamations and is often preceded by an interjection: ““φεῦ τοῦ ἀνδρόςalas for the man!X. C. 3.1.39, τῆς τύχης my ill luck! 2. 2. 3. In tragedy, the genitive of a pronoun or adjective after οἴμοι or ὤμοι refers to the second or third person. For the first person the nominative is used (““οἴμοι τάλαιναah me, miserable!S. Ant. 554).

1408. Allied to the genitive of cause is the genitive of purpose in τοῦ with the infinitive (esp. with μή, 2032 e), and in expressions where ἕνεκα is usually employed, as ““ πᾶσ᾽ ἀπάτη συνεσκευάσθη τοῦ περὶ Φωκέα_ς ὀλέθρουthe whole fraud was contrived for the purpose of ruining the PhociansD. 19.76.

1409. Closely connected with the genitive of cause is the genitive with verbs of disputing: ““οὐ βασιλεῖ ἀντιποιούμεθα τῆς ἀρχῆςwe have no dispute with the king about his empireX. A. 2.1.23, ““ἠμφισβήτησεν Ἐρεχθεῖ τῆς πόλεωςhe disputed the possession of the city with ErechtheusI. 12.193, ἆρ᾽ οὖν μὴ ἡμῖν ἐναντιώσεται τῆς ἀπαγωγῆς; well then he will not oppose us about the removal (of the army), will he? X. A. 7.6.5. ἀντιποιεῖσθαι claim may follow 1349 (““τῆς πόλεως ἀντεποιοῦντοthey laid claim to the cityT. 4.122). Verbs of disputing are sometimes referred to 1343 or 1349.


1410. The genitive may denote the source.

““πίθων ἠφύσσετο οἶνοςwine was broached from the casksψ 305, ““Δα_ρείου καὶ Παρυσάτιδος γίγνονται παῖδες δύοof Darius and Parysatis are born two sonsX. A. 1.1.1, ταῦτα δέ σου τυχόντες obtaining this of you 6. 6. 32, ““μάθε μου καὶ τάδεlearn this also from meX. C. 1.6.44.

1411. With verbs of hearing from and the like the genitive is probably ablatival rather than partitive (1364): ““ἐμοῦ ἀκούσεσθε πᾶσαν τὴν ἀλήθειανfrom me you shall hear the whole truthP. A. 17b, ““τούτων πυνθάνομαι ὅτι οὐκ ἄβατόν ἐστι τὸ ὄροςI learn from these men that the mountain is not impassableX. A. 4.6.17, τοιαῦτά ““του παρόντος ἔκλυονsuch a tale I heard from some one who was presentS. El. 424, ““εἰδέναι δέ σου χρῄζωI desire to know of theeS. El. 668.

a. Usually (except with πυνθάνεσθαι) we have παρά (ἀπό rarely), ἐξ or πρός (in poetry and Hdt.) with verbs of hearing from.

b. The genitive with εἶναι in ““πατρὸς δ᾽ εἴμ᾽ ἀγαθοῖοI am of a good fatherΦ 109, ““τοιούτων μέν ἐστε προγόνωνof such ancestors are youX. A. 3.2.13 is often regarded as a genitive of source, but is probably possessive.


1412. The genitive is used with many adjectives corresponding in derivation or meaning to verbs taking the genitive.

1413. The adjective often borrows the construction with the genitive from that of the corresponding verb; but when the verb takes another case (especially the accusative), or when there is no verb corresponding to the adjective, the adjective may govern the genitive to express possession, connection more or less close, or by analogy. Many of the genitives in question may be classed as objective as well as partitive or ablatival. Rigid distinction between the undermentioned classes must not be insisted on.

1414. Possession and Belonging (1297).—““ ἔρως κοινὸς πάντων ἀνθρώπωνlove common to all menP. S. 205a (cp. κοινωνεῖν 1343), ““ἱερὸς τοῦ αὐτοῦ θεοῦsacred to the same godP. Ph. 85b, ““οἱ κίνδυ_νοι τῶν ἐφεστηκότων ἴδιοιthe dangers belong to the commandersD. 2.28. So with οἰκεῖος and ἐπιχώριος peculiar to. κοινός (usually), οἰκεῖος inclined to, appropriate to, and ἴδιος also take the dative (1499).

1415. Sharing (1343).—““σοφία_ς μέτοχοςpartaking in wisdomP. L. 689d, ““ἰσόμοιροι πάντωνhaving an equal share in everythingX. C. 2.1.31, ““ὕβρεως ἄμοιροςhaving no part in wantonnessP. S. 181c. So <*>κληρος without lot in, ἀμέτοχος not sharing in.

1416. Touching, Desiring, Attaining, Tasting (1345, 1350, 1355).—““ἄψαυστος ἔγχουςnot touching a spearS. O. T. 969, ““χάρις ὧν πρόθυ_μοι γεγενήμεθαgratitude for the objects of our zealT. 3.67, παιδεία_ς ἐπήβολοι having attained to (possessed of) culture P. L. 724b, ““ἐλευθερία_ς ἄγευστοςnot tasting freedomP. R. 576a. So δύσερως passionately desirous of.

1417. Connection.—““ἀκόλουθα ἀλλήλωνdependent on one anotherX. O. 11.12, ““τὰ τούτων ἀδελφάwhat is akin to thisX. Hi. 1.22, ““τῶν προειρημένων ἑπόμεναι ἀποδείξειςexpositions agreeing with what had precededP. R. 504b, ““φέγγος ὕπνου διάδοχονlight succeeding sleepS. Ph. 867. All these adjectives take also the dative; as does συγγενής akin, which has become a substantive.

1418. Capacity and Fitness.—Adjectives in -ικός from active verbs, and some others: ““παρασκευαστικὸν τῶν εἰς τὸν πόλεμον τὸν στρατηγὸν εἶναι χρὴ καὶ ποριστικὸν τῶν ἐπιτηδείων τοῖς στρατιώταιςthe general must be able to provide what is needed in war and to supply provisions for his menX. M. 3.1.6. So διδασκαλικός able to instruct, πρα_κτικός able to effect. Here may belong ““γάμου ὡραία_ripe for marriageX. C. 4.6.9.

1419. Experience (1345).—““ὁδῶν ἔμπειροςacquainted with the roadsX. C. 5.3.35, ““τῆς θαλάσσης ἐπιστήμωνacquainted with the seaT. 1.142, ἰδιώτης τούτου ““τοῦ ἔργουunskilled in this businessX. O. 3.9. So with τρίβων skilled in, τυφλός blind, ἄπειρος unacquainted, ἀγύμναστος unpractised, ἀπαίδευτος uneducated, ἀήθης unaccustomed, ὀψιμαθής late in learning, φιλομαθής fond of learning.

1420. Remembering, Caring For (1356).—““κακῶν μνήμονεςmindful of crimeA. Eum. 382, ““ἐπιμελὴς τῶν φίλωνattentive to friendsX. M. 2.6.35, ἀμνήμων τ ῶν κινδύ_νων unmindful of dangers Ant. 2. α. 7; and, by analogy, ““συγγνώμων τῶν ἀνθρωπίνων ἁμαρτημάτωνforgiving of human errorsX. C. 6.1.37. So ἀμελής careless of, ἐπιλήσμων forgetful of.

1421. Perception (1361).—Compounds in -ήκοος from ἀκούω: ““λόγων καλῶν ἐπήκοοιhearers of noble wordsP. R. 499a, ““ὑπήκοοι Θεσσαλῶνsubjects of the ThessaliansT. 4.78, ““ὑπήκοος τῶν γονέωνobedient to parentsP. R. 463d, ““ἀνήκοοι παιδεία_ςignorant of cultureAes. 1.141. So συνήκοος hearing together, κατήκοος obeying. ἐπήκοος, κατήκοος, and ὑπήκοος also take the dative.

1422. Fulness (1369).—““χαρᾶς πόλις ἦν μεστήthe city was full of rejoicingD. 18.217, ““παράδεισος ἀγρίων θηρίων πλήρηςa park full of wild beastsX. A. 1.2.7, ““πλουσιώτερος φρονήσεωςricher in good senseP. Pol. 261e, ““φιλόδωρος εὐμεϝεία_ςgenerous of good-willP. S. 197d, ““ἄπληστος χρημάτωνgreedy of moneyX. C. 8.2.20. So with ἔμπλεως, σύμπλεως. πλήρης may take the dative.

1423. Ruling (1370).—““ταύτης κύ_ριος τῆς χώρα_ςmaster of this countryD. 3.16, ““ἀκρατὴς ὀργῆςunrestrained in passionT. 3.84. So with ἐγκρατής master of, αὐτοκράτωρ complete master of, ἀκράτωρ intemperate in.

1424. Value (1372).—““τάπις ἀξία_ δέκα μνῶνa rug worth ten minaeX. A. 7.3.27, ““δόξα χρημάτων οὐκ ὠνητήreputation is not to be bought for moneyI. 2.32. So with ἀντάξιος worth, ἰσόρροπος in equal poise with (T. 2.42), ἀξιόχρεως sufficient, ἀνάξιος unworthy. ἄξιόν τινι with the infinitive denotes it is meet for a person to do something or the like.

1425. Accountability (1375).—““αἴτιος τούτωνaccountable for thisP. G. 447a, ““ἔνοχος λιποταξίουliable to a charge of desertionL. 14.5, ““ἀσεβεία_ς ὑπόδικοςsubject to a trial for impietyP. L. 907e, ““ὑποτελὴς φόρουsubject to tributeT. 1.19, ““τούτων ὑπεύθυ_νος ὑ_μῖνresponsible to you for thisD. 8.69, ἀθῷοι τῶν ἀδικημάτων unpunished for offences Lyc. 79. ἔνοχος usually takes the dative, and so ὑπεύθυ_νος meaning dependent on or exposed to. The above compounds of ὑπό take the genitive by virtue of the substantive contained in them.

1426. Place.—ἐναντίος opposite and a few other adjectives denoting nearness or approach (1353) may take the genitive, chiefly in poetry: ἐναντίοι ἔσταν Ἀχαιῶν they stood opposite the Achaeans P 343. Cp. ““τοῦ Πόντου ἐπικάρσιαιat an angle with the PontusHdt. 7.36. ἐναντίος usually takes the dative.

1427. Separation (1392).—““φίλων ἀγαθῶν ἔρημοιdeprived of good friendsX. M. 4.4.24, ““ψυ_χὴ ψι_λὴ σώματοςthe soul separated from the bodyP. L. 899a, ““φειδωλοὶ χρημάτωνsparing of moneyP. R. 548b (or perhaps under 1356), ““ὕ_λης καθαρόνclear of undergrowthX. O. 16.13, ““ἄπαυστος γόωνnever ceasing lamentationsE. Supp. 82. So with ἐλεύθερος free from, ἁγνός pure from, innocent of, ὀρφανός bereft of, γυμνός stripped of, μόνος alone.

1428. Compounds of alpha privative.—In addition to the adjectives with alpha privative which take the genitive by reason of the notion expressed in the verb, or by analogy, there are many others, some of which take the genitive because of the idea of separation, especially when the genitive is of kindred meaning and an attributive adjective is added for the purpose of more exact definition. Thus, ἄτι_μος deprived of, ἀπαθής not suffering, ἀτελής free from (1392): as ““τι_μῆς ἄτι_μοςdeprived of honourP. L. 774b, ““ἄπαις ἀρρένων παίδωνwithout male childrenI. 12.126, ““τοῦ ἡδίστου θεά_ματος ἀθέα_τοςnot seeing the most pleasant sightX. M. 2.1.31, ““ἄφωνος τῆσδε τῆς ἀρᾶςwithout uttering this curseS. O. C. 865. This is more frequent in poetry than prose.

a. So when the adjectives are passive: ““φίλων ἄκλαυτοςunwept by friendsS. Ant. 847, cp. ““κακῶν δυσάλωτος οὐδείςno one is hard for evil fortune to captureS. O. C. 1722. The genitive with adjectives in alpha privative is sometimes called the genitive of relation.

1429. Want (1396).—““ἅρματα κενὰ ἡνιόχωνchariots deprived of their driversX. A. 1.8.20, ““ἐνδεὴς ἀρετῆςlacking virtueP. R. 381c. So with πένης poor, ἐλλιπής and ἐπιδεής lacking.

1430. Distinction (1401).—““διάφορος τῶν ἄλλωνdifferent from the restP. Par. 160d, ““ἕτερον τὸ ἡδὺ τοῦ ἀγαθοῦpleasure is different from what is goodP. G. 500d, ““ἄλλα τῶν δικαίωνat variance with justiceX. M. 4.4.25 (ἄλλος is almost a comparative). So with ἀλλοῖος and ἀλλότριος alien from (also with dat. unfavourable to, disinclined to). διάφορος with dative means at variance with.

1431. Comparison (1402).—Adjectives of the comparative degree or implying comparison take the genitive. The genitive denotes the standard or point of departure from which the comparison is made, and often expresses a condensed comparison when actions are compared. Thus, ““ἤττων ἀμαθὴς σοφοῦ, δειλὸς ἀνδρείουan ignorant man is inferior to a wise man, a coward to a brave manP. Phae. 239a, ““κρεῖττόν ἐστι λόγου τὸ κάλλος τῆς γυναικόςthe beauty of the woman is too great for descriptionX. M. 3.11.1, ““Ἐπύαξα προτέρα_ Κύ_ρου πέντε ἡμέραις ἀφί_κετοEpyaxa arrived five days before CyrusX. A. 1.2.25, ““καταδεεστέρα_ν τὴν δόξαν τῆς ἐλπίδος ἔλαβενthe reputation he acquired fell short of his expectationI. 2.7. So with δεύτερος, ὑστεραῖος, περιττός. Comparatives with , 1069.

1432. So with multiplicatives in -πλοῦς and -πλάσιος: ““διπλάσια ἀπέδωκεν ὧν ἔλαβενit returned double what it receivedX. C. 8.3.38. So with πολλοστός.

1433. The genitive with the comparative often takes the place of with another construction: ἀ_θλιώτερόν ἐστι μὴ ὑγιοῦς σώματος ( = μὴ ὑγιεῖ σώματι) ““μὴ ὑγιεῖ ψυ_χῇ συνοικεῖνit is more wretched to dwell with a diseased soul than a diseased bodyP. G. 479b, πλείοσι ναυσὶ τῶν Ἀθηναίων ( = οἱ Ἀθηναῖοι) ““παρῆσανthey came with more ships than the AtheniansT. 8.52.

1434. The superlative with the genitive is both partitive and ablatival; the latter, when a thing is compared with many things taken singly. Thus, σοφώτατος ἀνθρώπων P. A. 22c means wisest among men (part.) and wiser than any other single man. The partitive idea is the stronger. The comparative and the superlative idea are both expressed in ἀνὴρ ἐπιεικὴς υἱὸν ἀπολέσα_ς οἴσει ῥᾷστα τῶν ἄλλων a reasonable man will bear the loss of a son more easily than other men (and most easily of all men) P. R. 603e, ““στρατεία_ μεγίστη τῶν πρὸ αὐτῆςan expedition greater than any preceding itT. 1.10, ““τῶν ἄλλων ὕστατοιthe last among nationsD. 8.72. Cp. μόνος τῶν ἄλλων = alone of all D. 21.223.

1435. Cause (1405).—““εὐδαίμων τοῦ τρόπουhappy because of his dispositionP. Ph. 58e, ““δείλαιος τῆς συμφορᾶςwretched because of thy lotS. O. T. 1347, ““βάλανοι θαυμάσιαι τοῦ μεγέθουςdates wonderful for their sizeX. A. 2.3.15, ““περίφοβος τοῦ καταφρονηθῆναιfearful of becoming an object of contemptP. Phae. 239b. So with τάλα_ς and τλήμων wretched.

1436. Free Use.—a. Compound adjectives formed of a preposition and substantive may take a genitive dependent on the substantive: ““σκηνῆς ὕπαυλοςunder the shelter of the tentS. Aj. 796 ( = ὑπὸ αὐλῇ). Frequent in poetry.

b. Some adjectives are freely used with the genitive in poetry, as ““λάμοι Πάριδος ὀλέθριοι φίλωνthe marriage of Paris bringing ruin on his friendsA. Ag. 1156. This is rare in prose: ““τὸ πῦρ ἐπίκουρον ψύ_χουςfire that protects against coldX. M. 4.3.7, κακοῦργος μὲν τῶν ἄλλων, ἑαυτοῦ δὲ κακουργότερος doing evil to the others but more to himself 1. 5. 3, ““ τῆς Ἑλλάδος ἀλιτήριοςthe curse and destroyer of GreeceAes. 3.157. These adjectives are practically equivalent to substantives. Cp. amans patriae.


1437. The genitive is used with adverbs derived from adjectives which take the genitive, and with adverbs akin to verbs followed by the genitive.

““τὰ τούτου ἑξῆςwhat comes after thisP. R. 390a (1345), ““ἐρωτικῶς ἔχουσι τοῦ κερδαίνεινthey are in love with gainX. O. 12.15 (cp. 1349), ““εὐθὺ Λυκείουstraight for the LyceumP. Lys. 203b (cp. ἴ_θυ_σε νεός he made straight for the ship O 693; 1353), ““ἐναντίον ἁπάντωνin the presence of allT. 6.25, ““πλησίον Θηβῶνnear ThebesD. 9.27, ““Νείλου πέλαςnear the NileA. Supp. 308 (1353), ““γονέων ἀμελέστερον ἔχεινbe too neglectful of one's parentsP. L. 932a (1356), ““ἐκ πάντων τῶν ἐμπείρως αὐτοῦ ἐχόντωνof all those acquainted with himX. A. 2.6.1, ““μηδενὸς ἀπείρως ἔχεινto be inexperienced in nothingI. 1.52 (1345), ““ἀξίως ἀνδρὸς ἀγαθοῦin a manner worthy of a good manP. A. 32e, ““πρεπόντως τῶν πρα_ξάντωνin a manner appropriate to the doersP. Menex. 239c (1372), ““διαφερόντως τῶν ἄλλων ἀνθρώπωνabove the rest of menX. Hi. 7.4 (1401), πονηρία_ θᾶττον θανάτου θεῖwickedness flies faster than fateP. A. 39a (1402), ““πενθικῶς ἔχουσα τοῦ ἀδελφοῦmourning for her brotherX. C. 5.2.7 (1405).

1438. An adverb with ἔχειν or διακεῖσθαι is often used as a periphrasis for an adjective with εἶναι or for a verb.

1439. The genitive is used with many adverbs (a) of place, (b) of time, (c) of quantity.

a. ““ἐμβαλεῖν που τῆς ἐκείνων χώρα_ςto make an attack at some point of their countryX. C. 6.1.42, ““αἰσθόμενος οὗ ἦν κακοῦperceiving what a plight he was inD. 23.156, οἷ προελήλυθ᾽ ἀσελγεία_ς to what a pitch of wanton arrogance he has come 4. 9, ἐνταῦθα τῆς πολι_τεία_ς at that point of the administration 18. 62, ““εἰδέναι ὅπου γῆς ἐστινto know where in the world he isP. R. 403e, ““πόρρω ἤδη τοῦ βίου, θανάτου δὲ ἐγγύςalready far advanced in life, near deathP. A. 38c, ““ἐπὶ τάδε Φασήλιδοςon this side of PhaselisI. 7.80, ““πρὸς βορέα_ν τοῦ Σκόμβρουnorth of Mt. ScombrusT. 2.96, ἄλλοι ἄλλῃ τῆς πόλεως some in one part, others in another part of the city 2. 4, ““ἀπαντικρὺ τἠς Ἀττικῆςopposite AtticaD. 8.36. So with ἐντός inside, εἴσω within, ἑκατέρωθεν on both sides, ὄπισθεν behind, πρόσθεν before.

b. πηνίκ᾽ ἐστὶν ἄρα τῆς ἡμέρα_ς; at what time of day? Ar. Av. 1498, ““τῆς ἡμέρα_ς ὀψέlate in the dayX. H. 2.1.23.

c. ““τῶν τοιούτων ἅδηνenough of such mattersP. Charm. 153d, τούτων ἅλι<*> enough of this X. C. 8.7.25.

1440. Most of the genitives in 1439 are partitive. Some of the adverbs falling under 1437 take also the dative (ἄγχι, ἐγγύς, πλησίον in the poets, ἑξῆς, ἐφεξῆς).

1441. The genitive is used with adverbs of manner, especially with the intransitive ἔχω, ἥκω (Hdt.). The genitive usually has no article: ὡς τάχους ἕκαστος εἶχεν as fast as each could (with what measure of speed he had) X. H. 4.5.15, ““ὡς ποδῶν εἶχονas fast as my legs could carry meHdt. 6.116, ““ἔχοντες εὖ φρενῶνbeing in their right mindsE. Hipp. 462, ““εὖ σώματος ἕξεινto be in good bodily conditionP. R. 404d (cp. 407 c, τοὺς ὑγιεινῶς ἔχοντας τὰ σώματα those who are sound in body: with the article, 1121), ““χρημάτων εὖ ἥκοντεςwell offHdt. 5.62, ““τοῦ πολέμου καλῶς ἐδόκει πόλις καθίστασθαι . . . τῆς τε ἐπὶ Θρᾴκης παρόδου χρησίμως ἕξεινthey thought that the city was well situated for the war and would prove useful for the march along ThraceT. 3.92.

1442. This use is probably derived from that with adverbs of place: thus πῶς ἔχεις δόξης; in what state of mind are you? P. R. 456d is due to the analogy of ποῦ δόξης; (cp. ὅποι γνώμης S. El. 922).

1443. The genitive is used with many adverbs denoting separation. Thus, ““ἔσται ψυ_χὴ χωρὶς τοῦ σώματοςthe soul will exist without the bodyP. Ph. 66e, ““δίχα τοῦ ὑ_μετέρου πλήθουςseparate from your forceX. C. 6.1.8, ““πρόσω τῶν πηγῶνfar from the sourcesX. A. 3.2.22, ““ἐμποδὼν ἀλλήλοις πολλῶν καὶ ἀγαθῶν ἔσεσθεyou will prevent one another from enjoying many blessingsX. C. 8.5.24, ““λάθρᾳ τῶν στρατιωτῶνwithout the knowledge of the soldiersX. A. 1.3.8. So with ἔξω outside, ἐκτός without, outside, πέρα_ν across, κρύφα unbeknown to.


1444. Time.—The genitive denotes the time within which, or at a certain point of which, an action takes place. As contrasted with the accusative of time (1582), the genitive denotes a portion of time. Hence the genitive of time is partitive. Cp. τὸν μὲν χειμῶνα ὕ_ει θεός, τοῦ δὲ θέρεος χρηίσκονται τῷ ὕδατι during the (entire) winter the goo<*>rains, but in (a part of) summer they need the water Hdt. 3.117.

ἡμέρα_ς by day, νυκτός at or by night, μεσημβρία_ς at midday, δείλης in the afternoon, ἑσπέρα_ς in the evening, θέρους in summer, χειμῶνος in winter, ἦρος in spring, ὀπώρα_ς in autumn, τοῦ λοιποῦ in the future. The addition of article or attributive usually defines the time more exactly. Thus, οὐκοῦν ἡδὺ μὲν θέρους ψυ_χεινὴν ἔχειν, ἡδὺ δὲ χειμῶνος ἀλεεινήν; is it not pleasant to have (a house) cool in summer, and warm in winter? X. M. 3.8.9, ““ᾤχετο τῆς νυκτόςhe departed during the nightX. A. 7.2.17, καὶ ἡμέρα_ς καὶ νυκτὸς ἄγων ἐπὶ τοὺς πολεμίους both by day and by night leading against the enemy 2. 6. 7, ἔλεγον τοῦ λοιποῦ μηκέτι ἐξεῖναι ἀνομία_ς ἄρξαι they said that for the future (at any time in the future) it should no longer be permitted to set an example of lawlessness 5. 7. 34. (Distinguish τὸ λοιπόν for the (entire) future 3. 2. 8.) ἐντός within is sometimes added to the genitive.

1445. The addition of the article may have a distributive sense: ““δραχμὴν ἐλάμβανε τῆς ἡμέρα_ςhe received a drachm a dayT. 3.17.

1446. The genitive may denote the time since an action has happened or the time until an action will happen: ““οὐδείς μέ πω ἠρώτηκε καινὸν οὐδὲν πολλῶν ἐτῶνfor many years nobody has put a new question to meP. G. 448a, ““βασιλεὺς οὐ μαχεῖται δέκα ἡμερῶνthe king will not fight for ten daysX. A. 1.7.18.

1447. The genitive may or may not denote a definite part of the time during which anything takes place; the dative fixes the time explicitly either by specifying a definite point in a given period or by contracting the whole period to a definite point; the accusative expresses the whole extent of time from beginning to end: cp. ““τῇ δὲ ὑστεραίᾳ οἱ μὲν Ἀθηναῖοι τό τε προάστειον εἷλον καὶ τὴν ἡμέρα_ν ἅπα_σαν ἐδῄουν τὴν γῆν, οἵ τε τρια_κόσιοι τῶν Σκιωναίων τῆς ἐπιούσης νυκτὸς ἀπεχώρησανon the next day the Athenians captured the suburb and laid waste the land for that entire day, while the three hundred Scionaeans departed in the course of the following nightT. 4.130; ἡμέρᾳ δὲ ἀρξάμενοι τρίτῃ ὡς οἴκοθεν ὥρμησαν, ταύτην τε εἰργάζοντο καὶ τὴν τετάρτην καὶ τῆς πέμπτης μέχρι ἀ_ρίστου beginning on the third day after their departure, they continued their work (all) this day and the fourth, and on the fifth until the mid-day meal 4. 90.

a. The genitive of time is less common than the dative of time (1539) with ordinals, or with ὅδε, οὗτος, ἐκεῖνος; as ταύτης τῆς νυκτός T. 6.97, P. Cr. 44a, ““ἐκείνου τοῦ μηνόςin the course of that monthX. M. 4.8.2. For θέρους we find ἐν θέρει rarely and, in poetry, θέρει. T. 4.133 has both τοῦ αὐτοῦ θέρους and ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ θέρει in the course of the same summer; cp. ἶσος ῥέει ἔν τε θέρεϊ καὶ χειμῶνι Ἴστρος Hdt. 4.50 and Ἴστρος ἶσος ῥέει θέρεος καὶ χειμῶνος 4. 48 (the Ister flows with the same volume in summer and winter).

1448. Place.—The genitive denotes the place within which or at which an action happens. This is more frequent in poetry than in prose.

πεδίοιο διωκέμεν to chase over the plain E 222, ἷζεν τοίχου τοῦ ἑτέροιο he was sitting by the other wall (lit. in a place of the wall) I 219, λελουμένος Ὠκεανοῖο having bathed in Oceanus E 6, ““οὔτε Πύλου ἱερῆς οὔτ᾽ Ἄργεος οὔτε Μυκήνηςneither in sacred Pylos nor in Argos nor in Mycenaeφ 108, ““τόνδ᾽ εἰσεδέξω τειχέωνthou didst admit this man within the wallsE. Phoen. 451, ““ἰέναι τοῦ πρόσωto go forwardX. A. 1.3.1, ““ἐπετάχυ_νον τῆς ὁδοῦ τοὺς σχολαίτερον προσιόνταςthey hastened on their way those who came up more slowlyT. 4.47; ““λαιᾶς χειρὸς οἰκοῦσιthey dwell on the left handA. Pr. 714 (possibly ablatival).

1449. Many adverbs of place are genitives in form (αὐτοῦ there, ποῦ where? οὐδαμοῦ nowhere). Cp. 341.

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