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1551. The accusative is a form of defining or qualifying the verb.

a. The accusative derives its name from a mistranslation (casus accusativus) of the Greek ( αἰτια_τικὴ πτῶσις, properly casus effectivus, 1554 a).

1552. A noun stands in the accusative when the idea it expresses is most immediately (in contrast to the dative) and most completely (in contrast to the genitive) under the influence of the verbal conception (in contrast to the nominative).

1553. The accusative is the case of the direct object (919). The accusative is used with all transitive verbs (and with some intransitive verbs used transitively), with some verbal nouns, and with adjectives.

1554. The direct object is of two kinds:

a. The internal object (object effected): ἀνὴρ τύπτει πολλὰ_ς πληγά_ς the man strikes many blows.

N. 1.—Here the object is already contained (or implied) in the verb, and its addition is optional. The accusative of the internal object is sometimes called the accusative of content. The object stands in apposition to the result of the verbal action. The effect produced by the verb is either (1) transient, when the object is a nomen actionis, and disappears with the operation of the verb, as in μάχην μάχεσθαι to fight a battle, or (2) permanent, and remains after the verbal action has ceased, as in τεῖχος τειχίζειν to build a wall. The latter form is the accusative of result (1578).

N. 2.—Almost any verb may take one of the varieties of the internal object.

b. The external object (object affected): ἀνὴρ τύπτει τὸν παῖδα the man strikes the boy.

N.—Here the object is not contained in the verb, but is necessary to explain or define the character of the action in question. The external object stands outside the verbal action.

1555. Many verbs may take an accusative either of the external or of the internal object: τέμνειν ὕ_λην fell timber, τέμνειν τὰ_ς τρίχας cut off the hair, τέμνειν ὁδόν open a road, but σπονδὰ_ς or ὅρκια τέμνειν, with a specialized verbal idea, to make a treaty by slaying a victim (pass. ὅρκια ἐτμήθη), τέμνειν ὁδόν make one's way (poet.), τειχίζειν χωρίον fortify a place, but τειχίζειν τεῖχος build a wall. Cp. E. Supp. 1060: A. νι_κῶσα νί_κην τίνα; μαθεῖν χρῄζω σέθεν. B. πά_σα_ς γυναῖκας, κτλ. A. Victorious in what victory? This I would learn of thee. B. Over all women. Here the construction shifts from the internal to the external object.

1556. The direct object of an active transitive verb becomes the subject of the passive: παῖς ὑπὸ τοῦ ἀνδρὸς τύπτεται the boy is struck by the man.

a. The object of a verb governing the genitive or dative as principal object may also become the subject of the passive (1340).

1557. In Greek many verbs are transitive the ordinary English equivalents of which are intransitive and require a preposition. So σιωπᾶν τι, σι_γᾶν τι to keep silence about something.

1558. Many verbs that are usually intransitive are also used transitively in Greek. Thus, ἀσεβεῖν sin against, δυσχεραίνειν be disgusted at, χαίρειν rejoice at, ἥδεσθαι be pleased at, δακρύ_ειν weep for. Cp. 1595 b.

a. Poetical: ᾁσσειν agitate, ““περᾶν πόδαpass on her wayE. Hec. 53, πλεῖν sail, κροταλίζειν rattle along (““κροτεῖνstrikeHdt. 6.58), λάμπειν make shine, χορεύειν θεόν, ἑλίσσειν θεόν celebrate the god by choruses, by dancing.

1559. Many intransitive verbs are used transitively when compounded with a preposition, e.g. ἀναμάχεσθαι fight over again.—ἀπομάχεσθαι drive off, ἀποστρέφεσθαι abandon, ἀποχωρεῖν leave.—διαβαίνειν pass over, διαπλεῖν sail across, διεξέρχεσθαι go through.—εἰσιέναι come into the mind, εἰσπλεῖν said into.—ἐκβαίνειν pass, ἐκτρέπεσθαι get out of the way of, ἐξαναχωρεῖν shun, ἐξίστασθαι avoid.— ἐπιστρατεύειν march against.—καταναυμαχεῖν beat at sea, καταπολεμεῖν subdue completely, καταπολι_τεύεσθαι reduce by policy.—μετέρχεσθαι seek, pursue, μετιέναι go in quest of.—παραβαίνειν transgress.—περιιέναι go round, περιίστασθαι surround.—προσοικεῖν dwell in, προσπαίζειν sing in praise of.—ὑπερβαίνειν omit.— ὑπεξέρχεσθαι escape from.—ὑπέρχεσθαι fawn on, ὑποδύ_εσθαι withstand, ὑποχωρεῖν shun, ὑφίστασθαι withstand.

1560. Conversely, many verbs that are usually transitive are used intransitively (with gen., dat., or with a preposition). Some of these are mentioned in 1591, 1592, 1595. Sometimes there is a difference in meaning, as ἀρέσκειν = satisfy, with accus., = please, with dat.

1561. The same verb may be used transitively or intransitively, often with little difference of signification. Cp. 1709. This is generally indicated in the treatment of the cases, e.g. αἰσθάνεσθαί τι or τινος perceive something, ἐνθυ_μεῖσθαί τι or τινι consider something, μέμφεσθαί τινα or τινι blame some one.

1562. On δεῖ μοί τινος and δεῖ μέ τινος see 1400. With the inf. the accus. is usual (dat. and inf. X. A. 3.4.35). χρή μέ τινος is poetical; with the inf. χρή takes the accus. (except L. 28.10, where some read δικαίους). (χρή is an old noun; cp. χρεώ, χρεία need and 793.)



1563. The cognate accusative is of two kinds, of which the second is an extension of the first.

1564. (I) The substantive in the accusative is of the same origin as the verb.

““πολλὴν φλυα_ρία_ν φλυα_ροῦνταtalking much nonsenseP. A. 19c, ξυνέφυγε τὴν φυγὴν ταύτην he shared in the recent exile 21 a, ““τὴν ἐν Σαλαμῖνι ναυμαχία_ν ναυμαχήσαντεςvictorious in the sea-fight at SalamisD. 59.97, τὰ_ς ὑποσχέσεις ἃ_ς οὗτος ὑπι_σχνεῖτο the promises which he made 19. 47, ““ αἰτία_ ἣν αἰτιῶνταιthe charge they bringAnt. 6.27.

a. Sometimes the verb may be suppressed, as ἡμῖν μὲν εὐχὰ_ς τά_σδε (εὔχομαι) for us these prayers A. Ch. 142.

1565. The cognate accusative occurs even with adjectives of an intransitive character: ““μήτε τι σοφὸς ὢν τὴν ἐκείνων σοφία_ν μήτε ἀμαθὴς τὴν ἀμαθία_νbeing neither at all wise after the fashion of their wisdom nor ignorant after the fashion of their ignoranceP. A. 22e, ἀτί_μους ἐποίησαν ἀτι_μία_ν τοιά_νδε ὥστε κτλ. they disfranchised them in such a way that, etc. T. 5.34 (ἀτί_μους ἐποίησαν ἠτί_μησαν, cp. 1598).

1566. Passive: ““πόλεμος ἐπολεμεῖτοwar was wagedX. H. 4.8.1.

1567. (II) The substantive in the accusative is of kindred meaning with the verb.

““ἐξῆλθον ἄλλα_ς ὁδούςthey went forth on other expeditionsX. H. 1.2.17, ““τὸν ἱερὸν καλούμενον πόλεμον ἐστράτευσανthey waged what is called the Sacred WarT. 1.112, ““ἠσθένησε ταύτην τὴν νόσονhe fell ill of this diseaseI. 19.24, ““ἀνθρώπου φύσιν βλαστώνborn to man's estateS. Aj. 760.

1568. Passive: ““πόλεμος ἐταράχθηwar was stirred upD. 18.151.

1569. An extension of the cognate accusative appears in poetry with κεῖσθαι, στῆναι, καθίζειν and like verbs: ““τόπον, ὅντινα κεῖταιthe place in which he is situatedS. Ph. 145, τί ἕστηκε πέτρα_ν; why stands she on the rock? E. Supp. 987, ““τρίποδα καθίζωνsitting on the tripodE. Or. 956.

1570. An attributive word is usually necessary (but not in Hom.); otherwise the addition of the substantive to the verb would be tautologous. But the attribute is omitted:

a. When the nominal idea is specialized: ““φυλακὰ_ς φυλάττεινto stand sentryX. A. 2.6.10, φόρον φέρειν to pay tribute 5. 5. 7.

b. When the substantive is restricted by the article: ““τὸν πόλεμον πολεμεῖνto wage the present warT. 8.58, τὴν πομπὴν πέμπειν to conduct the procession 6. 56.

c. When a plural substantive denotes repeated occurrences: ““ἐτριηράρχησε τριηραρχία_ςhe performed the duty of trierarchD. 45.85.

d. In various expressions: ““Ὀλύμπια νι_κᾶνto win an Olympian victoryT. 1.126, ““τὴν ναυμαχία_ν νι_κῆσαιto be victorious in the sea-fightL. 19.28, ““θύ_ειν τὰ εὐαγγέλιαto offer a sacrifice in honour of good newsX. H. 1.6.37.

e. In poetry the use of a substantive to denote a special form of the action of the verb is much extended: στάζειν αἷμα to drip (drops of) blood S. Ph. 783, ““Ἄρηπνεῖνto breathe warA. Ag. 375, πῦρ δεδορκώς looking (a look of) fire τ 446. This use is common, especially in Aristophanes, with verbs signifying the look of another than the speaker: βλέπειν νᾶπυ to look mustard Eq. 631, βλέπειν ἀπιστία_ν to look unbelief Com. fr. 1. 341 (No. 309); cp. “looked his faith”: Holmes.

1571. The substantive without an attribute is (rarely) added to the verb as a more emphatic form of statement: λῆρον ληρεῖν to talk sheer nonsense Ar. Pl. 517, ““ὕβριν ὑβρίζεινto insult grievouslyE. H. F. 708. Often in Euripides.

1572. The substantive may be omitted, leaving only the adjectival attribute: παῖσον διπλῆν (scil. πληγήν) strike twice (a double blow) S. El. 1415, τοῦτον ἀνέκραγον ὡς ὀλίγα_ς (scil. πληγὰ_ς) παίσειεν they called out that he had dealt him too (1063) few blows X. A. 5.8.12. Cp. 1028.

1573. Usually an adjective, pronoun, or pronominal adjective is treated as a neuter substantive. Cp. ““μεγάλ᾽ ἁμαρτάνεινto commit grave errorsD. 5.5 with μέγιστα ἁμαρτήματα ἁμαρτάνουσι P. G. 525d. The singular adjective is used in certain common phrases in prose, but is mainly poetical; the plural is ordinarily used in prose.

ἡδὺ γελᾶν poet. (= ἡδὺν γέλωτα γελᾶν) to laugh sweetly, μέγα (ψεῦδος) ψεύδεται he is a great liar, ““μέγα φρονήσα_ς ἐπὶ τούτῳhighly elated at thisX. A. 3.1.27, μεῖζον φρονεῖ he is too proud 5. 6. 8, ““τὰ τῶν Ἑλλήνων φρονεῖνto be on the side of the GreeksD. 14.34, ““μέγιστον ἐδύναντοhad the greatest influenceL. 30.14, ““δεινὰ ὑβρίζεινto maltreat terriblyX. A. 6.4.2, ““ταὐτὰ ἐπρεσβεύομενwe fulfilled our mission as ambassadors in the same wayD. 19.32, τί βούλεται ἡμῖν χρῆσθαι; what use does he wish to make of us? X. A. 1.3.18 (= τίνα βούλεται χρεία_ν χρῆσθαι, cp. χρῆσθαί τινι χρείαν P. L. 868b).

1574. Passive: ““τοῦτο οὐκ ἐψεύσθησανthey were not deceived in thisX. A. 2.2.13, ““ταῦτα οὐδεὶς ἂν πεισθείηno one would be persuaded of thisP. L. 836d.

1575. For a cognate accusative in conjunction with a second object, see 1620.

1576. Note the expressions δικάζειν δίκην decide a case, δικάζεσθαι δίκην τινί go to law with somebody, διώκειν γραφήν τινα indict somebody, φεύγειν δίκην τινός be put on one's trial for something; γράφεσθαί τινα γραφήν indict one for a public offence, φεύγειν γραφήν be put on one's trial for a public offence. Also ἀγωνίζεσθαι στάδιον (= ἀγῶνα σταδίου) be a contestant in the race-course, νι_κᾶν στάδιον be victorious in the race-course, νι_κᾶν δίκην win a case, νι_κᾶν γνώμην carry a resolution (pass. γνώμην ἡττᾶσθαι), ὀφλεῖν δίκην lose a case.

1577. The (rarer) dative (φόβῳ ταρβεῖν, βιαίῳ θανάτῳ ἀποθνῄσκειν, φεύγειν φυγῇ) expresses the cause (1517), manner (1513), or means (1507).


1578. The accusative of result denotes the effect enduring after the verbal action has ceased.

ἕλκος οὐτάσαι to smite (and thus make) a wound E 361 (so οὐλὴν ἐλαύνειν ψ 74), πρεσβεύειν τὴν εἰρήνην to negotiate the peace (go as ambassadors (πρέσβεις) to make the peace) D. 19.134, but πρεσβεύειν πρεσβεία_ν to go on an embassy Dinarchus 1. 16, ““νόμισμα κόπτεινto coin moneyHdt. 3.56, σπονδὰ_ς, or ὅρκια, τέμνειν (1555).

1579. Verbs signifying to effect anything (αἴρειν raise, αὔξειν exalt, διδάσκειν teach, τρέφειν rear, παιδεύειν train) show the result of their action upon a substantive or adjective predicate to the direct object: ““σὲ Θῆβαί γ᾽ οὐκ ἐπαίδευσαν κακόνThebes did not train thee to be baseS. O. C. 919, ““τοῦτον τρέφειν τε καὶ αὔξειν μέγανto nurse and exalt him into greatnessP. R. 565c, ““ἐποικοδομήσαντες αὐτὸ ὑψηλότερονraising it higherT. 7.4. Such predicate nouns are called proleptic. Passive: ““μέγας ἐκ μι_κροῦ Φίλιππος ηὔξηταιPhilip has grown from a mean to be a mighty personD. 9.21. Cp. 1613.


1580. The accusative denotes extent in space and time.

1581. Space.—The accusative denotes the space or way over which an action is extended, and the measure of the space traversed.

ἄγειν (στρατιὰ_ν) ““στενὰ_ς ὁδούςto lead an army over narrow roadsX. C. 1.6.43, ἐξελαύνει σταθμοὺς τρεῖς, παρασάγγα_ς εἴκοσι καὶ δύο he advances three stages, twenty- two parasangs X. A. 1.2.5, ““ἀπέχει Πλάταια τῶν Θηβῶν σταδίους ἑβδομήκονταPlataea is seventy stades distant from ThebesT. 2.5.

a. This use is analogous to the cognate accusative after verbs of motion (ἐξόδους ἐξελθεῖν, πλεῖν θάλατταν).

1582. Time.—The accusative denotes extent of time.

““ἔμεινεν ἡμέρα_ς ἑπτάhe remained seven daysX. A. 1.2.6, ““ξυμμαχία_ν ἐποιήσαντο ἑκατὸν ἔτηthey made an alliance for a hundred yearsT. 3.114.

1583. The accusative of time implies that the action of the verb covers the entire period. When emphasis is laid on the uninterrupted duration of an action, παρά with the accusative (1692. 3. b) and διά with the genitive (1685. 1. b) are used. The accusative of time is rarely employed where the dative (1540) is properly in place: τήνδε τὴν ἡμέρα_ν Aes. 3.7.

1584. Duration of life may be expressed by γεγονώς: ““ἔτη γεγονὼς ἑβδομήκονταseventy years oldP. A. 17d. (Also by εἶναι and the genitive, 1327.)

1585. To mark (a) how long a situation has lasted or (b) how much time has elapsed since something happened, an ordinal is used without the article, but often with the addition of οὑτοσί_. The current day or year is included. Thus (a) ““τὴν μητέρα τελευτήσα_σαν τρίτον ἔτος τουτί_my mother who died two years agoL. 24.6, ““ἐπιδεδήμηκε τρίτην ἤδη ἡμέρα_νhe has been in the city since day before yesterdayP. Pr. 309d. (b) ““ἀπηγγέλθη Φίλιππος τρίτον τέταρτον ἔτος τουτὶ_ Ἡραῖον τεῖχος πολιορκῶνthis is the third or fourth year since it was announced that Philip was besieging fort HeraeumD. 3.4.

1586. On the accusative of extent in degree, see 1609. With a comparative we find πολύ and ὀλίγον as well as πολλῷ and ὀλίγῳ (1514); and always τί, τὶ, οὐδέν with the comparative.

1587. Time and degree are often expressed by prepositions with the accusative. See Prepositions under ἀμφί, ἀνά, διά, ἐπί, κατά, παρά, πρός, ὑπό.


1588. In poetry after verbs of motion the accusative may be used without a preposition to express the goal.

““ἄστυ Καδμεῖον μολώνhaving come to the city of CadmusS. O. T. 35, ““πέμψομέν νιν Ἑλλάδαwe will convey her to GreeceE. Tro. 883. Of persons in Hom. (especially with ἱκνέομαι, ἵκω, ἱκά_νω = reach) and in the lyric parts of the drama: ““μνηστῆρας ἀφί_κετοcame unto the suitorsα 332. Cp. “arrived our coast”: Shakesp. In Hdt. 9.26 φαμὲν ἡμέας ἱκνέεσθαι means we declare that it befits us.

1589. The limit of motion is also expressed by -δε (ἄστυδε Hom., in prose, Ἀθήναζε Ἀθήνα_ς ¨ δε; χαμᾶζε or χαμάζε χαμα_ς ¨ δε, cp. χαμα-ί; οἴκαδε) and, regularly in prose, by εἰς, ἐπί, παρά, πρός, ὡς (with a person) with the accusative.


1590. Of the many transitive verbs taking this accusative the following deserve mention:

1591. (I) To do anything to or say anything of a person.

a. εὖ (καλῶς) ποιεῖν, δρᾶν (rarely with πρά_ττειν), εὐεργετεῖν, ὀνινάναι, ὠφελεῖν (also with dat.), θεραπεύειν, κακῶς ποιεῖν, κακοῦν, κακουργεῖν, βλάπτειν, ἀδικεῖν, ὑβρίζειν, βιάζεσθαι, ἀμείβεσθαι requite, τι_μωρεῖσθαι punish, λυ_μαίνεσθαι (also with dat.), λωβᾶσθαι (also with dat.).

b. εὖ (καλῶς) λέγειν, εὐλογεῖν, κολακεύειν, θωπεύειν, προσκυνεῖν, κακῶς λέγειν, κακολογεῖν, κακηγορεῖν, λοιδορεῖν.

1592. συμφέρειν and λυ_σιτελεῖν profit, βοηθεῖν help, λοιδορεῖσθαι rail at take the dat., ἀδικεῖν injure and ὑβρίζειν insult also take εἴς τινα or πρός τινα.

1593. εὖ (κακῶς) ἀκούειν, πάσχειν are used as the passives of εὖ (κακῶς) λέγειν, ποιεῖν. Cp. 1752.

1594. Many of the above-mentioned verbs take a double accusative (1622).

1595. (II) Verbs expressing emotion and its manifestations.

a. φοβεῖσθαι, δεδιέναι, τρεῖν, ἐκπλήττεσθαι, καταπλήττεσθαι fear, πτήσσειν crouch before, εὐλαβεῖσθαι beware of, θαρρεῖν have no fear of (have confidence in), αἰδεῖσθαι stand in awe of, αἰσχύ_νεσθαι feel shame before, δυσχεραίνειν be disgusted at, ἐλεεῖν pity, πενθεῖν, θρηνεῖν, δακρύ_ειν, κλά_ειν (κλαίειν) lament, weep over.

b. χαίρειν rejoice at and ἥδεσθαι be pleased to hear take the accus. of a person only in the poets and only with a predicate participle (2100). αἰσχύ_νεσθαι, χαίρειν, ἥδεσθαι, δυσχεραίνειν usually take the dat. in prose. θαρρεῖν may take the instr. dat. (Hdt. 3.76).

1596. (III) Verbs of swearing.

ὀμνύναι swear by (τοὺς θεούς, pass. Ζεὺς ὀμώμοται) and swear to (τὸν ὅρκον, pass. ὅρκος ὀμώμοται). So ἐπιορκεῖν swear falsely by.

a. ὀμνύναι τοὺς θεούς may be an abbreviation of ὀμνύναι ὅρκον (internal object) τῶν θεῶν.

b. The accusative is used in asseverations with the adverbs of swearing μά, οὐ μά, ναὶ μά, νή.

Nay, by Zeus: μὰ (τὸν) Δία, οὐ μὰ (τὸν) Δία.

Yea, by Zeus: ναὶ μὰ (τὸν) Δία, νὴ (τὸν) Δία.

μά is negative, except when preceded by ναί. μά may stand alone when a negative precedes (often in a question) or when a negative follows in the next clause: μὰ τὸν Ἀπόλλω, οὔκ Ar. Thesm. 269. μά is sometimes omitted after οὐ, and after ναί: οὐ τὸν Ὄλυμπον S. O. T. 1088, ναὶ τὰ_ν κόρα_ν Ar. Vesp. 1438.

c. The name of the deity may be omitted in Attic under the influence of sudden scrupulousness: μὰ τὸνου᾽ σύ γε not you, byP. G. 466e.

1597. (IV) Various other verbs.

φεύγειν flee from, ἀποδιδρά_σκειν escape from, ἐνεδρεύειν lie in wait for, φθάνειν anticipate, φυλάττεσθαι guard oneself against, ἀμύ_νεσθαι defend oneself against, λανθάνειν escape the notice of, μένειν wait for, ἐκλείπειν and ἐπιλείπειν give out, fail (““τὸ στράτευμα σῖτος ἐπέλιπεcorn failed the armyX. A. 1.5.6).

1598. The accusative is rarely found after verbal nouns and adjectives, and in periphrastic expressions equivalent to a transitive verb. (This usage is post-Homeric and chiefly poetical.)

χοὰ_ς προπομπός (= προπέμπουσα) escorting the libations A. Ch. 23, ““τὰ μετέωρα φροντιστήςa speculator about things above the earthP. A. 18b, ““ἐπιστήμονες ἦσαν τὰ προσήκονταthey were acquainted with their dutiesX. C. 3.3.9, πόλεμος ἄπορα πόριμος war providing difficulties (things for which there is no provision) A. Pr. 904, πολλὰ συνίστωρ (a house) full of guilty secrets A. Ag. 1090, ““σὲ φύξιμοςable to escape theeS. Ant. 787; ἔξαρνός εἰμι (= ἐξαρνοῦμαι) τὰ ἐρωτώμενα saynoto the question P. Charm. 158c, ““τεθνᾶσι τῷ δέει τοὺς ἀποστόλουςthey are in mortal fear of the envoysD. 4.45; other cases 1612.

1599. Elliptical Accusative.—The accusative is sometimes used elliptically.

οὗτος, σέ τοι (scil. καλῶ) ho! you there, I am calling you! Ar. Av. 274, μή, πρός σε θεῶν τλῇς με προδοῦναι (= μή, πρὸς θεῶν σε αἰτῶ) do not, I implore thee by the gods, have the heart to leave me! E. Alc. 275, μή μοι πρόφασιν (scil. πάρεχε) no excuse! Ar. Ach. 345. Cp. 946.



1600. To verbs denoting a state, and to adjectives, an accusative may be added to denote a thing in respect to which the verb or adjective is limited.

a. The accusative usually expresses a local relation or the instrument. The word restricted by the accusative usually denotes like or similar to, good or better, bad or worse, a physical or a mental quality, or an emotion.

1601. The accusative of respect is employed

a. Of the parts of the body: ““ ἄνθρωπος τὸν δάκτυλον ἀλγεῖthe man has a pain in his fingerP. R. 462d, ““τυφλὸς τά τ᾽ ὦτα τόν τε νοῦν τά τ᾽ ὄμματ᾽ εἶblind art thou in ears, and mind, and eyesS. O. T. 371, πόδας ὠκὺς Ἀχιλλεύς Hom.

N.—The accusative of the part in apposition to the whole (985) belongs here, as is seen by the passive. Cp. ““τὸν πλῆξ᾽ αὐχέναhim he smote on the neckΛ 240 (βάλε θοῦρον Ἄρηα κατ᾽ αὐχένα Φ 406) with βέβληαι κενεῶνα thou art smitten in the abdomen E 284.

b. Of qualities and attributes (nature, form, size, name, birth, number, etc.): ““διαφέρει γυνὴ ἀνδρὸς τὴν φύσινwoman differs from man in natureP. R. 453b, ““οὐδὲ ἔοικεν θνητὰ_ς ἀ_θανάτῃσι δέμας καὶ εἶδος ἐρίζεινnor is it seemly that mortal women should rival the immortals in form and appearanceε 213, ποταμός, Κύδνος ὄνομα, εὖρος δύο πλέθρων a river, Cydnus by name, two plethra in width X. A. 1.2.23 (so with ὕψος, βάθος, μέγεθος), πλῆθος ὡς δισχί_λιοι about two thousand in number 4. 2. 2, ““λέξον ὅστις εἶ γένοςtell me of what race thou artE. Bacch. 460.

c. Of the sphere in general: ““δεινοὶ μάχηνterrible in battleA. Pers. 27, ““γένεσθε τὴν διάνοιανtransfer yourselves in thoughtAes. 3.153, ““τὸ μὲν ἐπ᾽ ἐμοὶ οἴχομαι, τὸ δ᾽ ἐπὶ σοὶ σέσωσμαιso far as I myself was concerned I was lost, but through you am savedX. C. 5.4.11. Often of indefinite relations: ““πάντα κακόςbase in all thingsS. O. T. 1421, ““ταῦτα ἀγαθὸς ἕκαστος ἡμῶν, ἅπερ σοφός, δὲ ἀμαθής, ταῦτα δὲ κακόςeach one of us is good in matters in which he is skilled, but bad in those in which he is ignorantP. Lach. 194d.

1602. Very rarely after substantives: χεῖρας αἰχμητής a warrior valiant with (thy) arm π 242, ““νεα_νίαι τὰ_ς ὄψειςyouths by their appearanceL. 10.29.

1603. For the acccusative of respect the instrumental dative (1516) is also employed, and also the prepositions εἰς, κατά, πρός, e.g. διαφέρειν ἀρετῇ or εἰς ἀρετήν.

1604. Not to be confused with the accusative of respect is the accusative after intransitive adjectives (1565) or after the passives of 1632.

1605. The accusative of respect is probably in its origin, at least in part, an accusative of the internal object.


1606. Many accusatives marking limitations of the verbal action serve the same function as adverbs.

1607. Most of these adverbial accusatives are accusatives of the internal object: thus, in τέλος δὲ εἶπε but at last he said, τέλος is to be regarded as standing in apposition to an unexpressed object of the verb—words, which were the end. Many adverbial accusatives are thus accusatives in apposition (991) and some are accusatives of respect (1600). It is impossible to apportion all cases among the varieties of the accusatives; many may be placed under different heads. The use of adjectives as adverbs (μέγα πλούσιος very rich) is often derived from the cognate accusative with verbs (μέγα πλουτεῖν).

1608. Manner.—τρόπον τινά in some way, τίνα τρόπον in what way? τόνδε (τοῦτον) τὸν τρόπον in this way, πάντα τρόπον in every way (also παντὶ τρόπῳ), τὴν ταχίστην (ὁδόν) in the quickest way, τὴν εὐθεῖαν (ὁδόν) straightforward, προῖκα, δωρεά_ν gratis (1616), δίκην after the fashion of (““δίκην τοξότουlike an archerP. L. 705e), πρόφασιν in pretence (““ἔπλεε πρόφασιν ἐπ᾽ Ἑλλησπόντουhe sailed professedly for the HellespontHdt. 5.33), χάριν for the sake of (lit. favour: ““οὐ τὴν Ἀθηναίων χάριν ἐστρατεύοντοdid not engage in the expedition out of good will to the AtheniansHdt. 5.99, ““τοῦ χάρινfor what reason?Ar. Plut. 53, ““τὴν σὴν ἥκω χάρινfor thy sake I have comeS. Ph. 1413. Cp. 993.

1609. Measure and Degree.—μέγα, μεγάλα greatly, πολύ, πολλά much, τὸ πολύ, τὰ πολλά for the most part, ὅσον as much as, οὐδέν, μηδέν not at all, τοσοῦτον so much, τὶ somewhat, ἀρχήν or τὴν ἀρχήν at all with οὐ or μή (““ἐν τῷ παραχρῆμα οὐκ ἔστιν ἀρχὴν ὀρθῶς βουλεύεσθαιit is utterly impossible to deliberate correctly offhandAnt. 5.73).

1610. Motive.—τί why? τοῦτο, ταῦτα for this reason (cognate accus.): τί ἦλθες quid (cur) venisti = τίνα ἷξιν ἦλθες; τοῦτο χαίρω ( = ταύτην τὴν χαρὰ_ν χαίρω) therefore I rejoice, ““αὐτὰ ταῦτα ἥκωfor this very reason have I comeP. Pr. 310e, ““τοῦτ᾽ ἄχθεσθεfor this reason you are vexedX. A. 3.2.20.

1611. Time and Succession (1582): τὸ νῦν now, τὸ πάλαι of old, πρότερον before, τὸ πρότερον the former time, πρῶτον first, τὸ κατ᾽ ἀρχά_ς in the beginning, τὸ πρῶτον in the first place, τὸ τελευταῖον in the last place (for τὸ δεύτερον in a series use ἔπειτα or ἔπειτα δέ), τὸ λοιπόν for the future, ἀκμήν at the point, just, καιρόν in season.


1612. A compound expression, consisting of the accusative of an abstract substantive and ποιεῖσθαι, τίθεσθαι, ἔχειν, etc., is often treated as a simple verb; and, when transitive, governs the accusative: τὴν χώρα_ν καταδρομαῖς λεία_ν ἐποιεῖτο ( = ἐλῄζετο) he ravaged the country by his incursions T. 8.41, Ἰ_λίου φθορὰ_ς ψήφους ἔθεντο ( = ἐψηφίσαντο) they voted for the destruction of Ilium A. Ag. 814, μομφὴν ἔχω ἓν μὲν πρῶτά σοι ( = ἓν μέμφομαι) I blame thee first for one thing E. Or. 1069, τὰ δ᾽ ἐν μέσῳ λῆστιν ἴσχεις ( = ἐπιλανθάνει) what lies between thou hast no memory of S. O. C. 583. See 1598. So with other periphrases in poetry: τέκνα μηκύ_νω λόγον ( = μακρότερον προσφωνῶ) I speak at length to my children S. O. C. 1120, εἰ δέ μ᾽ ὧδ᾽ ἀεὶ λόγους ἐξῆρχες ( = ἤρχου λέγειν) if thou didst always (begin to) address me thus S. El. 556.


1613. Verbs meaning to appoint, call, choose, consider, make, name, show, and the like, may take a second accusative as a predicate to the direct object.

““στρατηγὸν αὐτὸν ἀπέδειξεhe appointed him generalX. A. 1.1.2, πατέρα ἐμὲ ἐκαλεῖτε you were wont to call me father 7. 6. 38, ““αἱρεῖσθαι αὐτὸν τὸν Ἰνδῶν βασιλέα_ δικαστήνto choose the king of the Indians himself to be arbitratorX. C. 2.4.8, ““οὐ γὰρ δίκαιον οὔτε τοὺς κακοὺς μάτην χρηστοὺς νομίζειν οὔτε τοὺς χρηστοὺς κακούςfor it is not just to consider bad men good at random, or good men badS. O. T. 609, ““Τι_μόθεον στρατηγὸν ἐχειροτόνησανthey elected Timotheus generalX. H. 6.2.11, ““τὴν σι_γήν σου ξυγχώρησιν θήσωI shall consider your silence as consentP. Crat. 435b, ““ἑαυτὸν δεσπότην πεποίηκενhe has made himself masterX. C. 1.3.18, ““ἐὰ_ν ἐμὲ σὸν θεράποντα ποιήσῃif you make me your servantX. O. 7.42, ““εἰς τοὺς Ἕλληνας σαυτὸν σοφιστὴν παρέχωνshowing yourself a sophist before the GreeksP. Pr. 312a, ““εὐμαθῆ πάντα παρέχεινto render everything easy to learnX. O. 20.14. Cp. 1579.

1614. The absence of the article generally distinguishes the predicate noun from the object: ““ἐπηγγέλλετο τοὺς κόλακας τοὺς αὑτοῦ πλουσιωτάτους τῶν πολι_τῶν ποιήσεινhe promised to make his flatterers the richest of the citizensL. 28.4.

1615. Especially in Plato and Herodotus, after verbs signifying to name, to call, the predicate noun may be connected with the external object by (a redundant) εἶναι (911); ““σοφιστὴν ὀνομάζουσι τὸν ἄνδρα εἶναιthey call the man a sophistP. Pr. 311e, ““ἐπωνυμία_ν ἔχει σμι_κρός τε καὶ μέγας εἶναιhe is called both short and tallP. Ph. 102c. This is due to the analogy of verbs signifying to think or say (1041).

1616. A predicate accusative may stand in apposition to the object: ἔδωκα δωρειὰ_ν τὰ λύτρα I gave them the price of their ransom as a free gift D. 19.170.

1617. This use is the source of many adverbial accusatives (993, 1606 ff.).

1618. Passive: both the object and the predicate accusative of the active construction become nominative (1743) in the passive construction: αὐτὸς στρα- ““τηγὸς ᾑρέθηhe himself was chosen generalL. 12.65, ““αὐτοὶ νομοθέται κληθήσονταιthey shall themselves be called lawgiversP. L. 681d.


1619. Many verbs take both an internal and an external object.

1620. The external object refers to a person, the internal object (cognate accusative, 1563 ff.) refers to a thing. Here the internal object stands in closer relation to the verb.

““ πόλεμος ἀείμνηστον παιδεία_ν αὐτοὺς ἐπαίδευσεthe war taught them a lesson they will hold in everlasting remembranceAes. 3.148, ““τοσοῦτον ἔχθος ἐχθαίρω σεI hate thee with such an hateS. El. 1034, ““Μέλητός με ἐγράψατο τὴν γραφὴν ταύτηνMeletus brought this accusation against meP. A. 19b, ἕλκος, τό μιν βάλε the wound that he dealt him E 795 (1578), ““Μιλτιάδης τὴν ἐν Μαραθῶνι μάχην τοὺς βαρβάρους νι_κήσα_ςMiltiades who won the battle at Marathon over the barbariansAes. 3.181, τὸν ἄνδρα τύπτειν τὰ_ς πληγά_ς to strike the man the blows Ant. 4. γ. 1, ““καλοῦσί με τοῦτο τὸ ὄνομαthey give me this appellationX. O. 7.3.

1621. Passive (1747): ““πᾶσαν θεραπεία_ν θεραπευόμενοςreceiving every manner of serviceP. Phae. 255a, ““τύπτεσθαι πεντήκοντα πληγά_ςto be struck fifty blowsAes. 1.139, κρίσις, ἣν ἐκρίθη the sentence that was pronounced upon him L. 13.50, ““τὰ_ς μάχα_ς, ὅσα_ς Πέρσαι ἡττήθησαν ἐῶI omit the battles in which the Persians were defeatedI. 4.145, ““ὄνομα ἓν κεκλημένοι Σικελιῶταιcalled by the one name of SiciliansT. 4.64.

1622. So with verbs signifying to do anything to or say anything of a person (1591): ““πολλὰ ἀγαθὰ ὑ_μᾶς ἐποίησενhe did you much goodL. 5.3, ““ταυτί_ με ποιοῦσιthat's what they are doing to meAr. Vesp. 696, ““τὰ τοιαῦτα ἐπαινῶ Ἀ_γησίλα_ονI praise Agesilaus for such meritsX. Ages. 10.1, τοὺς Κορινθίους πολλά τε και<*> κακὰ ἔλεγε he said many bad things about the Corinthians Hdt. 8.61. For the accusative of the thing, εὖ (καλῶς), κακῶς may be substituted; and εἰς and πρός with the accusative occur.

1623. The accusative of the person may depend on the idea expressed by the combination of verb and accusative of the thing (1612); as in ““τοὺς πολεμίους εἰργάσθαι κακάto have done harm to the enemyL. 21.8 (here εἰργάσθαι of itself does not mean to do anything to a person).

1624. When the dative of the person is used, something is done for (1474), not to him: ““πάντα ἐποίησαν τοῖς ἀποθανοῦσινthey rendered all honours to the deadX. A. 4.2.23. εἰς or πρός with the accusative is also employed.

1625. Passive of 1622: ““ὅσα ἄλλα πόλις ἠδικεῖτοall the other wrongs that the State has sufferedD. 18.70.

1626. Verbs of dividing (νέμειν, κατανέμειν, διαιρεῖν, τέμνειν) may take two accusatives, one of the thing divided, the other of its parts (cognate accus.). Thus, ““Κῦρος τὸ στράτευμα κατένειμε δώδεκα μέρηCyrus divided the army into twelve divisionsX. C. 7.5.13. εἰς or κατά may be used with the accusative of the parts.

1627. Passive: ““διῄρηται ἀγορὰ_ τέτταρα μέρηthe Agora is divided into four partsX. C. 1.2.4. εἰς and κατά may be used with the accusative of the parts.


1628. Verbs signifying to ask, clothe or unclothe, conceal, demand, deprive, persuade, remind, teach, take two objects in the accusative, one of a person, the other of a thing.

““οὐ τοῦτ᾽ ἐρωτῶ σεthat's not the question I'm asking youAr. Nub. 641; ““χιτῶνα τὸν ἑαυτοῦ ἐκεῖνον ἠμφίεσεhe put his own tunic on himX. C. 1.3.17, ““ἰδοὺ δ᾽ Ἀπόλλων αὐτὸς ἐκδύ_ων ἐμὲ χρηστηρία_ν ἐσθῆταlo Apollo himself divests me of my oracular garbA. Ag. 1269; ““τὴν θυγατέρα ἔκρυπτε τὸν θάνατον τοῦ ἀνδρόςhe concealed from his daughter her husband's deathL. 32.7; ““Κῦρον αἰτεῖν πλοῖαto ask Cyrus for boatsX. A. 1.3.14, ““ὡς ἐγώ ποτέ τινα ἐπρα_ξάμην μισθὸν ᾔτησαthat I ever exacted or asked pay of any oneP. A. 31c; ““τούτων τὴν τι_μὴν ἀποστερεῖ μεhe deprives me of the value of these thingsD. 28.13; ““ὑ_μᾶς τοῦτο οὐ πείθωI cannot persuade you of thisP. A. 37a; ““ἀναμνήσω ὑ_μᾶς καὶ τοὺς κινδύ_νουςI will remind you of the dangers alsoX. A. 3.2.11; ““οὐδεὶς ἐδίδαξέ με ταύτην τὴν τέχνηνnobody taught me this artX. O. 19.16.

1629. Both person and thing are equally governed by the verb. The accusative of the person is the external object; the accusative of the thing is sometimes a cognate accusative (internal accusative).

1630. Some of these verbs also take the genitive or dative, or employ prepositions. Thus ἐρωτᾶν τινα περί τινος, αἰτεῖν (αἰτεῖσθαί) τι παρά τινος, ἀποστερεῖν or ἀφαιρεῖσθαί τινά τινος (τινός τι) (1394), or τινί τι (1483); ἀναμιμνῄσκειν τινά τινος (1356); παιδεύειν τινά τινι or τινὰ εἰς (or πρός) with the accusative.

1631. The poets employ this construction with verbs of cleansing (a form of depriving): ““χρόα νίζετο ἅλμηνhe was washing the brine from his skinζ 224, αἷμα κάθηρον Σαρπηδόνα cleanse the blood from Sarpedon II 667. And with other verbs (in tragedy), e.g. τι_μωρεῖσθαι avenge on, μετελθεῖν seek to avenge on, μετιέναι execute judgment on, ἐπισκήπτειν charge.

1632. Passive (1747): ““ὑπὸ βασιλέως πεπρα_γμένος τοὺς φόρουςhaving had the tribute demanded of him by the kingT. 8.5, ““ὅσοι ἵππους ἀπεστέρηνταιall who have been deprived of their horsesX. C. 6.1.12, ““οὐκ ἐπείθοντο τὰ ἐσαγγελθένταthey would not credit the newsHdt. 8.81, ““μουσικὴν παιδευθείςhaving been instructed in musicP. Menex. 236a (here μουσικῇ is possible), ““οὐδὲν ἄλλο διδάσκεται ἄνθρωπος ἐπιστήμηνman is taught nothing else except knowledgeP. Men. 87c.

1633. The accusative of extent (1580) is freely used in the same sentence with other accusatives, as ““ὑπερενεγκόντες τὸν Λευκαδίων ἰσθμὸν τὰ_ς ναῦςhaving hauled the ships across the isthmus of LeucasT. 3.81.

On the accusative of the whole and part, see 985; on the accusative subject of the infinitive, see 1972 ff.; on the accusative absolute, see 2076. See also under Anacoluthon.


1634. The case of an object common to two verbs is generally that demanded by the nearer: ““οὐ δεῖ τοῖς παιδοτρίβαις ἐγκαλεῖν οὐδ᾽ ἐκβάλλειν ἐκ τῶν πόλεωνwe must not accuse the trainer or banish him from the citiesP. G. 460d.

a. The farther verb may contain the main idea: ““ἐπιτι_μᾷ καὶ ἀποδοκιμάζει τισίhe censures some and rejects them at the scrutinyL. 6.33.

1635. The construction is usually ruled by the participle, not by the finite verb, when they have a common object but different constructions, and especially when the object stands nearer the participle: ““τούτῳ δοὺς ἡγεμόνας πορεύεσθαι ἐκέλευσεν ἡσύχωςhaving given him guides he ordered him to proceed quietlyX. C. 5.3.53; and when the common object stands between, as ““προσπεσόντες τοῖς πρώτοις τρέπουσιfalling upon the foremost they put them to flightT. 7.53.

a. Sometimes the finite verb regulates the construction, as ““καλέσα_ς παρεκελεύετο τοῖς Ἕλλησιhe summoned the Greeks and exhorted themX. A. 1.8.11.

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