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1279. Of the cases belonging to the Indo-European language, Greek has lost the free use of three: instrumental, locative, and ablative. A few of the forms of these cases have been preserved (341, 1449, 1535); the syntactical functions of the instrumental and locative were taken over by the dative; those of the ablative by the genitive. The genitive and dative cases are therefore composite or mixed cases.

N.—The reasons that led to the formation of composite cases are either (1) formal or (2) functional. Thus (1) χώρᾳ is both dat. and loc.; λόγοις represents the instr. λόγοις and the loc. λόγοισι; in consonantal stems both ablative and genitive ended in -ος; (2) verbs of ruling may take either the dat. or the loc., hence the latter case would be absorbed by the former; furthermore the use of prepositions especially with loc. and instr. was attended by a certain indifference as regards the form of the case.

1280. Through the influence of one construction upon another it often becomes impossible to mark off the later from the original use of the genitive and dative. It must be remembered that since language is a natural growth and Greek was spoken and written before formal categories were set up by Grammar, all the uses of the cases cannot be apportioned with definiteness.

1281. The cases fall into two main divisions. Cases of the Subject: nominative (and vocative). Cases of the Predicate: accusative, dative. The genitive may define either the subject (with nouns) or the predicate (with verbs). On the nominative, see 938 ff.

1282. The content of a thought may be expressed in different ways in different languages. Thus, πείθω σε, but persuadeo tibi (in classical Latin): and even in the same language, the same verb may have varying constructions to express different shades of meaning.


1283. The vocative is used in exclamations and in direct address: ““ Ζεῦ καὶ θεοίoh Zeus and ye godsP. Pr. 310d, ““ἄνθρωπεmy good fellowX. C. 2.2.7. The vocative forms an incomplete sentence (904 d).

a. The vocative is never followed immediately by δέ or γάρ.

1284. In ordinary conversation and public speeches, the polite is usually added. Without the vocative may express astonishment, joy, contempt, a threat, or a warning, etc. Thus ἀκούεις Αἰσχίνη; d'ye hear, Aeschines? D. 18.121. But this distinction is not always observed, though in general has a familiar tone which was unsuited to elevated poetry.

1285. The vocative is usually found in the interior of a sentence. At the beginning it is emphatic. In prose ἔφη, in poetry , may stand between the vocative and an attributive or between an attributive and the vocative; in poetry may be repeated for emphasis.

1286. In late poetry a predicate adjective may be attracted into the vocative: ὄλβιε κῶρε γένοιο blessed, oh boy, mayest thou be Theocr. 17. 66. Cp. Matutine pater seu Iane libentius audis Hor. S. 2. 6. 20.

1287. By the omission of σύ or ὑ_μεῖς the nominative with the article may stand in apposition to a vocative: ἄνδοες οἱ παρόντες you, gentlemen, who are present P. Pr. 337c, ““ Κῦρε καὶ οἱ ἄλλοι ΠέρσαιCyrus and the rest of you PersiansX. C. 3.3.20; and in apposition to the pronoun in the verb: παῖς, ἀκολούθει boy, attend me Ar. Ran. 521.

1288. The nominative may be used in exclamations as a predicate with the subject unexpressed: ““ πικρὸς θεοῖςoh loathed of heavenS. Ph. 254, ““φίλος Μενέλα_εah dear MenelausΔ 189; and connected with the vocative by and: ““ πόλις καὶ δῆμεoh city and peopleAr. Eq. 273. In exclamations about a person: ““ γενναῖοςoh the noble manP. Phae. 227c.

a. οὗτος is regular in address: οὗτος, τί πάσχεις, Ξανθία_; ho there, I say, Xanthias, what is the matter with you? Ar. Vesp. 1; οὗτος, Αἴα_ς ho there, I say, Ajax S. Aj. 89.


1289. The genitive most commonly limits the meaning of substantives, adjectives, and adverbs, less commonly that of verbs.

Since the genitive has absorbed the ablative it includes (1) the genitive proper, denoting the class to which a person or thing belongs, and (2) the ablatival genitive.

a. The name genitive is derived from casus genitivus, the case of origin, the inadequate Latin translation of γενικὴ πτῶσις case denoting the class.


1290. A substantive in the genitive limits the meaning of a substantive on which it depends.

1291. The genitive limits for the time being the scope of the substantive on which it depends by referring it to a particular class or description, or by regarding it as a part of a whole. The genitive is akin in meaning to the adjective and may often be translated by an epithet. Cp. στέφανος χρυ_σίου with χρυ_σοῦς στέφανος, φόβος πολεμίου with πολέμιος φόβος, τὸ εὖρος πλέθρου with τὸ εὖρος πλεθριαῖον (1035). But the use of the adjective is not everywhere parallel to that of the genitive.

1292. In poetry a genitive is often used with βία_, μένος, σθένος might, etc., instead of the corresponding adjective: βίη Διομήδεος mighty Diomede E 781.

1293. In poetry δέμας form, κάρα_ and κεφαλή head, etc., are used with a genitive to express majestic or loved persons or objects: Ἰσμήνης κάρα_ S. Ant. 1.

1294. χρῆμα thing is used in prose with a genitive to express size, strength, etc.: ““σφενδονητῶν πάμπολύ τι χρῆμαa very large mass of slingersX. C. 2.1.5. Cp. 1322.

1295. The genitive with substantives denotes in general a connection or dependence between two words. This connection must often be determined (1) by the meaning of the words, (2) by the context, (3) by the facts presupposed as known (1301). The same construction may often be placed under more than one of the different classes mentioned below; and the connection between the two substantives is often so loose that it is difficult to include with precision all cases under specific grammatical classes.

a. The two substantives may be so closely connected as to be equivalent to a single compound idea: τελευτὴ τοῦ βίου ‘life-end’ (cp. life-time) X. A. 1.1.1. Cp. 1146.

b. The genitive with substantives has either the attributive (1154), or, in the case of the genitive of the divided whole (1306), and of personal pronouns (1185), the predicate, position (1168).

1296. Words denoting number, especially numerals or substantives with numerals, often agree in case with the limited word instead of standing in the genitive: ““φόρος τέσσαρα τάλανταa tribute of four talentsT. 4.57 (cp. 1323), ἐς τὰ_ς ναῦς, αἳ ἐφρούρουν δύο, καταφυγόντες fleeing to the ships, two of which were keeping guard 4. 113. So with οἱ μέν, οἱ δέ in apposition to the subject (981).


1297. The genitive denotes ownership, possession, or belonging: ““ οἰκία_ Σίμωνοςthe house of SimonL. 3.32, ““ Κύ_ρου στόλοςthe expedition of CyrusX. A. 1.2.5. Cp. the dative of possession (1476).

1298. Here may be classed the genitive of origin: ““οἱ Σόλωνος νόμοιthe laws of SolonD. 20.103, ἐπιστολὴ τοῦ Φιλίππου the letter of Philip 18. 37, κύ_ματα παντοίων ἀνέμων waves caused by all kinds of winds B 396.

1299. The possessive genitive is used with the neuter article (singular or plural) denoting affairs, conditions, power, and the like: ““τὸ τῶν ἐφόρωνthe power of the ephorsP. L. 712d, ““τὸ τῆς τέχνηςthe function of the artP. G. 450c, ““τὸ τοῦ Σόλωνοςthe maxim of SolonP. Lach. 188b, ““ἄδηλα τὰ τῶν πολέμωνthe chances of war are uncertainT. 2.11, ““τὰ τῆς πόλεωςthe interests of the StateP. A. 36c, ““τὰ τοῦ δήμου φρονεῖis on the side of the peopleAr. Eq. 1216. Sometimes this is almost a mere periphrasis for the thing itself: ““τὸ τῆς τύχηςchanceD. 4.12 τὰ τῆς σωτηρία_ς safety 23. 163, τὸ τῆς ὁσία_ς, ὁτιδήποτ᾽ ἐστί the quality of holiness, whatever it is 21. 126, ““τὸ τῶν πρεσβυτέρων ἡμῶνwe eldersP. L. 657d. So τὸ τούτου S. Aj. 124 is almost = οὗτος, as τοὐμόν is = ἐγώ or ἐμέ. Cp. L. 8.19.

1300. The genitive of possession may be used after a demonstrative or relative pronoun: ““τοῦτό μου διαβάλλειhe attacks this action of mineD. 18.28.

1301. With persons the genitive may denote the relation of child to parent, wife to husband, and of inferior to superior: Θουκυ_δίδης Ὀλόρου Thucydides, the son of Olorus T. 4.104 (and so υιός is regularly omitted in Attic official documents), Διὸς Ἄρτεμις Artemis, daughter of Zeus S. Aj. 172, ““ Σμι_κυθίωνος ΜελιστίχηMelistiche wife of SmicythionAr. Eccl. 46, Αυ_δὸς Φερεκλέους Lydus, the slave of Pherecles And. 1.17, ““οἱ Μένωνοςthe troops of MenonX. A. 1.5.13 (οἱ τοῦ Μένωνος στρατιῶται 1. 5. 11).

a. In poetry we may have an attributive adjective: Τελαμώνιος Αἴα_ς ( = Αἴα_ς Τελαμῶνος) B 528. Cp. 846 f.

1302. The word on which the possessive genitive depends may be represented by the article: ἀπὸ τῆς ἑαυτῶν from their own country (γῆς) T. 1.15 (cp. 1027 b). A word for dwelling (οἰκία_, δόμος, and also ἱερόν) is perhaps omitted after ἐν, εἰς, and sometimes after ἐξ. Thus, ““ἐν Ἀρίφρονοςat Ariphron'sP. Pr. 320a, ἐν Διονύ_σου (scil. ἱερῷ) at the shrine of Dionysus D. 5.7, ““εἰς διδασκάλου φοιτᾶνto go to schoolX. C. 2.3.9, ““ἐκ Πατροκλέους ἔρχομαιI come from Patroclus'sAr. Plut. 84. So, in Homer, εἰνεἰς) Ἀίδα_ο.

1303. Predicate Use.—The genitive may be connected with the noun it limits by means of a verb.

““Ἱπποκράτης ἐστὶ οἰκία_ς μεγάληςHippocrates is of an influential houseP. Pr. 316b, ““Βοιωτῶν πόλις ἔσταιthe city will belong to the BoeotiansL. 12.58, ““ Ζέλειά ἐστι τῆς Ἀσία_ςZelea is in AsiaD. 9.43, ““οὐδὲ τῆς αὐτῆς Θρᾴκης ἐγένοντοnor did they belong to the same ThraceT. 2.29, ““ διώκει τοῦ ψηφίσματος, ταῦτ᾽ ἐστίνthe clauses in the bill which he attacks, are theseD. 18.56.

1304. The genitive with εἰμί may denote the person whose nature, duty, custom, etc., it is to do that set forth in an infinitive subject of the verb: πενία_ν φέρειν οὐ παντός, ἀλλ᾽ ἀνδρὸς σοφοῦ 'tis the sage, not every one, who can bear poverty Men. Sent. 463, ““δοκεῖ δικαίου τοῦτ᾽ εἶναι πολί_τουthis seems to be the duty of a just citizenD. 8.72, ““τῶν νι_κώντων ἐστὶ καὶ τὰ ἑαυτῶν σῴζειν καὶ τὰ τῶν ἡττωμένων λαμβάνεινit is the custom of conquerors to keep what is their own and to take the possessions of the defeatedX. A. 3.2.39.

1305. With verbs signifying to refer or attribute, by thought, word, or action, anything to a person or class. Such verbs are to think, regard, make, name, choose, appoint, etc.

““λογίζου . . . τὰ δ᾽ ἄλλα τῆς τύχηςdeem that the rest belongs to chanceE. Alc. 789, ““τῶν ἐλευθερωτάτων οἴκων νομισθεῖσαdeemed a daughter of a house most freeE. And. 12, ““ἐμὲ γράφε τῶν ἱππεύειν ὑπερεπιθυ_μούντωνput me down as one of those who desire exceedingly to serve on horsebackX. C. 4.3.21, ““τῆς πρώτης τάξεως τεταγμένοςassigned to the first classL. 14.11, ““τῆς ἀγαθῆς τύχης τῆς πόλεως εἶναι τίθημιI reckon as belonging to the good fortune of the StateD. 18.254, ““εἰ δέ τινες τὴν Ἀσία_ν ἑαυτῶν ποιοῦνταιbut if some are claiming Asia as their ownX. Ages. 1.33, ““νομίζει ὑ_μᾶς ἑαυτοῦ εἶναιhe thinks that you are in his powerX. A. 2.1.11.


1306. The genitive may denote a whole, a part of which is denoted by the noun it limits. The genitive of the divided whole may be used with any word that expresses or implies a part.

1307. Position.—The genitive of the whole stands before or after the word denoting the part: ““τῶν Θρᾳκῶν πελτασταίtargeteers of the ThraciansT. 7.27, ““οἱ ἄποροι τῶν πολι_τῶνthe needy among the citizensD. 18.104; rarely between the limited noun and its article: ““οἱ τῶν ἀδίκων ἀφικνούμενοιthose of the unrighteous who come hereP. G. 525c. Cp. 1161 N. 1.

1308. When all are included there is no partition: so in οὗτοι πάντες all of these, all these, τέτταρες ἡμεῖς ἦμεν there were four of us, ““τὸ πᾶν πλῆθος τῶν ὁπλι_τῶνthe entire body of the hoplitesT. 8.93, ὅσοι ἐστὲ τῶν ὁμοίων as many of you as belong to thepeersX. A. 4.6.14.

1309. The idea of division is often not explicitly stated. See third example in 1310.

1310. (I) The genitive of the divided whole is used with substantives.

““μέρος τι τῶν βαρβάρωνsome part of the barbariansT. 1.1, οἱ Δωριῆς ἡμῶν those of us who are Dorians 4. 61. The governing word may be omitted: Ἀρχία_ς τῶν Ἡρα_κλειδῶν Archias (one) of the Heraclidae T. 6.3. To an indefinite substantive without the article may be added a genitive denoting the special sort: Φεραύλα_ς Πέρσης τῶν δημοτῶν Pheraulas, a Persian, one of the common people X. C. 2.3.7.

1311. Chorographic Genitive.—““τῆς Ἀττικῆς ἐς Οἰνόηνto Oenoë in AtticaT. 2.18 (or ἐς Οἰνόην τῆς Ἀττικῆς, not ἐς τῆς Ἀττικῆς Οἰνόην), τῆς Ἰταλία_ς Αοκροί the Locrians in Italy 3. 86. The article, which is always used with the genitive of the country (as a place well known), is rarely added to the governing substantive (““τὸ Κήναιον τῆς Εὐβοία_ςCenaeum in EuboeaT. 3.93).

1312. (II) With substantive adjectives and participles.

““οἱ ἄδικοι τῶν ἀνθρώπωνthe unjust among menD. 27.68 (but always οἱ θνητοὶ ἄνθρωποι), ““μόνος τῶν πρυτάνεωνalone of the prytansP. A. 32b, ““ὀλίγοι αὐτῶνfew of themX. A. 3.1.3, ““τῶν ἄλλων Ἑλλήνων βουλόμενοςwhoever of the rest of the Greeks so desiresT. 3.92. So ““τὸ καταντικρὺ αὐτῶν τοῦ σπηλαίουthe part of the cavern facing themP. R. 515a. For nihil novi the Greek says οὐδὲν καινόν.

1313. Adjectives denoting magnitude, and some others, may conform in gender to the genitive, instead of appearing in the neuter: ““ἔτεμον τῆς γῆς τὴν πολλήνthey ravaged most of the landT. 2.56, τῆς γῆς ἀρίστη the best of the land 1. 2. This construction occurs more frequently in prose than in poetry.

1314. But such adjectives, especially when singular, may be used in the neuter: ““τῶν Ἀργείων λογάδων τὸ πολύthe greater part of the picked ArgivesT. 5.73, ἐπὶ πολὺ τῆς χώρα_ς over a great part of the land 4. 3.

1315. (III) With comparatives and superlatives.

““ἡμῶν γεραίτεροςthe elder of usX. C. 5.1.6 (1066 b), ““οἱ πρεσβύτατοι τῶν στρατηγῶνthe oldest of the generalsX. A. 3.3.11, ““σί_τῳ πάντων ἀνθρώπων πλείστῳ χρώμεθ᾽ ἐπεισάκτῳwe make use of imported grain more than all other peopleD. 18.87. So with a superlative adverb: ““ ναῦς ἄριστά μοι ἔπλει παντὸς τοῦ στρατοπέδουmy ship was the best sailer of the whole squadronL. 21.6.

1316. In poetry this use is extended to positive adjectives: ἀριδείκετος ἀνδρῶν conspicuous among men A 248, ““ φίλα_ γυναικῶνoh dear among womenE. Alc. 460. In tragedy an adjective may be emphasized by the addition of the same adjective in the genitive: ““ἄρρητ᾽ ἀρρήτωνhorrors unspeakableS. O. T. 465. Cp. 1064.

1317. (IV) With substantive pronouns and numerals.

““οἱ μὲν αὐτῶν, οἱ δ᾽ οὔsome of them and not othersP. A. 24e, ““οἳ ὕστερον ἐλήφθησαν τῶν πολεμίωνthose of the enemy who were taken laterX. A. 1.7.13, ““οὐδεὶς ἀνθρώπωνno one in the worldP. S. 220a, ““τὶ τοῦ τείχουςa part of the wallT. 7.4, ““τὶς θεῶνone of the godsE. Hec. 164 (““τὶς θεόςa godX. C. 5.2.12), ““ἓν τῶν πολλῶνone of the many thingsP. A. 17a; rarely after demonstrative pronouns: τούτοις τῶν ἀνθρώπων to these (of) men T. 1.71.

a. With ὀλίγοι and with numerals ἀπό and ἐξ are rarely added: ““ἐκ τριῶν ἕνone of threeS. Tr. 734. ἐξ with superlatives is also rare. See also 1688. 1 c.

1318. The genitive of the divided whole may do duty as the subject of a finite verb (928 b) or of the infinitive: (ἔφασαν) ἐπιμειγνύναι σφῶν πρὸς ἐκείνους they said that some of their number associated with them X. A. 3.5.16.

1319. Predicate Use.—““ἦν δ᾽ αὐτῶν Φαλῖνοςand among them was PhalinusX. A. 2.1.7, Σόλων τῶν ἑπτὰ σοφιστῶν ἐκλήθη Solon was called one of the Seven Sages I. 15.235, ““τῶν ἀτοπωτάτων ἂν εἴηit would be very strangeD. 1.26; and often with verbs signifying to be, become, think, say, name, choose. With some of these verbs εἷς with the genitive may be used instead of the genitive alone.


1320. The genitive to denote quality occurs chiefly as a predicate.

““ἐὼν τρόπου ἡσυχίουbeing of a peaceful dispositionHdt. 1.107, ““οἱ δέ τινες τῆς αὐτῆς γνώμης ὀλίγοι κατέφυγονbut some few of the same opinion fledT. 3.70, ““ταῦτα παμπόλλων ἐστὶ λόγωνthis calls for a thorough discussionP. L. 642a, θεωρήσατ᾽ αὐτόν, μὴ ὁποτέρου τοῦ λόγου, ἀλλ᾽ ὁποτέρου τοῦ βίου ἐστίν consider, not the manner of his speech, but the manner of his life Aes. 3.168, ““εἰ δοκεῖ ταῦτα καὶ δαπάνης μεγάλης καὶ πόνων πολλῶν καὶ πρα_γματεία_ς εἶναιif these matters seem to involve great expense and much toil and troubleD. 8.48.

a. The attributive use occurs in poetry: ““χόρτων εὐδένδρων Εὐρώπα_ςEurope with its pastures amid fair treesE. I. T. 134, λευκῆς χιόνος πτέρυξ a wing white as snow (of white snow) S. Ant. 114.

1321. The use of the genitive to express quality, corresponding to the Latin genitive, occurs in the non-predicate position, only when age or size is exactly expressed by the addition of a numeral (genitive of measure, 1325). The Latin genitive of quality in mulier mirae pulchritudinis is expressed by γυνὴ θαυμασία_ κάλλος (or τοῦ κάλλους), γυνὴ θαυμασία_ ἰδεῖν, γυνὴ ἔχουσα θαυμάσιον σχῆμα, etc.


1322. The genitive of an explicit word may explain the meaning of a more general word.

Ἰ_λίου πόλις E 642, as urbs Romae, ““ἄελλαι παντοίων ἀνέμωνblasts formed of winds of every sortε 292. This construction is chiefly poetic, but in prose we find ὑὸς μέγα χρῆμα a monster (great affair, 1294) of a boar Hdt. 1.36, ““τὸ ὄρος τῆς ἸστώνηςMt. IstoneT. 4.46 (very rare, 1142 c). An articular infinitive in the genitive often defines the application of a substantive: ““ἀμαθία_ τοῦ οἴεσθαι εἰδέναι α: οὐκ οἶδενthe ignorance of thinking one knows what one does not knowP. A. 29b.

a. But with ὄνομα the person or thing named is usually in apposition to ὄνομα: ““τῷ δὲ νεωτάτῳ ἐθέμην ὄνομα ΚαλλίστρατονI gave the youngest the name CallistratusD. 43.74.


1323. The genitive expresses material or contents.

ἕρκος ὀδόντων the fence (consisting) of the teeth Δ 350, ““κρήνη ἡδέος ὕδατοςa spring of sweet waterX. A. 6.4.4, σωροὶ σί_του, ξύλων, λίθων heaps of corn, wood, stones X. H. 4.4.12, ““ἑξακόσια τάλαντα φόρουsix hundred talents in taxesT. 2.13 (cp. 1296).

1324. Predicate Use: ““στεφάνους ῥόδων ὄντας, ἀλλ᾽ ου᾽ χρυ_σίουcrowns that were of roses, not of goldD. 22.70, ““ἐστρωμένη ἐστὶ ὁδὸς λίθουa road was paved with stoneHdt. 2.138, and often with verbs of making, which admit also the instrumental dative. Hdt. has ποιεῖσθαι ἀπό and ἔκ τινος.


1325. The genitive denotes measure of space, time, or degree.

““ὀκτὼ σταδίων τεῖχοςa wall eight stades longT. 7.2, πέντε ἡμερῶν σι_τία provisions for five days 7. 43 (cp. fossa pedum quindecim, exilium decem annorum Less commonly with a neuter adjective or pronoun: ἐπὶ μέγα ἐχώρησαν δυνά<*> they advanced to a great pitch of power T. 1.118, τὶ δόξης some honour (aliq<*> famae) 1. 5, ἀμήχανον εὐδαιμονία_ς (something infinite in the way of happiness) infinite happiness P. A. 41c (with emphasis on the adj.). But the phrases εἰς τοῦτο, εἰς τοσοῦτο ἀφικέσθαι (ἤκειν, ἐλθεῖν, προσβαίνειν, usually with a personal subject) followed by the genitive of abstracts are common: ““εἰς τοῦτο θράσους ἀφί_κετοhe reached such a pitch of boldnessD. 21.194, ““ἐν παντὶ ἀθυ_μία_ςin utter despondencyT. 7.55, ἐν τούτῳ παρασκευῆς in this stage of preparation 2. 17, κατὰ τοῦτο καιροῦ at that critical moment 7. 2. The article with this genitive is unusual in classical Greek: ““εἰς τοῦτο τῆς ἡλικία_ςto this stage of lifeL. 5.3. Some of these genitives may also be explained by 1306.

1326. Under the head of measure belongs amount: ““δυοῖν μναῖν πρόσοδοςan income of two minaeX. Vect. 3.10. Cp. 1296, 1323.

1327. Predicate Use.—““ἐπειδὰν ἐτῶν τις τριά_κονταwhen a man is thirty years oldP. L. 721a, ““τὰ τείχη ἦν σταδίων ὀκτώthe walls were eight stades longT. 4.66.


1328. With a verbal noun the genitive may denote the subject or object of the action expressed in the noun.

a. Many of these genitives derive their construction from that of the kindred verbs: ““τοῦ ὕδατος ἐπιθυ_μία_desire for waterT. 2.52 (1349), χόλος υἱός anger because of his son O 138 (1405). But the verbal idea sometimes requires the accusative, or (less commonly) the dative.

1329. In poetry an adjective may take the place of the genitive: ““νόστος βασίλειοςthe return of the kingA. Pers. 8. Cp. 1291.

1330. The Subjective Genitive is active in sense: τῶν βαρβάρων φόβος the fear of the barbarians (which they feel: οἱ βάρβαροι φοβοῦνται) X. A. 1.2.17, βασιλέως ἐπιορκία_ the perjury of the king (βασιλεὺς ἐπιορκεῖ) 3. 2. 4, ““τὸ ὀργιζόμενον τῆς γνώμηςtheir angry feelingsT. 2.59 (such genitives with substantive participles are common in Thucydides; cp. 1153 b, N. 2).

1331. The Objective Genitive is passive in sense, and is very common with substantives denoting a frame of mind or an emotion: φόβος τῶν Εἱλώτων the fear of the Helots (felt towards them: φοβοῦνται τοὺς Εἵλωτας) T. 3.54, τῶν Ἑλλήνων εὔνοια good-will towards the Greeks (εὐνοεῖ τοῖς Ἕλλησι) X. A. 4.7.20, τῶν καλῶν συνουσία_ intercourse with the good (σύνεισι τοῖς καλοῖς) P. L. 838a.

a. The objective genitive often precedes another genitive on which it depends: ““μετὰ τῆς ξυμμαχία_ς τῆς αἰτήσεωςwith the request for an allianceT. 1.32.

1332. Various prepositions are used in translating the objective genitive: ““ θεῶν πόλεμοςwar with the godsX. A. 2.5.7, ““ὅρκοι θεῶνoaths by the godsE. Hipp. 657, ““θεῶν εὐχαίprayers to the godsP. Phae. 244e, ““ἀδικημάτων ὀργήanger at injusticeL. 12.20, ““ἐγκράτεια ἡδονῆςmoderation in pleasureI. 1.21, ““ τῶν ἡδονῶν νί_κηvictory over pleasuresP. L. 840c, ““τρόπαια βαρβάρωνmemorials of victory over barbariansX. A. 7.6.36, ““παραινέσεις τῶν ξυναλλαγῶνexhortations to reconciliationT. 4.59, ““μῦθος φίλωνtidings about friendsS. Ant. 11, ““σοῦ μῦθοςspeech with theeS. O. C. 1161. In ““θανάτου λύσιςrelease from deathι 421, μεταπαυσωλὴ πολέμοιο respite from war T 201, it is uncertain whether the genitive is objective or ablatival (1392).

1333. The objective genitive is often used when a prepositional expression, giving greater precision, is more usual: τὸ Μεγαρέων ψήφισμα the decree relating to (περί) the Megarians T. 1.140, ἀπόβασις τῆς γῆς a descent upon the land (ἐς τὴν γῆν) 1. 108, ἀπόστασις τῶν Ἀθηναίων revolt from the Athenians (ἀπὸ τῶν Ἀθηναίων) 8. 5.

1334. For the objective genitive a possessive pronoun is sometimes used: ““σὴν χάρινfor thy sakeP. Soph. 242a, ““διαβολὴ ἐμήcalumniation of meP. A. 20e. ἐμὸς φόβος is usually objective: the fear which I inspire. (But ““σοῦ μῦθοςspeech with theeS. O. C. 1161.)

1335. Predicate Use.—οὐ τῶν κακούργων οἶκτος, ἀλλὰ τῆς δίκης compassion is not for wrong-doers, but for justice E. fr. 270.


1336. The genitive expresses value.

““ἱερὰ τριῶν ταλάντωνofferings worth three talentsL. 30.20, ““χι_λίων δραχμῶν δίκην φεύγωI am defendant in an action involving a thousand drachmasD. 55.25.

1337. Predicate Use: ““τοὺς αἰχμαλώτους τοσούτων χρημάτων λύ_εσθαιto ransom the captives at so high a priceD. 19.222, τριῶν δραχμῶν πονηρὸς ὤν a threepenny rogue 19. 200.


1338. Two genitives expressing different relations may be used with one noun.

““οἱ ἄνθρωποι διὰ τὸ αὑτῶν δέος τοῦ θανάτου καταψεύδονταιby reason of their fear of death men tell liesP. Ph. 85a, ““Διονύ_σου πρεσβυ_τῶν χορόςa chorus of old men in honour of DionysusP. L. 665b, ““ τοῦ Αάχητος τῶν νεῶν ἀρχήLaches' command of the fleetT. 3.115, Φαιά_κων προενοίκησις τῆς Κερκύ_ρα_ς the former occupation of Corcyra by the Phaeacians 1.25.


1339. The genitive may serve as the immediate complement of a verb, or it may appear, as a secondary definition, along with an accusative which is the immediate object of the verb (920, 1392, 1405).

1340. The subject of an active verb governing the genitive may become the subject of the passive construction: Νι_κήρατος ἐρῶν τῆς γυναικὸς ἀντερᾶται Niceratus, who is in love with his wife, is loved in return X. S. 8. 3. Cp. 1745 a.



1341. A verb may be followed by the partitive genitive if the action affects the object only in part. If the entire object is affected, the verb in question takes the accusative.

Ἀδρήστοιο δ᾽ ἔγημε θυγατρῶν he married one of Adrastus' daughters Ξ 121, τῶν πώλων λαμβάνει he takes some of the colts X. A. 4.5.35, λαβόντες τοῦ βαρβαρικοῦ στρατοῦ taking part of the barbarian force 1. 5. 7, κλέπτοντες τοῦ ὄρους seizing part of the mountain secretly 4. 6. 15 (cp. τοῦ ὄρους κλέψαι τι 4. 6. 11), τῆς γῆς ἔτεμον they ravaged part of the land T. 2.56 (cp. τὴν γῆν πᾶσαν ἔτεμον 2. 57 and ἔτεμον τῆς γῆς τὴν πολλήν 2. 56), κατεά_γη τῆς κεφαλῆς he had a hole knocked somewhere in his head Ar. Vesp. 1428 (““τὴν κεφαλὴν κατεα_γέναιto have one's head brokenD. 54.35).

1342. With impersonals a partitive genitive does duty as the subject: ““πολέμου οὐ μετῆν αὐτῇshe had no share in warX. C. 7.2.28, ““ἐμοὶ οὐδαμόθεν προσήκει τούτου τοῦ πρά_γματοςI have no part whatever in this affairAnd. 4.34. Cp. 1318.

1343. The genitive is used with verbs of sharing.

““πάντες μετεῖχον τῆς ἑορτῆςall took part in the festivalX. A. 5.3.9, μετεδίδοσαν ἀλλήλοις ὧν (= τούτων ) εἶχον ἕκαστοι they shared with each other what each had 4. 5. 6, ““τὸ ἀνθρώπινον γένος μετείληφεν ἀθανασία_ςthe human race has received a portion of immortalityP. L. 721b, ““σί_του κοινωνεῖνto take a share of foodX. M. 2.6.22, ““δικαιοσύνης οὐδὲν ὑ_μῖν προσήκειyou have no concern in righteous dealingX. H. 2.4.40, ““πολι_τεία_, ἐν πένησιν οὐ μέτεστιν ἀρχῆςa form of government in which the poor have no part in the management of affairsP. R. 550c. So with μεταλαγχάνειν get a share (along with somebody else), συναίρεσθαι and κοινοῦσθαι take part in, μεταιτεῖν and μεταποιεῖσθαι demand a share in.

1344. The part received or taken, if expressed, stands in the accusative. οἱ τύραννοι τῶν μεγίστων ἀγαθῶν ἐλάχιστα μετέχουσι tyrants have the smallest por- tion in the greatest blessings X. Hi. 2.6, ““τούτων μεταιτει_ τὸ μέροςhe demands his share of thisAr. Vesp. 972.

a. With μέτεστι the part may be added in the nominative: ““μέτεστι χὐ_μῖν τῶν πεπρα_γμένων μέροςye too have had a share in these doingsE. I. T. 1299.

1345. The genitive is used with verbs signifying to touch, take hold of, make trial of.

νόσος) ““ἥψατο τῶν ἀνθρώπωνthe plague laid hold of the menT. 2.48, τῆς γνώμης τῆς αὐτῆς ἔχομαι I hold to the same opinion 1. 140, ““ἐν τῇ ἐχομένῃ ἐμοῦ κλί_νῃon the couch next to meP. S. 217d, ““ἀντιλάβεσθε τῶν πρα_γμάτωνtake our public policy in handD. 1.20, ὅπως πειρῷντο τοῦ τείχους to make an attempt on (a part of) the wall T. 2.81. So with ψαύειν touch (rare in prose), ἀντέχεσθαι cling to, ἐπιλαμβάνεσθαι and συλλαμβάνεσθαι lay hold of.

1346. The genitive of the part, with the accusative of the person (the whole) who has been touched, is chiefly poetical: ““τὸν δὲ πεσόντα ποδῶν ἔλαβεbut him as he fell, he seized by his feetΔ 463, ““ἔλαβον τῆς ζώνης τὸν Ὀρόντα_νthey took hold of Orontas by the girdleX. A. 1.6.10 (but ““μοῦ λαβόμενος τῆς χειρόςtaking me by the handP. Charm. 153b), ““ἄγειν τῆς ἡνία_ς τὸν ἵππονto lead the horse by the bridleX. Eq. 6.9 (cp. ““βοῦν δ᾽ ἀγέτην κεράωνthey led the cow by the hornsγ 439).

1347. Verbs of beseeching take the genitive by analogy to verbs of touching: ἐμὲ λισσέσκετο γούνων she besought me by (clasping) my knees I 451 (cp. γενείου ἁψάμενος λίσσεσθαι beseech by touching his chin K 454).

1348. The genitive is used with verbs of beginning.

a. Partitive: ““ἔφη Κῦρον ἄρχειν τοῦ λόγου ὧδεhe said that Cyrus began the discussion as followsX. A. 1.6.5, τοῦ λόγου ἤρχετο ὧδε he began his speech as follows 3. 2. 7. On ἄρχειν as distinguished from ἄρχεσθαι see 1734. 5.

b. Ablatival (1391) denoting the point of departure: σέο δ᾽ ἄρξομαι I will make a beginning with thee I 97. In this sense ἀπό or ἐξ is usually added: ἀρξάμενοι ἀπὸ σοῦ D. 18.297, ““ἄρξομαι ἀπὸ τῆς ἰ_α_τρικῆς λέγωνI will make a beginning by speaking of medicineP. S. 186b.

1349. The genitive is used with verbs signifying to aim at, strive after, desire (genitive of the end desired).

““ἀνθρώπων στοχάζεσθαιto aim at menX. C. 1.6.29, ““ἐφι_έμενοι τῶν κερδῶνdesiring gainT. 1.8, ““πάντες τῶν ἀγαθῶν ἐπιθυ_μοῦσινall men desire what is goodP. R. 438a, ““τὸ ἐρᾶν τῶν καλῶνthe passionate love of what is nobleAes. 1.137, ““πεινῶσι χρημάτωνthey are hungry for wealthX. S. 4. 36, ““πόλις ἐλευθερία_ς διψήσα_σαa state thirsting for freedomP. R. 562c. So with ὀϊστεύειν shoot at (poet.), λιλαίεσθαι desire (poet.), γλίχεσθαι desire. φιλεῖν love, ποθεῖν long for take the accusative.

1350. The genitive is used with verbs signifying to reach, obtain (genitive of the end attained).

““τῆς ἀρετῆς ἐφικέσθαιto attain to virtueI. 1.5, ““οἱ ἀκοντισταὶ βραχύτερα ἠκόντιζον ὡς ἐξικνεῖσθαι τῶν σφενδονητῶνthe javelin-throwers did not hurl far enough to reach the slingersX. A. 3.3.7, σπονδῶν ἔτυχε he obtained a truce 3. 1. 28. So with κυρεῖν obtain (poet.), κληρονομεῖν inherit, ἀποτυγχάνειν fail to hit. τυγχάνειν, when compounded with ἐν, ἐπί, παρά, περί, and σύν, takes the dative. λαγχάνειν obtain by lot usually takes the accusative.

a. This genitive and that of 1349 form the genitive of the goal.

1351. The genitive of the thing obtained may be joined with an ablatival genitive (1410) of the person: ““οὗ δὲ δὴ πάντων οἰόμεθα τεύξεσθαι ἐπαίνουin a case where we expect to win praise from all menX. A. 5.7.33. But where the thing obtained is expressed by a neuter pronoun, the accusative is employed.

1352. It is uncertain whether verbs signifying to miss take a partitive or an ablatival genitive: ““οὐδεὶς ἡμάρτανεν ἀνδρόςno one missed his manX. A. 3.4.15, ““σφαλέντες τῆς δόξηςdisappointed in expectationsT. 4.85.

1353. Verbs of approaching and meeting take the genitive according to 1343 or 1349. These verbs are poetical. Thus, ἀντιόων ταύρων for the purpose of obtaining (his share of) bulls α 25, ἀντήσω τοῦδ᾽ ἀνέρος I will encounter this man II 423, ““πελάσαι νεῶνto approach the shipsS. Aj. 709. In the meaning draw near to verbs of approaching take the dative (1463).

1354. The genitive is used with verbs of smelling.

““ὄζω μύρουI smell of perfumeAr. Eccl. 524. So πνεῖν μύρου to breathe (smell of) perfume S. fr. 140.

1355. The genitive is used with verbs signifying to enjoy, taste, eat, drink.

““ἀπολαύομεν πάντων τῶν ἀγαθῶνwe enjoy all the good thingsX. M. 4.3.11, ““εὐωχοῦ τοῦ λόγουenjoy the discourseP. R. 352b, ““ὀλίγοι σί_του ἐγεύσαντοfew tasted foodX. A. 3.1.3. So (rarely) with ἥδεσθαι take pleasure in.

a. Here belong ἐσθίειν, πί_νειν when they do not signify to eat up or drink up: ““ὠμῶν ἐσθίειν αὐτῶνto eat them aliveX. H. 3.3.6, ““πί_νειν οἴνοιοdrink some wineχ 11, as boire du vin (but ““πί_νειν οἶνονdrink wineΞ 5, as boire le vin). Words denoting food and drink are placed in the accusative when they are regarded as kinds of nourishment.

1356. The genitive is used with verbs signifying to remember, remind, forget, care for , and neglect.

““τῶν ἀπόντων φίλων μέμνησοremember your absent friendsI. 1.26, ““βούλομαι δ᾽ ὑ_μᾶς ἀναμνῆσαι τῶν ἐμοὶ πεπρα_γμένωνI desire to remind you of my past actionsAnd. 4.41, ““δέδοικα μὴ ἐπιλαθώμεθα τῆς οἴκαδε ὁδοῦI fear lest we may forget the way homeX. A. 3.2.25, ἐπιμελόμενοι οἱ μὲν ὑποζυγίων, οἱ δὲ σκευῶν some taking care of the pack animals, others of the baggage 4. 3. 30, ““τῆς τῶν πολλῶν δόξης δεῖ ἡμᾶς φροντίζεινwe must pay heed to the world's opinionP. Cr. 48a, τί ἡμῖν τῆς τῶν πολλῶν δόξης μέλει; what do we care for the world's opinion? 44 c, ““τοῖς σπουδαίοις οὐχ οἷόν τε τῆς ἀρετῆς ἀμελεῖνthe serious cannot disregard virtueI. 1.48, μηδενὸς ὀλιγωρεῖτε μηδὲ καταφρονεῖτε (cp. 1385) τῶν προστεταγμένων neither neglect nor despise any command laid on you 3. 48.

1357. So with μνημονεύειν remember (but usually with the accus., especially of things), ἀμνημονεῖν not to speak of, κήδεσθαι care for, ἐντρέπεσθαι give heed to, ἐνθυ_μεῖσθαι think deeply of, προορᾶν make provision for (in Hdt.), μεταμέλει μοι it repents me, καταμελεῖν neglect.

1358. Many of these verbs also take the accusative. With the accus. μεμνῆσθαι means to remember something as a whole, with the gen. to remember something about a thing, bethink oneself. The accus. is usually found with verbs of remembering and forgetting when they mean to hold or not to hold in memory, and when the object is a thing. Neuter pronouns must stand in the accus. ἐπιλανθάνεσθαι forget takes either the genitive or the accusative, λανθάνεσθαι (usually poetical) always takes the genitive. μέλει it is a care, ἐπιμέλεσθαι care for, μεμνῆσθαι think about may take περί with the genitive. οἶδα generally means I remember when it has a person as the object (in the accusative).

1359. Verbs of reminding may take two accusatives: ““ταῦθ᾽ ὑπέμνησ᾽ ὑ_μᾶςI have reminded you of thisD. 19.25 (1628).

1360. With μέλει, the subject, if a neuter pronoun, may sometimes stand in the nominative (the personal construction): ““ταῦτα θεῷ μελήσειGod will care for thisP. Phae. 238d. Except in poetry the subject in the nominative is very rare with other words than neuter pronouns: χοροὶ πᾶσι μέλουσι P. L. 835e.

1361. The genitive is used with verbs signifying to hear and perceive: ἀκούειν, κλύειν (poet.) hear, ἀκροᾶσθαι listen to, αἰσθάνεσθαι perceive, πυνθάνεσθαι hear, learn of, συνι_έναι understand, ὀσφραίνεσθαι scent. The person or thing, whose words, sound, etc. are perceived by the senses, stands in the genitive; the words, sound, etc. generally stand in the accusative.

““τινὸς ἤκουσ᾽ εἰπόντοςI heard somebody sayD. 8.4, ““ἀκούσαντες τῆς σάλπιγγοςhearing the sound of the trumpetX. A. 4.2.8, ἀκούσαντες τὸν θόρυβον hearing the noise 4. 4. 21, ““ἀκροώμενοι τοῦ ᾁδοντοςlistening to the singerX. C. 1.3.10, ““ὅσοι ἀλλήλων ξυνί_εσανall who understood each otherT. 1.3, ““ἐπειδὰν συνι_ῇ τις τὰ λεγόμεναwhen one understands what is saidP. Pr. 325c (verbs of understanding, συνι_έναι and ἐπίστασθαι, usually take the accus.), ““κρομμύων ὀσφραίνομαιI smell onionsAr. Ran. 654.

a. A supplementary participle is often used in agreement with the genitive of the person from whom something is heard: ““λέγοντος ἐμοῦ ἀκροά_σονται οἱ νέοιthe young men will listen when I speakP. A. 37d.

b. The accusative is almost always used when the thing heard is expressed by a substantivized neuter adjective or participle, but the genitive plural in the case of οὗτος, ὅδε, αὐτός, and ὅς is frequent.

1362. A double genitive, of the person and of the thing, is rare with ἀκούειν: ““τῶν ὐπὲρ τῆς γραφῆς δικαίων ἀκούειν μουto listen to my just pleas as regards the indictmentD. 18.9.

1363. ἀκούειν, αἰσθάνεσθαι, πυνθάνεσθαι, meaning to become aware of, learn, take the accusative (with a participle in indirect discourse, 2112 b) of a personal or impersonal object: οἱ δέ Πλαταιῆς, ὡς ᾔσθοντο ἔνδον τε ὄντας τοὺς Θηβαίους και κατειλημμένην τὴν πόλιν but the Plataeans, when they became aware that the Thebans were inside and that the city had been captured T. 2.3, πυθόμενοι Ἀρταξέρξην τεθνηκότα having learned that Artaxerxes was dead 4. 50.

a. To hear a thing is usually ἀκούειν τι when the thing heard is something definite and when the meaning is simply hear, not listen to.

1364. ἀκούειν, ἀκροᾶσθαι, πυνθἁνεσθαι, meaning to hear from, learn from, take the genitive of the actual source (1411).

1365. ἀκούειν, κλύειν, πυνθάνεσθαίτινος may mean to hear about, hear of: ““εἰ δέ κε τεθνηῶτος ἀκούσῃςbut if you hear that he is deadα 289, ““κλύων σοῦhearing about theeS. O. C. 307, ““ὡς ἐπύθοντο τῆς Πύλου κατειλημμένηςwhen they heard of the capture of PylosT. 4.6. For the participle (not in indirect discourse) see 2112 a. περί is often used with the genitive without the participle.

1366. In the meaning heed, hearken, obey, verbs of hearing generally take the genitive: ἄκουε πάντων, ἐκλέγου δ᾽ συμφέρει listen to everything, but choose that which is profitable Men. Sent. 566, ““τῶν πολεμίων ἀκούεινto submit to enemiesX. C. 8.1.4. πείθεσθαι takes the genitive, instead of the dative, by analogy to this use (Hdt. 6.12, T. 7.73). (On the dative with ἀκούειν obey see 1465.)

1367. αἰσθάνεσθαι takes the genitive, or (less frequently) the accusative, of the thing immediately perceived by the senses: ““τῆς κραυγῆς ᾔσθοντοthey heard the noiseX. H. 4.4.4, ““ᾔσθετο τὰ γιγνόμεναhe perceived what was happeningX. C. 3.1.4. The genitive is less common than the accusative when the perception is intellectual: ““ὡς ᾔσθοντο τειχιζόντωνwhen they heard that they were progressing with their fortificationT. 5.83. Cp. 1363.

1368. Some verbs, ordinarily construed with the accusative, take the genitive by the analogy of αἰσθάνεσθαι, etc.: ““ἔγνω ἄτοπα ἐμοῦ ποιοῦντοςhe knew that I was acting absurdlyX. C. 7.2.18, ““ἀγνοοῦντες ἀλλήλων τι λέγομενeach of us mistaking what the other saysP. G. 517c. This construction of verbs of knowing (and showing) occurs in Attic only when a participle accompanies the genitive.

1369. The genitive is used with verbs signifying to fill, to be full of. The thing filled is put in the accusative.

““οὐκ ἐμπλήσετε τὴν θάλατταν τριήρων; will you not cover the sea with your triremes?D. 8.74, ““ἀναπλῆσαι αἰτιῶνto implicate in guiltP. A. 32c, ““τροφῆς εὐπορεῖνto have plenty of provisionsX. Vect. 6.1, ““τριήρης σεσαγμένη ἀνθρώπωνa trireme stowed with menX. O. 8.8, ““ὕβρεως μεστοῦσθαιto be filled with prideP. L. 713c. So with πλήθειν, πληροῦν, γέμειν, πλουτεῖν, βρί_θειν (poet.), βρύειν (poet.).

a. Here belong also ““χεὶρ στάζει θυηλῆς Ἄρεοςhis hand drips with sacrifice to AresS. El. 1423, ““μεθυσθεὶς τοῦ νέκταροςintoxicated with nectarP. S. 203b, ““ πηγὴ ῥεῖ ψυ_χροῦ ὕο̂ατοςthe spring flows with cold waterP. Phae. 230b. The instrumental dative is sometimes used.

1370. The genitive is used with verbs signifying to rule, command, lead.

““θεῖον τὸ ἐθελόντων ἄρχεινit is divine to rule over willing subjectsX. O. 21.12, ““τῆς θαλάττης ἐκράτειhe was master of the seaP. Menex. 239e, ““Ἔρως τῶν θεῶν βασιλεύειLove is king of the godsP. S. 195c, ““ἡγεῖτο τῆς ἐξόδουhe led the expeditionT. 2.10, στρατηγεῖν τῶν ξένων to be general of the mercenaries X. A. 2. 6. 28. So with τυραννεῖν be absolute master of, ἀνἀσσειν be lord of (poet.), ἡγεμονεύειν be commander of. This genitive is connected with that of 1402.

1371. Several verbs of ruling take the accusative when they mean to conquer, overcome (so κρατεῖν), or when they express the domain over which the rule extends; as ““τὴν Πελοπόννησον πειρᾶσθε μὴ ἐλά_σσω ἐξηγεῖσθαιtry not to lessen your dominion over the PeloponneseT. 1.71. ἡγεῖσθαί τινι means to be a guide to any one, show any one the way. Cp. 1537.


1372. The genitive is used with verbs signifying to buy, sell, cost, value, exchange. The price for which one gives or does anything stands in the genitive.

““ἀργυρίου πρίασθαι ἀποδόσθαι ἵππονto buy or sell a horse for moneyP. R. 333b, ““Θεμιστοκλέα_ τῶν μεγίστων δωρεῶν ἠξίωσανthey deemed Themistocles worthy of the greatest giftsI. 4.154, ““οὐκ ἀνταλλακτέον μοι τὴν φιλοτι_μία_ν οὐδενὸς κέρδουςI must not barter my public spirit for any priceD. 19.223. So with τάττειν rate, μισθοῦν let, μισθοῦσθαι hire, ἐργάζεσθαι work, and with any verb of doing anything for a wage, as ““οἱ τῆς παρ᾽ ἡμέρα_ν χάριτος τὰ μέγιστα τῆς πόλεως ἀπολωλεκότεςthose who have ruined the highest interests of the State to purchase ephemeral popularityD. 8.70, ““πόσου διδάσκει; πέντε μνῶνfor how much does he teach? for five minaeP. A. 20b, ““οἱ Χαλδαῖοι μισθοῦ στρατεύονταιthe Chaldaeans serve for payX. C. 3.2.7.

a. The instrumental dative is also used. With verbs of exchanging, ἀντί is usual (1683).

1373. To value highly and lightly is περὶ πολλοῦ (πλείονος, πλείστου) and περὶ ὀλίγου (ἐλά_ττονος, ἐλαχίστου) τι_μᾶσθαι or ποιεῖσθαι: ““τὰ πλείστου ἄξια περὶ ἐλαχίστου ποιεῖται, τὰ δὲ φαυλότερα περὶ πλείονοςhe makes least account of what is most important, and sets higher what is less estimableP. A. 30a. The genitive of value, without περί, is rare: ““πολλοῦ ποιοῦμαι ἀκηκοέναι ἀκήκοα ΠρωταγόρουI esteem it greatly to have heard what I did from ProtagorasP. Pr. 328d.

a. The genitive of cause is rarely used to express the thing bought or that for which pay is demanded: ““οὐδένα τῆς συνουσία_ς ἀργύριον πρά_ττειyou charge nobody anything for your teachingX. M. 1.6.11, ““τρεῖς μναῖ διφρίσκουthree minae for a small chariotAr. Nub. 31.

1374. In legal language τι_μᾶν τινι θανάτου is to fix the penalty at death (said of the jury, which is not interested in the result), τι_μᾶσθαί τινι θανάτου to propose death as the penalty (said of the accuser, who is interested), and τιμᾶσθαί τινος to propose a penalty against oneself (said of the accused). Cp. ““τι_μᾶταί μοι ἀνὴρ θανάτουthe man proposes death as my penaltyP. A. 36b, ἀλλὰ δὴ φυγῆς τι_μήσωμαι; ἴσως γὰρ ἄν μοι τούτου τι_μήσαιτε but shall I propose exile as my penalty? for perhaps you (the jury) might fix it at this 37 c. So θανάτου with κρί_νειν, διώκειν, ὑπάγειν. Cp. 1379.


1375. With verbs of judicial action the genitive denotes the crime, the accusative denotes the person accused.

““αἰτιᾶσθαι ἀλλήλους τοῦ γεγενημένουto accuse one another of what had happenedX. Ages. 1.33, ““διώκω μὲν κακηγορία_ς, τῇ δ᾽ αὐτῇ ψήφῳ φόνου φεύγωI bring an accusation for defamation and at the same trial am prosecuted for murderL. 11.12, ““ἐμὲ Μέλητος ἀσεβεία_ς ἐγράψατοMeletus prosecuted me for impietyP. Euth. 5c, ““δώρων ἐκρίθησανthey were tried for briberyL. 27.3. On verbs of accusing and condemning compounded with κατά, see 1385.

1376. So with ἀμύ_νεσθαι and κολάζειν punish, εἰσάγειν and προσκαλεῖσθαι summon into court, αἱρεῖν convict, τι_μωρεῖσθαι take vengeance on. With τι_μωρεῖν avenge and λαγχάνειν obtain leave to bring a suit, the person avenged and the person against whom the suit is brought are put in the dative. So with δικάζεσθαί τινί τινος to go to law with a man about something.

1377. Verbs of judicial action may take a cognate accusative (δίκην, γραφήν), on which the genitive of the crime depends: ““γραφὴν ὕβρεως καὶ δίκην κακηγορία_ς φεύξεταιhe will be brought to trial on an indictment for outrage and on a civil action for slanderD. 21.32. From this adnominal use arose the construction of the genitive with this class of verbs.

1378. ἁλίσκεσθαι (ἁλῶναι) be convicted, ὀφλισκάνειν lose a suit, φεύγειν be prosecuted are equivalent to passives: ““ἐά_ν τις ἁλῷ κλοπῆς . . . κἂ_ν ἀστρατεία_ς τις ὄφλῃif any one be condemned for theft . . . and if any one be convicted of desertionD. 24.103, ““ἀσεβεία_ς φεύγοντα ὑπὸ Μελήτουbeing tried for impiety on the indictment of MeletusP. A. 35d. ὀφλισκάνειν may take δίκην as a cognate accus. (““ὠφληκέναι δίκηνto be cast in a suitAr. Av. 1457); the crime or the penalty may stand in the genitive (with or without δίκην), or in the accusative: ““ὁπόσοι κλοπῆς δώρων ὄφλοιενall who had been convicted of embezzlement or briberyAnd. 1.74, ὑφ᾽ ὑ_μῶν θανάτου δίκην ὀφλών having incurred through your verdict the penalty of death, ““ὑπὸ τῆς ἀληθεία_ς ὠφληκότες μοχθηρία_νcondemned by the truth to suffer the penalty of wickednessP. A. 39b.

1379. With verbs of judicial action the genitive of the penalty may be regarded as a genitive of value: ““θανάτου κρί_νουσιthey judge in matters of life and deathX. C. 1.2.14. So ““ὑπάγειν τινὰ θανάτουto impeach a man on a capital chargeX. H. 2.3.12; cp. τι_μᾶν θανάτου 1374.

a. With many verbs of judicial action περί is used.


1380. The genitive may express a more or less close connection or relation, where περί is sometimes added.

With verbs of saying or thinking: τί δὲ ἵππων οἴει; but what do you think of horses? P. R. 459b. Often in poetry: ““εἰπὲ δέ μοι πατρόςbut tell me about my fatherλ 174, τοῦ κασιγνήτου τί φῄς; what dost thou say of thy brother? S. El. 317.

1381. The genitive is often used loosely, especially at the beginning of a construction, to state the subject of a remark: ἵππος ἢν κακουργῇ, τὸν ἱππέα_ κακίζομεν: τῆς δὲ γυναικός, εἰ κακοποιεῖ κτλ. if a horse is vicious, we lay the fault to the groom; but as regards a wife, if she conducts herself ill, etc. X. O. 3.11, ““ὡσαύτως δὲ καὶ τῶν ἄλλων τεχνῶνand so in the case of the other arts tooP. Charm. 165d, τί δὲ τῶν πολλῶν καλῶν; what about the many beautiful things? P. Ph. 78d.


1382. The genitive depends on the meaning of a compound verb as a whole (1) if the simple verb takes the genitive without a preposition, as ὑπείκειν withdraw, παραλύ_ειν release, παραχωρεῖν surrender (1392), ἐφί_εσθαι desire (1349); or (2) if the compound has acquired through the preposition a signification different from that of the simple verb with the preposition: thus ““ἀπογνόντες τῆς ἐλευθερία_ςdespairing of freedomL. 2.46 cannot be expressed by γνόντες ἀπὸ τῆς ἐλευθερία_ς. But it is often difficult to determine whether the genitive depends on the compound verb as a whole or on the preposition contained in it.

1383. A verb compounded with a preposition taking the dative or accusative may take the genitive by analogy of another compound verb whose preposition requires the genitive: so ““ἐμβαίνειν ὅρωνto set foot on the boundariesS. O. C. 400 by analogy to ἐπιβαίνειν τῶν ὅρων P. L. 778e.

1384. Many verbs compounded with ἀπό, πρό, ὑπέρ, ἐπί, and κατά take the genitive when the compound may be resolved into the simple verb and the preposition without change in the sense: ““τοὺς συμμάχους ἀποτρέψαντες τῆς γνώμηςdissuading the allies from their purposeAnd. 3.21, ““προαπεστάλησαν τῆς ἀποστάσεωςthey were despatched before the revoltT. 3.5, ““πολλοῖς γλῶττα προτρέχει τῆς διανοία_ςin many people the tongue outruns the thoughtI. 1.41, (οἱ πολέμιοι) ““ὑπερκάθηνται ἡμῶνthe enemy are stationed above usX. A. 5.1.9, ““τῷ ἐπιβάντι πρώτῳ τοῦ τείχουςto the first one setting foot on the wallT. 4.116. This use is most frequent when the prepositions are used in their proper signification. Many compounds of ὑπέρ take the accusative.

a. This use is especially common with κατά against or at: ““μή μου κατείπῃςdon't speak against meP. Th. 149a, ““κατεψεύσατό μουhe spoke falsely against meD. 18.9, ““ψευδῆ κατεγλώττιζέ μουhe mouthed lies at meAr. Ach. 380. The construction in 1384 is post-Homeric.

1385. The verbs of accusing and condemning (cp. 1375) containing κατά in composition (καταγιγνώσκειν decide against, καταδικάζειν adjudge against, καταψηφίζεσθαι vote against, κατακρί_νειν give sentence against) take a genitive of the person, and an accusative of the penalty. κατηγορεῖν accuse, καταγιγνώσκειν and καταψηφίζεσθαι take a genitive of the person, an accusative of the crime: ““καταγνῶναι δωροδοκία_ν ἐμοῦto pronounce me guilty of briberyL. 21.21, τούτου δειλία_ν καταψηφίζεσθαι to vote him guilty of cowardice 14. 11, ““τῶν διαφυγόντων θάνατον καταγνόντεςhaving condemned the fugitives to deathT. 6.60; person, crime, and penalty: ““πολλῶν οἱ πατέρες μηδισμοῦ θάνατον κατέγνωσανour fathers passed sentence of death against many for favouring the PersiansI. 4.157. The genitive is rarely used to express the crime or the penalty: ““παρανόμων αὐτοῦ κατηγορεῖνto accuse him of proposing unconstitutional measuresD. 21.5; cp. ““ἀνθρώπων καταψηφισθέντων θάνατονmen who have been condemned to deathP. R. 558a.

1386. In general, prose, as distinguished from poetry, repeats the preposition contained in the compound; but κατά is not repeated.

1387. Passive.—θάνατος αὐτῶν κατεγνώσθη sentence of death was passed on them L. 13.39 (so “κατεψηφισμένος ἦν μου θάνατοςX. Ap. 27), ““κατηγορεῖτο αὐτοῦ οὐχ ἥκιστα μηδισμόςhe was especially accused of favouring the PersiansT. 1.95.


1388. Many verbs ordinarily construed with the accusative are also followed by a genitive of a person, apparently dependent on the verb but in reality governed by an accusative, generally a neuter pronoun or a dependent clause. Thus, ““τάδ᾽ αὐτοῦ ἅγαμαιI admire this in himX. Ages. 2.7, τοῦτο ἐπαινῶ Ἀ_γησιλά_ου I praise this in Agesilaus 8. 4, ““αὐτῶν ἓν ἐθαύμασαI was astonished at one thing in themP. A. 17a. ““Ἀθηναῖοι σφῶν ταῦτα οὐκ ἀποδέξονταιthe Athenians will not be satisfied with them in thisT. 7.48, μέμφονται μάλιστα ἡμῶν which they most censure in us 1. 84, εἰ ἄγασαι τοῦ πατρὸς ὅσα πέπρα_χε if you admire in my father what he has done (the actions of my father) X. C. 3.1.15, ““διαθεώμενος αὐτῶν ὅσην χώρα_ν ἔχοιενcontemplating how large a country they possessX. A. 3.1.19, θαυμάζω τῶν στρατηγῶν ὅτι οὐ πειρῶνται ἡμῖν ἐκπορίζειν σι_τηρέσιον I wonder that the generals do not try to supply us with money for provisions 6. 2. 4, ““ἐνενόησε δὲ αὐτῶν καὶ ὡς ἐπηρώτων ἀλλήλουςhe took note also how they asked each other questionsX. C. 5.2.18. So with θεωρεῖν observe, ὑπονοεῖν feel suspicious of, ἐνθυ_μεῖσθαι consider, etc.

1389. From such constructions arose the use of the genitive in actual dependence on the verb without an accusative word or clause: ““ἄγασαι αὐτοῦyou admire himX. M. 2.6.33, ““θαυμάζω τῶν ὑπὲρ τῆς ἰδία_ς δόξης ἀποθνῄσκειν ἐθελόντωνI wonder at those who are willing to die in defence of their personal opinionsI. 6.93. The use in 1389 recalls that with αἰσθάνεσθαι (1367). On ἄγασθαι, θαυμάζειν with the genitive of cause, see 1405.

1390. A form of the genitive of possession appears in poetry with verbal adjectives and passive participles to denote the personal origin of an action (cp. 1298): ““κείνης διδακτάtaught of herS. El. 344, ““ἐκδιδαχθεὶς τῶν κατ᾽ οἶκονinformed by those in the houseS. Tr. 934, ““πληγεὶς θυγατρόςstruck by a daughterE. Or. 497. Cp. διόσδοτος given of God; and “beloved of the Lord.”

On the genitive absolute, see 2070.


1391. The same verb may govern both a true genitive and an ablatival genitive. So ἄρχεσθαι to begin (1348 a) and to start from, ἔχεσθαι to hold to (1345) and to keep oneself from. In many cases it is difficult to decide whether the genitive in question was originally the true genitive or the ablatival genitive, or whether the two have been combined; e.g. in κυνέη ῥι_νοῦ ποιητή a cap made of hide K 262, ““κύπελλον ἐδέξατο ἧς ἀλόχοιοhe received a goblet from his wifeΩ 305. So with verbs to hear from, know of (1364, 1411), and verbs of emotion (1405), the partitive idea, cause, and source are hard to distinguish. Other cases open to doubt are verbs of missing (1352), being deceived (1392), and the exclamatory genitive (1407).


1392. With verbs signifying to cease, release, remove, restrain, give up, fail, be distant from, etc., the genitive denotes separation.

““λήγειν τῶν πόνωνto cease from toilI. 1.14, ““ἐπιστήμη χωριζομένη δικαιοσύνηςknowledge divorced from justiceP. Menex. 246e, ““μεταστὰ_ς τῆς Ἀθηναίων ξυμμαχία_ςwithdrawing from the alliance with the AtheniansT. 2.67, ““παύσαντες αὐτὸν τῆς στρατηγία_ςremoving him from his office of generalX. H. 6.2.13, ““εἴργεσθαι τῆς ἀγορᾶςto be excluded from the forumL. 6.24, ““σῶσαι κακοῦto save from evilS. Ph. 919, ““ἐκώλυ_ον τῆς πορεία_ς αὐτόνthey prevented him from passingX. Ages. 2.2, ““πᾶς ἀσκὸς δύο ἄνδρας ἕξει τοῦ μὴ καταδῦναιeach skin will keep two men from sinkingX. A. 3.5.11, ““λόγου τελευτᾶνto end a speechT. 3.59, ““τῆς ἐλευθερία_ς παραχωρῆσαι Φιλίππῳto surrender their freedom to PhilipD. 18.68, οὐ πόνων ὑφί_ετο, οὐ κινδύ_νων ἀφί_στατο, οὐ χρημάτων ἐφείδετο he did not relax his toil, stand aloof from dangers, or spare his money X. Ages. 7.1, ““ψευσθέντες τῶν ἐλπίδωνdisappointed of their expectationsI. 4.58 (but cp. 1352), ““ νῆσος οὐ πολὺ διέχουσα τῆς ἠπείρουthe island being not far distant from the mainlandT. 3.51.

1393. Several verbs of separation, such as ἐλευθεροῦν (especially with a personal subject), may take ἀπό or ἐξ when the local idea is prominent. Many take also the accusative.

1394. The genitive, instead of the accusative (1628), may be used with verbs of depriving: ““ἀποστερεῖ με τῶν χρημάτωνhe deprives me of my propertyI. 17.35, ““τῶν ἄλλων ἀφαιρούμενοι χρήματαtaking away property from othersX. M. 1.5.3.

1395. The genitive of the place whence is employed in poetry where a compound verb would be used in prose: ““βάθρων ἵστασθεrise from the stepsS. O. T. 142 (cp. ““ὑπανίστανται θά_κωνthey rise from their seatsX. S. 4. 31), ““χθονὸς ἀείρα_ςraising from the groundS. Ant. 417.

1396. The genitive with verbs signifying to want, lack, empty, etc. may be classed with the genitive of separation.

““τῶν ἐπιτηδείων οὐκ ἀπορήσομενwe shall not want provisionsX. A. 2.2.11, ““ἐπαίνου οὔποτε σπανίζετεyou never lack praiseX. Hi. 1.14, ““ἀνδρῶν τά_νδε πόλιν κενῶσαιto empty this city of its menA. Supp. 660. So with ἐλλείπειν and στέρεσθαι lack, ἐρημοῦν deliver from.

1397. δέω I lack (the personal construction) usually takes the genitive of quantity: ““πολλοῦ γε δέωnothing of the sortP. Phae. 228a, ““μι_κροῦ ἔδεον ἐν χερσὶ τῶν ὁπλι_τῶν εἶναιthey were nearly at close quarters with the hoplitesX. H. 4.6.11, ““τοσούτου δέω ζηλοῦνI am so far from admiringD. 8.70 (also τοσοῦτον δέω).

1398. δέομαι I want, request may take the genitive, or the accusative (regularly of neuter pronouns and adjectives), of the thing wanted; and the genitive of the person: ἐρωτώμενος ὅτου δέοιτο, Ἀσκῶν, ἔφη, δισχι_λίων δεήσομαι being asked what he needed, he saidI shall have need of two thousand skinsX. A. 3.5.9, ““τοῦτο ὑ_μῶν δέομαιI ask this of youP. A. 17c. The genitive of the thing and of the person is unusual: ““δεόμενοι Κύ_ρου ἄλλης ἄλλης πρά_ξεωςpetitioning Cyrus about different mattersX. C. 8.3.19.

1399. δεῖ (impersonal) is frequently used with genitives of quantity: ““πολλοῦ δεῖ οὕτως ἔχεινfar from that being the caseP. A. 35d, οὐδὲ πολλοῦ δεῖ D. 8.42 (only in D.) and οὐδ᾽ ὀλίγου δεῖ no, far from it D. 19.184. δεῖν may be omitted (but not with πολλοῦ), leaving ὀλίγου and μι_κροῦ in the sense of almost, all but; <*>λίγου πάντες almost all P. R. 552d, ““ὀλίγου εἷλον τὴν πόλινthey all but. took the cityT. 8.35. On δεῖν used absolutely, see 2012 d; on δέων with numerals, 350 c.

1400. δεῖ μοί τινος means I have need of something. In place of the dative (1467) an accusative of the person is rarely allowed in poetry on the analogy of δεῖ with the infinitive (1985): ““οὐ πόνου πολλοῦ με δεῖI have need of no great toilE. Hipp. 23 (often in E.). The thing needed is rarely put in the accusative: ““εἴ τι δέοι τῷ χορῷif the chorus need anythingAnt. 6.12 (here some regard τὶ as nominative). Cp. 1562.


1401. The genitive is used with verbs of differing.

““ἄρχων ἀγαθὸς οὐδὲν διαφέρει πατρὸς ἀγαθοῦa good ruler differs in no respect from a good fatherX. C. 8.1.1.

1402. With verbs signifying to surpass, be inferior to, the genitive denotes that with which anything is compared.

““τι_μαῖς τούτων ἐπλεονεκτεῖτεyou had the advantage over them in honoursX. A. 3.1.37, ““ἡττῶντο τοῦ ὕδατοςthey were overpowered by the waterX. H. 5.2.5, ““ὑστερεῖν τῶν ἔργωνto be too late for operationsD. 4.38, ““ἡμῶν λειφθέντεςinferior to usX. A. 7.7.31. So with πρεσβεύειν hold the first place, ἀριστεύειν be best (poet.), μειοῦσθαι fall short of, μειονεκτεῖν be worse off, ἐλαττοῦσθαι be at a disadvantage. νικᾶσθαί τινος is chiefly poetic. ἡττᾶσθαι often takes ὑπό. Akin to this genitive is that with verbs of ruling (1370), which are often derived from a substantive signifying ruler.

1403. Many verbs compounded with πρό, περί, ὑπέρ denoting superiority take the genitive, which may depend on the preposition (1384): ““τάχει περιεγένου αὐτοῦyou excelled him in speedX. C. 3.1.19, ““γνώμῃ προέχειν τῶν ἐναντίωνto excel the enemy in spiritT. 2.62, τοῖς ὅπλοις αὐτῶν ὑπερφέρομεν we surpass them in our infantry 1. 81. So with περιεῖναι, ὑπερέχειν. προτι_μᾶν, προκρί_νειν, and προαιρεῖσθαι prefer, προεστηκέναι be at the head of certainly take the genitive by reason of the preposition. ὑπερβάλλειν and ὑπερβαίνειν surpass take the accusative.

1404. The object compared may be expressed by πρό, ἀντί with the genitive, or by παρά, πρός with the accusative. See under Prepositions. That in which one thing is superior or inferior to another usually stands in the dative (1513, 1515).


1405. With verbs of emotion the genitive denotes the cause. Such verbs are to wonder at, admire, envy, praise, blame. hate, pity, grieve for, be angry at, take vengeance on, and the like.

““ἐθαύμασα τῆς τόλμης τῶν λεγόντωνI wondered at the hardihood of the speakersL. 12.41, ““τοῦτον ἀγασθεὶς τῆς πρᾳότητοςadmiring him for his mildnessX. C. 2.3.21, ζηλῶ σε τοῦ νοῦ, τῆς δὲ δειλία_ς στυγῶ I envy thee for thy prudence, I hate thee for thy cowardice S. El. 1027, σὲ ηὐδαιμόνισα τοῦ τρόπου I thought you happy because of your disposition P. Cr. 43b, ““συγχαίρω τῶν γεγενημένωνI share the joy at what has happenedD. 15.15, ““ἀνέχεσθαι τῶν οἰκείων ἀμελουμένωνto put up with the neglect of my household affairsP. A. 31b, ““τὸν ξένον δίκαιον αἰνέσαι προθυ_μία_ςit is right to praise the stranger for his zealE. I. A. 1371, ““οὔποτ᾽ ἀνδρὶ τῷδε κηρυ_κευμάτων μέμψῃnever wilt thou blame me for my tidingsA. Sept. 651, ““τοῦ πάθους ᾤκτι_ρεν αὐτόνhe pitied him for his miseryX. C. 5.4.32, ““οὐδ᾽ εἰκὸς χαλεπῶς φέρειν αὐτώνnor is it reasonable to grieve about themT. 2.62, οὐκέτι ὧν οὗτοι κλέπτουσιν ὀργίζεσθε, ἀλλ᾽ ὧν αὐτοὶ λαμβάνετε χάριν ἴστε you are no longer angry at their thefts, but you are grateful for what you get yourselves L. 27.11, ““τι_μωρήσασθαι αὐτοὺς τῆς ἐπιθέσεωςto take revenge on them for their attackX. A. 7.4.23. Here belongs, by analogy, ““συγγιγνώσκειν αὐτοῖς χρὴ τῆς ἐπιθυ_μία_ςit is necessary to forgive them for their desireP. Eu. 306c (usually συγγιγνώσκειν τὴν ἐπιθυ_μία_ν τινί or τῇ ἐπιθυ_μίᾳ τινός).

a. The genitive of cause is partly a true genitive, partly ablatival.

1406. With the above verbs the person stands in the accusative or dative. Some of these verbs take the dative or ἐπί and the dative (e.g. ἀλγεῖν, στένειν, ἄχθεσθαι, φθονεῖν) to express the cause of the emotion. See the Lexicon.

1407. The genitive of cause is used in exclamations and is often preceded by an interjection: ““φεῦ τοῦ ἀνδρόςalas for the man!X. C. 3.1.39, τῆς τύχης my ill luck! 2. 2. 3. In tragedy, the genitive of a pronoun or adjective after οἴμοι or ὤμοι refers to the second or third person. For the first person the nominative is used (““οἴμοι τάλαιναah me, miserable!S. Ant. 554).

1408. Allied to the genitive of cause is the genitive of purpose in τοῦ with the infinitive (esp. with μή, 2032 e), and in expressions where ἕνεκα is usually employed, as ““ πᾶσ᾽ ἀπάτη συνεσκευάσθη τοῦ περὶ Φωκέα_ς ὀλέθρουthe whole fraud was contrived for the purpose of ruining the PhociansD. 19.76.

1409. Closely connected with the genitive of cause is the genitive with verbs of disputing: ““οὐ βασιλεῖ ἀντιποιούμεθα τῆς ἀρχῆςwe have no dispute with the king about his empireX. A. 2.1.23, ““ἠμφισβήτησεν Ἐρεχθεῖ τῆς πόλεωςhe disputed the possession of the city with ErechtheusI. 12.193, ἆρ᾽ οὖν μὴ ἡμῖν ἐναντιώσεται τῆς ἀπαγωγῆς; well then he will not oppose us about the removal (of the army), will he? X. A. 7.6.5. ἀντιποιεῖσθαι claim may follow 1349 (““τῆς πόλεως ἀντεποιοῦντοthey laid claim to the cityT. 4.122). Verbs of disputing are sometimes referred to 1343 or 1349.


1410. The genitive may denote the source.

““πίθων ἠφύσσετο οἶνοςwine was broached from the casksψ 305, ““Δα_ρείου καὶ Παρυσάτιδος γίγνονται παῖδες δύοof Darius and Parysatis are born two sonsX. A. 1.1.1, ταῦτα δέ σου τυχόντες obtaining this of you 6. 6. 32, ““μάθε μου καὶ τάδεlearn this also from meX. C. 1.6.44.

1411. With verbs of hearing from and the like the genitive is probably ablatival rather than partitive (1364): ““ἐμοῦ ἀκούσεσθε πᾶσαν τὴν ἀλήθειανfrom me you shall hear the whole truthP. A. 17b, ““τούτων πυνθάνομαι ὅτι οὐκ ἄβατόν ἐστι τὸ ὄροςI learn from these men that the mountain is not impassableX. A. 4.6.17, τοιαῦτά ““του παρόντος ἔκλυονsuch a tale I heard from some one who was presentS. El. 424, ““εἰδέναι δέ σου χρῄζωI desire to know of theeS. El. 668.

a. Usually (except with πυνθάνεσθαι) we have παρά (ἀπό rarely), ἐξ or πρός (in poetry and Hdt.) with verbs of hearing from.

b. The genitive with εἶναι in ““πατρὸς δ᾽ εἴμ᾽ ἀγαθοῖοI am of a good fatherΦ 109, ““τοιούτων μέν ἐστε προγόνωνof such ancestors are youX. A. 3.2.13 is often regarded as a genitive of source, but is probably possessive.


1412. The genitive is used with many adjectives corresponding in derivation or meaning to verbs taking the genitive.

1413. The adjective often borrows the construction with the genitive from that of the corresponding verb; but when the verb takes another case (especially the accusative), or when there is no verb corresponding to the adjective, the adjective may govern the genitive to express possession, connection more or less close, or by analogy. Many of the genitives in question may be classed as objective as well as partitive or ablatival. Rigid distinction between the undermentioned classes must not be insisted on.

1414. Possession and Belonging (1297).—““ ἔρως κοινὸς πάντων ἀνθρώπωνlove common to all menP. S. 205a (cp. κοινωνεῖν 1343), ““ἱερὸς τοῦ αὐτοῦ θεοῦsacred to the same godP. Ph. 85b, ““οἱ κίνδυ_νοι τῶν ἐφεστηκότων ἴδιοιthe dangers belong to the commandersD. 2.28. So with οἰκεῖος and ἐπιχώριος peculiar to. κοινός (usually), οἰκεῖος inclined to, appropriate to, and ἴδιος also take the dative (1499).

1415. Sharing (1343).—““σοφία_ς μέτοχοςpartaking in wisdomP. L. 689d, ““ἰσόμοιροι πάντωνhaving an equal share in everythingX. C. 2.1.31, ““ὕβρεως ἄμοιροςhaving no part in wantonnessP. S. 181c. So <*>κληρος without lot in, ἀμέτοχος not sharing in.

1416. Touching, Desiring, Attaining, Tasting (1345, 1350, 1355).—““ἄψαυστος ἔγχουςnot touching a spearS. O. T. 969, ““χάρις ὧν πρόθυ_μοι γεγενήμεθαgratitude for the objects of our zealT. 3.67, παιδεία_ς ἐπήβολοι having attained to (possessed of) culture P. L. 724b, ““ἐλευθερία_ς ἄγευστοςnot tasting freedomP. R. 576a. So δύσερως passionately desirous of.

1417. Connection.—““ἀκόλουθα ἀλλήλωνdependent on one anotherX. O. 11.12, ““τὰ τούτων ἀδελφάwhat is akin to thisX. Hi. 1.22, ““τῶν προειρημένων ἑπόμεναι ἀποδείξειςexpositions agreeing with what had precededP. R. 504b, ““φέγγος ὕπνου διάδοχονlight succeeding sleepS. Ph. 867. All these adjectives take also the dative; as does συγγενής akin, which has become a substantive.

1418. Capacity and Fitness.—Adjectives in -ικός from active verbs, and some others: ““παρασκευαστικὸν τῶν εἰς τὸν πόλεμον τὸν στρατηγὸν εἶναι χρὴ καὶ ποριστικὸν τῶν ἐπιτηδείων τοῖς στρατιώταιςthe general must be able to provide what is needed in war and to supply provisions for his menX. M. 3.1.6. So διδασκαλικός able to instruct, πρα_κτικός able to effect. Here may belong ““γάμου ὡραία_ripe for marriageX. C. 4.6.9.

1419. Experience (1345).—““ὁδῶν ἔμπειροςacquainted with the roadsX. C. 5.3.35, ““τῆς θαλάσσης ἐπιστήμωνacquainted with the seaT. 1.142, ἰδιώτης τούτου ““τοῦ ἔργουunskilled in this businessX. O. 3.9. So with τρίβων skilled in, τυφλός blind, ἄπειρος unacquainted, ἀγύμναστος unpractised, ἀπαίδευτος uneducated, ἀήθης unaccustomed, ὀψιμαθής late in learning, φιλομαθής fond of learning.

1420. Remembering, Caring For (1356).—““κακῶν μνήμονεςmindful of crimeA. Eum. 382, ““ἐπιμελὴς τῶν φίλωνattentive to friendsX. M. 2.6.35, ἀμνήμων τ ῶν κινδύ_νων unmindful of dangers Ant. 2. α. 7; and, by analogy, ““συγγνώμων τῶν ἀνθρωπίνων ἁμαρτημάτωνforgiving of human errorsX. C. 6.1.37. So ἀμελής careless of, ἐπιλήσμων forgetful of.

1421. Perception (1361).—Compounds in -ήκοος from ἀκούω: ““λόγων καλῶν ἐπήκοοιhearers of noble wordsP. R. 499a, ““ὑπήκοοι Θεσσαλῶνsubjects of the ThessaliansT. 4.78, ““ὑπήκοος τῶν γονέωνobedient to parentsP. R. 463d, ““ἀνήκοοι παιδεία_ςignorant of cultureAes. 1.141. So συνήκοος hearing together, κατήκοος obeying. ἐπήκοος, κατήκοος, and ὑπήκοος also take the dative.

1422. Fulness (1369).—““χαρᾶς πόλις ἦν μεστήthe city was full of rejoicingD. 18.217, ““παράδεισος ἀγρίων θηρίων πλήρηςa park full of wild beastsX. A. 1.2.7, ““πλουσιώτερος φρονήσεωςricher in good senseP. Pol. 261e, ““φιλόδωρος εὐμεϝεία_ςgenerous of good-willP. S. 197d, ““ἄπληστος χρημάτωνgreedy of moneyX. C. 8.2.20. So with ἔμπλεως, σύμπλεως. πλήρης may take the dative.

1423. Ruling (1370).—““ταύτης κύ_ριος τῆς χώρα_ςmaster of this countryD. 3.16, ““ἀκρατὴς ὀργῆςunrestrained in passionT. 3.84. So with ἐγκρατής master of, αὐτοκράτωρ complete master of, ἀκράτωρ intemperate in.

1424. Value (1372).—““τάπις ἀξία_ δέκα μνῶνa rug worth ten minaeX. A. 7.3.27, ““δόξα χρημάτων οὐκ ὠνητήreputation is not to be bought for moneyI. 2.32. So with ἀντάξιος worth, ἰσόρροπος in equal poise with (T. 2.42), ἀξιόχρεως sufficient, ἀνάξιος unworthy. ἄξιόν τινι with the infinitive denotes it is meet for a person to do something or the like.

1425. Accountability (1375).—““αἴτιος τούτωνaccountable for thisP. G. 447a, ““ἔνοχος λιποταξίουliable to a charge of desertionL. 14.5, ““ἀσεβεία_ς ὑπόδικοςsubject to a trial for impietyP. L. 907e, ““ὑποτελὴς φόρουsubject to tributeT. 1.19, ““τούτων ὑπεύθυ_νος ὑ_μῖνresponsible to you for thisD. 8.69, ἀθῷοι τῶν ἀδικημάτων unpunished for offences Lyc. 79. ἔνοχος usually takes the dative, and so ὑπεύθυ_νος meaning dependent on or exposed to. The above compounds of ὑπό take the genitive by virtue of the substantive contained in them.

1426. Place.—ἐναντίος opposite and a few other adjectives denoting nearness or approach (1353) may take the genitive, chiefly in poetry: ἐναντίοι ἔσταν Ἀχαιῶν they stood opposite the Achaeans P 343. Cp. ““τοῦ Πόντου ἐπικάρσιαιat an angle with the PontusHdt. 7.36. ἐναντίος usually takes the dative.

1427. Separation (1392).—““φίλων ἀγαθῶν ἔρημοιdeprived of good friendsX. M. 4.4.24, ““ψυ_χὴ ψι_λὴ σώματοςthe soul separated from the bodyP. L. 899a, ““φειδωλοὶ χρημάτωνsparing of moneyP. R. 548b (or perhaps under 1356), ““ὕ_λης καθαρόνclear of undergrowthX. O. 16.13, ““ἄπαυστος γόωνnever ceasing lamentationsE. Supp. 82. So with ἐλεύθερος free from, ἁγνός pure from, innocent of, ὀρφανός bereft of, γυμνός stripped of, μόνος alone.

1428. Compounds of alpha privative.—In addition to the adjectives with alpha privative which take the genitive by reason of the notion expressed in the verb, or by analogy, there are many others, some of which take the genitive because of the idea of separation, especially when the genitive is of kindred meaning and an attributive adjective is added for the purpose of more exact definition. Thus, ἄτι_μος deprived of, ἀπαθής not suffering, ἀτελής free from (1392): as ““τι_μῆς ἄτι_μοςdeprived of honourP. L. 774b, ““ἄπαις ἀρρένων παίδωνwithout male childrenI. 12.126, ““τοῦ ἡδίστου θεά_ματος ἀθέα_τοςnot seeing the most pleasant sightX. M. 2.1.31, ““ἄφωνος τῆσδε τῆς ἀρᾶςwithout uttering this curseS. O. C. 865. This is more frequent in poetry than prose.

a. So when the adjectives are passive: ““φίλων ἄκλαυτοςunwept by friendsS. Ant. 847, cp. ““κακῶν δυσάλωτος οὐδείςno one is hard for evil fortune to captureS. O. C. 1722. The genitive with adjectives in alpha privative is sometimes called the genitive of relation.

1429. Want (1396).—““ἅρματα κενὰ ἡνιόχωνchariots deprived of their driversX. A. 1.8.20, ““ἐνδεὴς ἀρετῆςlacking virtueP. R. 381c. So with πένης poor, ἐλλιπής and ἐπιδεής lacking.

1430. Distinction (1401).—““διάφορος τῶν ἄλλωνdifferent from the restP. Par. 160d, ““ἕτερον τὸ ἡδὺ τοῦ ἀγαθοῦpleasure is different from what is goodP. G. 500d, ““ἄλλα τῶν δικαίωνat variance with justiceX. M. 4.4.25 (ἄλλος is almost a comparative). So with ἀλλοῖος and ἀλλότριος alien from (also with dat. unfavourable to, disinclined to). διάφορος with dative means at variance with.

1431. Comparison (1402).—Adjectives of the comparative degree or implying comparison take the genitive. The genitive denotes the standard or point of departure from which the comparison is made, and often expresses a condensed comparison when actions are compared. Thus, ““ἤττων ἀμαθὴς σοφοῦ, δειλὸς ἀνδρείουan ignorant man is inferior to a wise man, a coward to a brave manP. Phae. 239a, ““κρεῖττόν ἐστι λόγου τὸ κάλλος τῆς γυναικόςthe beauty of the woman is too great for descriptionX. M. 3.11.1, ““Ἐπύαξα προτέρα_ Κύ_ρου πέντε ἡμέραις ἀφί_κετοEpyaxa arrived five days before CyrusX. A. 1.2.25, ““καταδεεστέρα_ν τὴν δόξαν τῆς ἐλπίδος ἔλαβενthe reputation he acquired fell short of his expectationI. 2.7. So with δεύτερος, ὑστεραῖος, περιττός. Comparatives with , 1069.

1432. So with multiplicatives in -πλοῦς and -πλάσιος: ““διπλάσια ἀπέδωκεν ὧν ἔλαβενit returned double what it receivedX. C. 8.3.38. So with πολλοστός.

1433. The genitive with the comparative often takes the place of with another construction: ἀ_θλιώτερόν ἐστι μὴ ὑγιοῦς σώματος ( = μὴ ὑγιεῖ σώματι) ““μὴ ὑγιεῖ ψυ_χῇ συνοικεῖνit is more wretched to dwell with a diseased soul than a diseased bodyP. G. 479b, πλείοσι ναυσὶ τῶν Ἀθηναίων ( = οἱ Ἀθηναῖοι) ““παρῆσανthey came with more ships than the AtheniansT. 8.52.

1434. The superlative with the genitive is both partitive and ablatival; the latter, when a thing is compared with many things taken singly. Thus, σοφώτατος ἀνθρώπων P. A. 22c means wisest among men (part.) and wiser than any other single man. The partitive idea is the stronger. The comparative and the superlative idea are both expressed in ἀνὴρ ἐπιεικὴς υἱὸν ἀπολέσα_ς οἴσει ῥᾷστα τῶν ἄλλων a reasonable man will bear the loss of a son more easily than other men (and most easily of all men) P. R. 603e, ““στρατεία_ μεγίστη τῶν πρὸ αὐτῆςan expedition greater than any preceding itT. 1.10, ““τῶν ἄλλων ὕστατοιthe last among nationsD. 8.72. Cp. μόνος τῶν ἄλλων = alone of all D. 21.223.

1435. Cause (1405).—““εὐδαίμων τοῦ τρόπουhappy because of his dispositionP. Ph. 58e, ““δείλαιος τῆς συμφορᾶςwretched because of thy lotS. O. T. 1347, ““βάλανοι θαυμάσιαι τοῦ μεγέθουςdates wonderful for their sizeX. A. 2.3.15, ““περίφοβος τοῦ καταφρονηθῆναιfearful of becoming an object of contemptP. Phae. 239b. So with τάλα_ς and τλήμων wretched.

1436. Free Use.—a. Compound adjectives formed of a preposition and substantive may take a genitive dependent on the substantive: ““σκηνῆς ὕπαυλοςunder the shelter of the tentS. Aj. 796 ( = ὑπὸ αὐλῇ). Frequent in poetry.

b. Some adjectives are freely used with the genitive in poetry, as ““λάμοι Πάριδος ὀλέθριοι φίλωνthe marriage of Paris bringing ruin on his friendsA. Ag. 1156. This is rare in prose: ““τὸ πῦρ ἐπίκουρον ψύ_χουςfire that protects against coldX. M. 4.3.7, κακοῦργος μὲν τῶν ἄλλων, ἑαυτοῦ δὲ κακουργότερος doing evil to the others but more to himself 1. 5. 3, ““ τῆς Ἑλλάδος ἀλιτήριοςthe curse and destroyer of GreeceAes. 3.157. These adjectives are practically equivalent to substantives. Cp. amans patriae.


1437. The genitive is used with adverbs derived from adjectives which take the genitive, and with adverbs akin to verbs followed by the genitive.

““τὰ τούτου ἑξῆςwhat comes after thisP. R. 390a (1345), ““ἐρωτικῶς ἔχουσι τοῦ κερδαίνεινthey are in love with gainX. O. 12.15 (cp. 1349), ““εὐθὺ Λυκείουstraight for the LyceumP. Lys. 203b (cp. ἴ_θυ_σε νεός he made straight for the ship O 693; 1353), ““ἐναντίον ἁπάντωνin the presence of allT. 6.25, ““πλησίον Θηβῶνnear ThebesD. 9.27, ““Νείλου πέλαςnear the NileA. Supp. 308 (1353), ““γονέων ἀμελέστερον ἔχεινbe too neglectful of one's parentsP. L. 932a (1356), ““ἐκ πάντων τῶν ἐμπείρως αὐτοῦ ἐχόντωνof all those acquainted with himX. A. 2.6.1, ““μηδενὸς ἀπείρως ἔχεινto be inexperienced in nothingI. 1.52 (1345), ““ἀξίως ἀνδρὸς ἀγαθοῦin a manner worthy of a good manP. A. 32e, ““πρεπόντως τῶν πρα_ξάντωνin a manner appropriate to the doersP. Menex. 239c (1372), ““διαφερόντως τῶν ἄλλων ἀνθρώπωνabove the rest of menX. Hi. 7.4 (1401), πονηρία_ θᾶττον θανάτου θεῖwickedness flies faster than fateP. A. 39a (1402), ““πενθικῶς ἔχουσα τοῦ ἀδελφοῦmourning for her brotherX. C. 5.2.7 (1405).

1438. An adverb with ἔχειν or διακεῖσθαι is often used as a periphrasis for an adjective with εἶναι or for a verb.

1439. The genitive is used with many adverbs (a) of place, (b) of time, (c) of quantity.

a. ““ἐμβαλεῖν που τῆς ἐκείνων χώρα_ςto make an attack at some point of their countryX. C. 6.1.42, ““αἰσθόμενος οὗ ἦν κακοῦperceiving what a plight he was inD. 23.156, οἷ προελήλυθ᾽ ἀσελγεία_ς to what a pitch of wanton arrogance he has come 4. 9, ἐνταῦθα τῆς πολι_τεία_ς at that point of the administration 18. 62, ““εἰδέναι ὅπου γῆς ἐστινto know where in the world he isP. R. 403e, ““πόρρω ἤδη τοῦ βίου, θανάτου δὲ ἐγγύςalready far advanced in life, near deathP. A. 38c, ““ἐπὶ τάδε Φασήλιδοςon this side of PhaselisI. 7.80, ““πρὸς βορέα_ν τοῦ Σκόμβρουnorth of Mt. ScombrusT. 2.96, ἄλλοι ἄλλῃ τῆς πόλεως some in one part, others in another part of the city 2. 4, ““ἀπαντικρὺ τἠς Ἀττικῆςopposite AtticaD. 8.36. So with ἐντός inside, εἴσω within, ἑκατέρωθεν on both sides, ὄπισθεν behind, πρόσθεν before.

b. πηνίκ᾽ ἐστὶν ἄρα τῆς ἡμέρα_ς; at what time of day? Ar. Av. 1498, ““τῆς ἡμέρα_ς ὀψέlate in the dayX. H. 2.1.23.

c. ““τῶν τοιούτων ἅδηνenough of such mattersP. Charm. 153d, τούτων ἅλι<*> enough of this X. C. 8.7.25.

1440. Most of the genitives in 1439 are partitive. Some of the adverbs falling under 1437 take also the dative (ἄγχι, ἐγγύς, πλησίον in the poets, ἑξῆς, ἐφεξῆς).

1441. The genitive is used with adverbs of manner, especially with the intransitive ἔχω, ἥκω (Hdt.). The genitive usually has no article: ὡς τάχους ἕκαστος εἶχεν as fast as each could (with what measure of speed he had) X. H. 4.5.15, ““ὡς ποδῶν εἶχονas fast as my legs could carry meHdt. 6.116, ““ἔχοντες εὖ φρενῶνbeing in their right mindsE. Hipp. 462, ““εὖ σώματος ἕξεινto be in good bodily conditionP. R. 404d (cp. 407 c, τοὺς ὑγιεινῶς ἔχοντας τὰ σώματα those who are sound in body: with the article, 1121), ““χρημάτων εὖ ἥκοντεςwell offHdt. 5.62, ““τοῦ πολέμου καλῶς ἐδόκει πόλις καθίστασθαι . . . τῆς τε ἐπὶ Θρᾴκης παρόδου χρησίμως ἕξεινthey thought that the city was well situated for the war and would prove useful for the march along ThraceT. 3.92.

1442. This use is probably derived from that with adverbs of place: thus πῶς ἔχεις δόξης; in what state of mind are you? P. R. 456d is due to the analogy of ποῦ δόξης; (cp. ὅποι γνώμης S. El. 922).

1443. The genitive is used with many adverbs denoting separation. Thus, ““ἔσται ψυ_χὴ χωρὶς τοῦ σώματοςthe soul will exist without the bodyP. Ph. 66e, ““δίχα τοῦ ὑ_μετέρου πλήθουςseparate from your forceX. C. 6.1.8, ““πρόσω τῶν πηγῶνfar from the sourcesX. A. 3.2.22, ““ἐμποδὼν ἀλλήλοις πολλῶν καὶ ἀγαθῶν ἔσεσθεyou will prevent one another from enjoying many blessingsX. C. 8.5.24, ““λάθρᾳ τῶν στρατιωτῶνwithout the knowledge of the soldiersX. A. 1.3.8. So with ἔξω outside, ἐκτός without, outside, πέρα_ν across, κρύφα unbeknown to.


1444. Time.—The genitive denotes the time within which, or at a certain point of which, an action takes place. As contrasted with the accusative of time (1582), the genitive denotes a portion of time. Hence the genitive of time is partitive. Cp. τὸν μὲν χειμῶνα ὕ_ει θεός, τοῦ δὲ θέρεος χρηίσκονται τῷ ὕδατι during the (entire) winter the goo<*>rains, but in (a part of) summer they need the water Hdt. 3.117.

ἡμέρα_ς by day, νυκτός at or by night, μεσημβρία_ς at midday, δείλης in the afternoon, ἑσπέρα_ς in the evening, θέρους in summer, χειμῶνος in winter, ἦρος in spring, ὀπώρα_ς in autumn, τοῦ λοιποῦ in the future. The addition of article or attributive usually defines the time more exactly. Thus, οὐκοῦν ἡδὺ μὲν θέρους ψυ_χεινὴν ἔχειν, ἡδὺ δὲ χειμῶνος ἀλεεινήν; is it not pleasant to have (a house) cool in summer, and warm in winter? X. M. 3.8.9, ““ᾤχετο τῆς νυκτόςhe departed during the nightX. A. 7.2.17, καὶ ἡμέρα_ς καὶ νυκτὸς ἄγων ἐπὶ τοὺς πολεμίους both by day and by night leading against the enemy 2. 6. 7, ἔλεγον τοῦ λοιποῦ μηκέτι ἐξεῖναι ἀνομία_ς ἄρξαι they said that for the future (at any time in the future) it should no longer be permitted to set an example of lawlessness 5. 7. 34. (Distinguish τὸ λοιπόν for the (entire) future 3. 2. 8.) ἐντός within is sometimes added to the genitive.

1445. The addition of the article may have a distributive sense: ““δραχμὴν ἐλάμβανε τῆς ἡμέρα_ςhe received a drachm a dayT. 3.17.

1446. The genitive may denote the time since an action has happened or the time until an action will happen: ““οὐδείς μέ πω ἠρώτηκε καινὸν οὐδὲν πολλῶν ἐτῶνfor many years nobody has put a new question to meP. G. 448a, ““βασιλεὺς οὐ μαχεῖται δέκα ἡμερῶνthe king will not fight for ten daysX. A. 1.7.18.

1447. The genitive may or may not denote a definite part of the time during which anything takes place; the dative fixes the time explicitly either by specifying a definite point in a given period or by contracting the whole period to a definite point; the accusative expresses the whole extent of time from beginning to end: cp. ““τῇ δὲ ὑστεραίᾳ οἱ μὲν Ἀθηναῖοι τό τε προάστειον εἷλον καὶ τὴν ἡμέρα_ν ἅπα_σαν ἐδῄουν τὴν γῆν, οἵ τε τρια_κόσιοι τῶν Σκιωναίων τῆς ἐπιούσης νυκτὸς ἀπεχώρησανon the next day the Athenians captured the suburb and laid waste the land for that entire day, while the three hundred Scionaeans departed in the course of the following nightT. 4.130; ἡμέρᾳ δὲ ἀρξάμενοι τρίτῃ ὡς οἴκοθεν ὥρμησαν, ταύτην τε εἰργάζοντο καὶ τὴν τετάρτην καὶ τῆς πέμπτης μέχρι ἀ_ρίστου beginning on the third day after their departure, they continued their work (all) this day and the fourth, and on the fifth until the mid-day meal 4. 90.

a. The genitive of time is less common than the dative of time (1539) with ordinals, or with ὅδε, οὗτος, ἐκεῖνος; as ταύτης τῆς νυκτός T. 6.97, P. Cr. 44a, ““ἐκείνου τοῦ μηνόςin the course of that monthX. M. 4.8.2. For θέρους we find ἐν θέρει rarely and, in poetry, θέρει. T. 4.133 has both τοῦ αὐτοῦ θέρους and ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ θέρει in the course of the same summer; cp. ἶσος ῥέει ἔν τε θέρεϊ καὶ χειμῶνι Ἴστρος Hdt. 4.50 and Ἴστρος ἶσος ῥέει θέρεος καὶ χειμῶνος 4. 48 (the Ister flows with the same volume in summer and winter).

1448. Place.—The genitive denotes the place within which or at which an action happens. This is more frequent in poetry than in prose.

πεδίοιο διωκέμεν to chase over the plain E 222, ἷζεν τοίχου τοῦ ἑτέροιο he was sitting by the other wall (lit. in a place of the wall) I 219, λελουμένος Ὠκεανοῖο having bathed in Oceanus E 6, ““οὔτε Πύλου ἱερῆς οὔτ᾽ Ἄργεος οὔτε Μυκήνηςneither in sacred Pylos nor in Argos nor in Mycenaeφ 108, ““τόνδ᾽ εἰσεδέξω τειχέωνthou didst admit this man within the wallsE. Phoen. 451, ““ἰέναι τοῦ πρόσωto go forwardX. A. 1.3.1, ““ἐπετάχυ_νον τῆς ὁδοῦ τοὺς σχολαίτερον προσιόνταςthey hastened on their way those who came up more slowlyT. 4.47; ““λαιᾶς χειρὸς οἰκοῦσιthey dwell on the left handA. Pr. 714 (possibly ablatival).

1449. Many adverbs of place are genitives in form (αὐτοῦ there, ποῦ where? οὐδαμοῦ nowhere). Cp. 341.


1450. The Greek dative does duty for three cases: the dative proper, and two lost cases, the instrumental and the locative.

a. The dative derives its name ( δοτικὴ πτῶσις, casus dativus) from the use with διδόναι (1469).

1451. The dative is a necessary complement of a verb when the information given by the verb is incomplete without the addition of the idea expressed by the dative. Thus, πείθεται he obeys, calls for the addition of an idea to complete the sense, as τοῖς νόμοις the laws.

1452. The dative as a voluntary complement of a verb adds something unessential to the completion of an idea. Thus, αὐτοῖς οἱ βάρβαροι ἀπῆλθον the barbarians departed—for them (to their advantage). Here belongs the dative of interest, 1474 ff.

1453. But the boundary line between the necessary and the voluntary complement is not always clearly marked. When the idea of the action, not the object of the action, is emphatic, a verb, usually requiring a dative to complete its meaning, may be used alone, as πείθεται he is obedient.

1454. With many intransitive verbs the dative is the sole complement. With transitive verbs it is the indirect complement (dative of the indirect or remoter object, usually a person); that is, it further defines the meaning of a verb already defined in part by the accusative.

1455. Many verbs so vary in meaning that they may take the dative either alone or along with the accusative (sometimes the genitive). No rules can be given, and English usage is not always the same as Greek usage.

1456. The voice often determines the construction. Thus, πείθειν τινά to persuade some one, πείθεσθαί τινι to persuade oneself for some one (obey some one), <*>λεύειν τινὰ ταῦτα ποιεῖν to order some one to do this, παρακελεύεσθαί τινι ταῦτα τοιεῖν to exhort some one to do this.


1457. The dative proper denotes that to or for which something is or is done.

1458. It is either (1) used with single words (verbs, adjectives, and sometimes with adverbs and substantives) or (2) it serves to define an entire sentence; herein unlike the genitive and accusative, which usually modify single members <*> a sentence. The connection between dative and verb is less intimate than that between genitive or accusative and verb.

1459. The dative proper is largely personal, and denotes the person who is interested in or affected by the action; and includes 1461-1473 as well as 1474 ff. The dative proper is not often used with things; when so used there is usually personification or semi-personification.



1460. The dative may be used as the sole complement of many verbs that are usually transitive in English. Such are

1461. (I) To benefit, help, injure, please, displease, be friendly or hostile, blame, be angry, threaten, envy.

““βοηθεῖν τοῖσιν ἠδικημένοιςto help the wrongedE. I. A. 79, ““οὐκ ἂν ἠνώχλει νῦν ἡμῖνhe would not now be troubling usD. 3.5, <*>ντὶ τοῦ συνεργεῖν ἑαυτοῖς τὰ συμφέροντα ἐπηρεάζουσιν ἀλλήλοις instead of coöperating for their mutual interests, they revile one another X. M. 3.5.16, ““εἰ τοῖς πλέοτιν ἀρέσκοντές ἐσμεν, τοῖσδ᾽ ἂν μόνοις οὐκ ὀρθῶς ἀπαρέσκοιμενif we are pleasing to the majority, it would not be right if we should displease them aloneT. 1.38, ““εὐνοεῖν τοῖς κακόνοιςto be friendly to the ill-intentionedX. C. 8.2.1, ““ἐμοὶ ὀργίζονταιthey are angry at meP. A. 23c, ““τῷ Θηρα_μένει ἠπείλουνthey threatened TheramenesT. 8.92, ““οὐ φθονῶν τοῖς πλουτοῦσινnot cherishing envy against the richX. A. 1.9.19.

1462. Some verbs of benefiting and injuring take the accusative (ὠφελεῖν, βλάπτειν, 1591 a); μι_σεῖν τινα hate some one. λυ_σιτελεῖν, συμφέρειν be of advantage take the dative.

1463. (II) To meet, approach, yield.

““ἐπεὶ δὲ ἀπήντησαν αὐτοῖς οἱ στρατηγοίbut when the generals met themX. A. 2.3.17, ““περιτυγχάνει Φιλοκράτειhe meets PhilocratesX. H. 4.8.24, ““ποίοις οὐ χρὴ θηρίοις πελάζεινwhat wild beasts one must not approachX. C. 1.4.7, σὺ δ᾽ εἶκ᾽ ἀνάγκῃ καὶ θεοῖσι μὴ μάχου yield to necessity and war not with heaven E. fr. 716. On the genitive with verbs of approaching, see 1353.

1464. (III) To obey, serve, pardon, trust, advise, command, etc.

““τοῖς νόμοις πείθουobey the lawsI. 1.16, ““τῷ ὑ_μετέρῳ ξυμφόρῳ ὑπακούεινto be subservient to your interestsT. 5.98, ““ἂ_ν μηδεμιᾷ δουλεύῃς τῶν ἡδονῶνif you are the slave of no pleasureI. 2.29, ““ἐπίστευον αὐτῷ αἱ πόλειςthe cities trusted himX. A. 1.9.8, στρατηγῷ στρατιώταις παραινοῦντι a general advising his men P. Ion 540 d, ““τῷ Μυ_σῷ ἐσήμηνε φεύγεινhe ordered the Mysian to fleeX. A. 5.2.30, ““τῷ Κλεάρχῳ ἐβόα_ ἄγεινhe shouted to Clearchus to leadX. A. 1.8.12.

1465. κελεύειν command (strictly impel) may be followed in Attic by the accusative and (usually) the infinitive; in Hom. by the dative either alone or with the infinitive. Many verbs of commanding (παραγγέλλειν, διακελεύεσθαι) take in Attic the accusative, not the dative, when used with the infinitive (1996 N.). ὑπακούειν (and ἀκούειν = obey) may take the genitive (1366).

1466. (IV) To be like or unlike, compare, befit.

““ἐοικέναι τοῖς τοιούτοιςto be like such menP. R. 349d, τί οὖν πρέπει ἀνδρὶ πένητι; what then befits a poor man? P. A. 36d.

1467. The dative of the person and the genitive of the thing are used with the impersonals δεῖ (1400), μέτεστι, μέλει, μεταμέλει, προσήκει. Thus, ““μισθοφόρων ἀνδρὶ τυράννῳ δεῖa tyrant needs mercenariesX. Hi. 8.10, ““ὡς οὐ μετὸν αὐτοῖς Ἐπιδάμνουinasmuch as they had nothing to do with EpidamnusT. 1.28, ““οὐχ ὧν ἐβιά_σατο μετέμελεν αὐτῷhe did not repent of his acts of violenceAnd. 4.17, ““τούτῳ τῆς Βοιωτία_ς προσήκει οὐδένhe has nothing to do with BoeotiaX. A. 3.1.31. ἔξεστί μοι it is in my power does not take the genitive. For the accusative instead of the dative, see 1400. Cp. 1344.

a. For δοκεῖ μοι it seems to me (mihi videtur), δοκῶ μοι (mihi videor) may be used. b. For other cases of the dative as direct complement see 1476, 1481.

1468. An intransitive verb taking the dative can form a personal passive, the dative becoming the nominative subject of the passive. Cp. 1745.


1469. Many verbs take the dative as the indirect object together with an accusative as the direct object. The indirect object is commonly introduced in English by to.

““Κῦρος δίδωσιν αὐτῷ ἓξ μηνῶν μισθόνCyrus gives him pay for six monthsX. A. 1.1.10, ““τῷ Ὑρκανίῳ ἵππον ἐδωρήσατοhe presented a horse to the HyrcanianX. C. 8.4.24, ““τὰ δὲ ἄλλα διανεῖμαι τοῖς στρατηγοῖςto distribute the rest to the generalsX. A. 7.5.2, ““μι_κρὸν μεγάλῳ εἰκάσαιto compare a small thing to a great thingT. 4.36, ““πέμπων αὐτῷ ἄγγελονsending a messenger to himX. A. 1.3.8, ὑπισχνοῦμαί σοι δέκα τάλαντα I promise you ten talents 1. 7. 18, ““τοῦτο σοὶ δ᾽ ἐφί_εμαιI lay this charge upon theeS. Aj. 116, ““παρῄνει τοῖς Ἀθηναίοις τοιάδεhe advised the Athenians as followsT. 6.8, ““ἐμοὶ ἐπιτρέψαι ταύτην τὴν ἀρχήνto entrust this command to meX. A. 6.1.31. λέγειν ταῦτα τοῖς στρατιώταις to say this to the soldiers 1. 4. 11 (λέγειν πρός τινα lacks the personal touch of the dative, which indicates interest in the person addressed). A dependent clause often represents the accusative.

1470. Passive.—The accusative of the active becomes the subject of the passive, the dative remains: ““ἐκείνῳ αὕτη χώρα_ ἐδόθηthis land was given to himX. H. 3.1.6.


1471. Many verbs may take the dative either alone or with the accusative.

““οὐδενὶ μέμφομαιI find fault with no oneD. 21.190, τί ἄν μοι μέμφοιο; what fault would you have to find with me? X. O. 2.15; ““ὑπηρετῶ τοῖς θεοῖςI am a servant of the godsX. C. 8.2.22, ““Ἔρωτι πᾶν ὑπηρετεῖhe serves Eros in everythingP. S. 196c; ““παρακελεύονται τοῖς περὶ νί_κης ἁμιλλωμένοιςthey exhort those who are striving for victoryI. 9.79, ““ταῦτα τοῖς ὁπλί_ταις παρακελεύομαιI address this exhortation to the hoplitesT. 7.63; ““ὀνειδίζετε τοῖς ἀδικοῦσινyou reproach the guiltyL. 27.16 (also accus.), ““Θηβαίοις τὴν ἀμαθία_ν ὀνειδίζουσιthey upbraid the Thebans with their ignoranceI. 15.248; ““θεοῖς εὐξάμενοιhaving prayed to the godsT. 3.58, ““εὐξάμενοι τοῖς θεοῖς τἀ_γαθάhaving prayed to the gods for successX. C. 2.3.1 (cp. αἰτεῖν τινά τι, 1628). So ἐπιτι_μᾶν (ἐγκαλεῖν) τινι to censure (accuse) some one, ἐπιτι_μᾶν (ἐγκαλεῖν) τί τινι censure something in (bring an accusation against) some one. So ἀπειλεῖν threaten; and ἀμύ_νειν, ἀλέξειν, ἀρήγειν ward off (τινί τι in poetry, 1483).

1472. τι_μωρεῖν (poet. τι_μωρεῖσθαί) τινι means to avenge some one (take vengeance for some one), as τι_μωρήσειν σοι τοῦ παιδὸς ὑπισχνοῦμαι I promise to avenge you because of (on the murderer of) your son X. C. 4.6.8, εἰ τι_μωρήσεις ““Πατρόκλῳ τὸν φόνονif you avenge the murder of PatroclusP. A. 28c. τιμωρεῖσθαί (rarely τι_μωρεῖν) τινα means to avenge oneself upon some one (punish some one).

1473. For the dative of purpose (to what end?), common in Latin with a second dative (dono dare), Greek uses a predicate noun: ““ἐκείνῳ χώρα_ δῶρον ἐδόθηthe country was given to him as a giftX. H. 3.1.6. The usage in Attic inscriptions (““ἧλοι ταῖς θύραιςnails for the doorsC.I.A. /lref>, add. 834 b, 1, 38) is somewhat similar to the Latin usage. Cp. 1502.

a. The infinitive was originally, at least in part, a dative of an abstract substantive, and served to mark purpose: τίς τ᾽ ἄρ σφωε θεῶν ἔριδι ξυνέηκε μάχεσθαι; who then of the gods brought the twain together (for) to contend in strife? A 8. Cp. “what went ye out for to see?” St. Matth. 11. 8.



1474. The person for whom something is or is done, or in reference to whose case an action is viewed, is put in the dative.

a. Many of the verbs in 1461 ff. take a dative of interest. 1476 ff. are special cases.

1475. After verbs of motion the dative (usually personal) is used, especially in poetry: ““χεῖρας ἐμοὶ ὀρέγονταςreaching out their hands to meμ 257, ψυ_χὰ_ς Ἄϊδι προΐαψεν hurled their souls on to Hades (a person) A 3; rarely, in prose, after verbs not compounded with a preposition: σχόντες (scil. τὰ_ς ναῦς) ““Π̔ηγίῳputting in at RhegiumT. 7.1. Cp. 1485.

1476. Dative of the Possessor.—The person for whom a thing exists is put in the dative with εἶναι, γίγνεσθαι, ὑπάρχειν, φῦναι (poet.), etc., when he is regarded as interested in its possession.

““ἄλλοις μὲν χρήματά ἐστι, ἡμῖν δὲ ξύμμαχοι ἀγαθοίothers have riches, we have good alliesT. 1.86, ““τῷ δικαίῳ παρὰ θεῶν δῶρα γίγνεταιgifts are bestowed upon the just man by the godsP. R. 613e, ““ὑπάρχει ἡμῖν οὐδὲν τῶν ἐπιτηδείωνwe have no supply of provisionsX. A. 2.2.11, ““πᾶσι θνα_τοῖς ἔφυ_ μόροςdeath is the natural lot of all menS. El. 860.

1477. So with verbs of thinking and perceiving: τὸν ἀγαθὸν ἄρχοντα βλέποντα νόμον ἀνθρώποις ἐνόμισεν Cyrus considered that a good ruler was a living law to man X. C. 8.1.22, ““θαρροῦσι μάλιστα πολέμιοι, ὅταν τοῖς ἐναντίοις πρά_γματα πυνθάνωνταιthe enemy are most courageous when they learn that the forces opposed to them are in troubleX. Hipp. 5.8.

1478. In the phrase ὄνομά (ἐστί) τινι the name is put in the same case as ὄνομα. Thus, ““ἔδοξα ἀκοῦσαι ὄνομα αὐτῷ εἶναι ἈγάθωναI thought I heard his name was AgathonP. Pr. 315e. ὄνομά μοί ἐστι and ὄνομα (ἐπωνυμία_ν) ἔχω are treated as the passives of ὀνομάζω. Cp. 1322 a.

1479. Here belong the phrases (1) τί (ἐστιν) ἐμοὶ καὶ σοί; what have I to do with thee?; cp. τί τῷ νόμῳ καὶ τῇ βασάνῳ; what have the law and torture in common? D. 29.36. (2) τί ταῦτ᾽ ἐμοί; what have I to do with this? D. 54.17. (3) τί ἐμοὶ πλέον; what gain have I? X. C. 5.5.34.

1480. The dative of the possessor denotes that something is at the disposal of a person or has fallen to his share temporarily. The genitive of possession lays stress on the person who owns something. The dative answers the question what is it that he has?, the genitive answers the question who is it that has something? The uses of the two cases are often parallel, but not interchangeable. Thus, in Κῦρος, οὗ σὺ ἔσει τὸ ἀπὸ τοῦδε Cyrus, to whom you will henceforth belong X. C. 5.1.6, would be inappropriate. With a noun in the genitive the dative of the possessor is used (τῶν ἑκατέροις ξυμμάχων T. 2.1); with a noun in the dative, the genitive of the possessor (τοῖς ἑαυτῶν ξυμμάχοις 1. 18).

1481. Dative of Advantage or Disadvantage (dativus commodi et incommodi).—The person or thing for whose advantage or disadvantage, anything is or is done, is put in the dative. The dative often has to be translated as if the possessive genitive were used; but the meaning is different.

ἐπειδὴ αὐτοῖς οἱ βάρβαροι ἐκ τῆς χώρα_ς ἀπῆλθον after the barbarians had departed (for them, to their advantage) from their country T. 1.89, ““ἄλλο στράτευμα αὐτῷ συνελέγετοanother army was being raised for himX. A. 1.1.9, ““ἄλλῳ τοιοῦτος πλουτεῖ, καὶ οὐχ ἑαυτῷsuch a man is rich for another, and not for himselfP. Menex. 246e, ““στεφανοῦσθαι τῷ θεῷto be crowned in honour of the godX. H. 4.3.21, ““Φιλιστίδης ἔπρα_ττε ΦιλίππῳPhilistides was working in the interest of PhilipD. 9.59, τὰ χρήματ᾽ αἴτι᾽ ἀνθρωποῖς κακῶν money is a cause of misery to mankind E. Fr. 632, οἱ Θρᾷκες οἱ τῷ Δημοσθένει ὑστερήσαντες the Thracians who came too late (for, i.e.) to help Demosthenes T. 7.29, ἥδε ἡμέρα_ τοῖς Ἕλλησι μεγάλων κακῶν ἄρξει this day will be to the Greeks the beginning of great sorrows 2. 12, ““ἄ_ν τίς σοι τῶν οἰκετῶν ἀποδρᾷif any of your slaves runs awayX. M. 2.10.1.

a. For the middle denoting to do something for oneself, see 1719.

b. In the last example in 1481, as elsewhere, the dative of a personal pronoun is used where a possessive pronoun would explicitly denote the owner.

1482. A dative, dependent on the sentence, may appear to depend on a substantive: ““σοὶ δὲ δώσω ἄνδρα τῇ θυγατρίto you I will give a husband for your daughterX. C. 8.4.24. Common in Hdt.

1483. With verbs of depriving, warding off, and the like, the dative of the person may be used: τὸ συστρατεύειν ἀφελεῖν σφίσιν ἐδεήθησαν they asked him to relieve them (lit. take away for them) from serving in the war X. C. 7.1.44, Δαναοῖσιν λοιγὸν ἄμυ_νον ward off ruin from (for) the Danai A 456. So ἀλέξειν τινί τι (poet.). Cp. 1392, 1628.

1484. With verbs of receiving and buying, the person who gives or sells may stand in the dative. In δέχεσθαί τί τινι (chiefly poetic) the dative denotes the interest of the recipient in the donor: Θέμιστι δέκτο δέπας she took the cup from (for, i.e. to please) Themis O 87. So with πόσου πρίωμαί σοι τὰ χοιρίδια; at what price am I to buy the pigs of you? Ar. Ach. 812.

1485. With verbs of motion the dative of the person to whom is properly a dative of advantage or disadvantage: ἦλθε τοῖς Ἀθηναίοις ἀγγελία_ the message came to (for) the Athenians T. 1.61. Cp. 1475.

1486. Dative of Feeling (Ethical Dative).—The personal pro nouns of the first and second person are often used to denote the interest of the speaker, or to secure the interest of the person spoken to, in an action or statement.

““μέμνησθέ μοι μὴ θορυβεῖνpray remember not to make a disturbanceP. A. 27b, ““ἀμουσότεροι γενήσονται ὑ_μῖν οἱ νέοιyour young men will grow less cultivatedP. R. 546d, ““τοιοῦτο ὑ_μῖν ἐστι τυραννίςsuch a thing, you know, is despotismHdt. 5.92 η, Ἀρταφέρνης ὑ_μῖν Ὑστάσπεός ἐστι παῖς Artaphernes, you know, is Hystaspes' son 5. 30. The dative of feeling may denote surprise: ““ μῆτερ, ὡς καλός μοι πάπποςoh mother, how handsome grandpa isX. C. 1.3.2. With the dative of feeling cp. “knock me here” Shakesp. T. of Sh. 1. 2. 8, “study me how to please the eye” L. L. L. i. 1. 80. τοὶ surely, often used to introduce general statements or maxims, is a petrified dative of feeling (= σοί).

a. This dative in the third person is very rare (αὐτῇ in P. R. 343a).

b. This construction reproduces the familiar style of conversation and may often be translated by I beg you, please, you see, let me tell you, etc. Sometimes the idea cannot be given in translation. This dative is a form of 1481.

1487. ἐμοὶ βουλομένῳ ἐστί, etc.—Instead of a sentence with a finite verb, a participle usually denoting inclination or aversion is added to the dative of the person interested, which depends on a form of εἶναι, γ<*>γνεσθαι, etc.

τῷ πλήθει τῶν Πλαταιῶν οὐ βουλομένῳ ἦν τῶν Ἀθηναίων ἀφίστασθαι the Plataean democracy did not wish to revolt from the Athenians (= τὸ πλῆθος οὐκ ἐβούλετο ἀφίστασθαι) T. 2.3 (lit. it was not for them when wishing), ἂ_ν βουλομένοις ἀκούειν τουτοισί_, μνησθήσομαι if these men (the jury) desire to hear it, I shall take the matter up later (= ἂ_ν οὗτοι ἀκούειν βούλωνται) D. 18.11, ““ἐπανέλθωμεν, εἴ σοι ἡδομένῳ ἐστίνlet us go back if it is your pleasure to do soP. Ph. 78b, ““εἰ μὴ ἀσμένοις ὑ_μῖν ἀφῖγμαιif I have come against your willT. 4.85, Νι_κίᾳ προσδεχομένῳ ἦν τὰ παρὰ τῶν Ἐγεσταίων Nicias was prepared for the news from the Egestaeans 6. 46, ““ἦν δὲ οὐ τῷ Ἀ_γησιλά_ῳ ἀχθομένῳthis was not displeasing to AgesilausX. H. 5.3.13. Cp. quibus bellum volentibus erat.

1488. Dative of the Agent.—With passive verbs (usually in the perfect and pluperfect) and regularly with verbal adjectives in -τός and -τέος, the person in whose interest an action is done, is put in the dative. The notion of agency does not belong to the dative, but it is a natural inference that the person interested is the agent.

ἐμοὶ καὶ τούτοις πέπρα_κται has been done by (for) me and these men D. 19.205, ““ἐπειδὴ αὐτοῖς παρεσκεύαστοwhen they had got their preparations readyT. 1.46, ““τοσαῦτά μοι εἰρήσθωlet so much have been said by meL. 24.4, ““ἐψηφίσθαι τῇ βουλῇlet it have been decreed by the senateC.I.A. /lref>

a. With verbal adjectives in -τός and -τέος (2149): ““τοῖς οἴκοι ζηλωτόςenvied by those at homeX. A. 1.7.4, ““ἡμῖν γ᾽ ὑπὲρ τῆς ἐλευθερία_ς ἀγωνιστέονwe at least must struggle to defend our freedomD. 9.70. For the accus. with -τέον, see 2152 a.

1489. The usual restriction of the dative to tenses of completed action seems to be due to the fact that the agent is represented as placed in the position of viewing an already completed action in the light of its relation to himself (interest, advantage, possession).

1490. The dative of the agent is rarely employed with other tenses than perfect and pluperfect: ““λέγεται ἡμῖνis said by usP. L. 715b, τοῖς Κερκυ_ραίοις οὐχ ἑωρῶντο the ships were not seen by (were invisible to) the Corcyraeans T. 1.51; present, T. 4.64, 109; aorist T. 2.7.

1491. The person by whom (not for whom) an action is explicitly said to be done, is put in the genitive with ὑπό (1698. 1. b).

1492. The dative of the personal agent is used (1) when the subject is impersonal, the verb being transitive or intransitive, (2) when the subject is persal and the person is treated as a thing in order to express scorn (twice only in the orators: D. 19.247, 57. 10).

1493. ὑπό with the genitive of the personal agent is used (1) when the subject is a person, a city, a country, or is otherwise quasi-personal, (2) when the verb is intransitive even if the subject is a thing, as ““τῶν τειχῶν ὑπὸ τῶν βαρβάρων πεπτωκότωνthe walls having been destroyed by the barbariansAes. 2.172, (3) in a few cases with an impersonal subject, usually for the sake of emphasis, as ““ὡς ἑταίρα_ ἦν . . . ὑπὸ τῶν ἄλλων οἰκείων καὶ ὑπὸ τῶν γειτόνων μεμαρτύρηταιthat she was an hetaera has been testified by the rest of his relatives and by his neighboursIs. 3.13.

a. νι_κᾶσθαι, ἡττᾶσθαι to be conquered may be followed by the dative of a person, by ὑπό τινος, or by the genitive (1402).

1494. When the agent is a thing, not a person, the dative is commonly used whether the subject is personal or impersonal. If the subject is personal, ὑπό may be used; in which case the inanimate agent is personified (see 1698. 1. N. 1). ὑπό is rarely used when the subject is impersonal. ὑπό is never used with the impersonal perfect passive of an intransitive verb.


1495. The dative may be used of a person to whose case the statement of the predicate is limited.

““φευγειν αὐτοῖς ἀσφαλέστερόν ἐστιν ἡμῖνit is safer for them to flee than for usX. A. 3.2.19, τριήρει ἐστὶν εἰς Ἡρά_κλειαν ἡμέρα_ς μακρᾶς πλοῦς for a trireme it is a long day's sail to Heraclea 6. 4. 2. Such cases as ““δρόμος ἐγένετο τοῖς στρατιώταιςthe soldiers began to runX. A. 1.2.17 belong here rather than under 1476 or 1488.

a. ὡς restrictive is often added: μακρὰ_ ὡς γέροντι ὁδός a long road (at least) for an old man S. O. C. 20, σωφροσύνης δὲ ὡς πλήθει οὐ τὰ τοιάδε μέγιστα; for the mass of men are not the chief points of temperance such as these? P. R. 389d.

1496. Dative of Reference.—The dative of a noun or pronoun often denotes the person in whose opinion a statement holds good.

““γάμους τοὺς πρώτους ἐγάμει Πέρσῃσι Δα_ρεῖοςDarius contracted marriages most distinguished in the eyes of the PersiansHdt. 3.88, ““πᾶσι νι_κᾶν τοῖς κριταῖςto be victorious in the judgment of all the judgesAr. Av. 445, ““πολλοῖσιν οἰκτρόςpitiful in the eyes of manyS. Tr. 1071. παρά is often used, as in παρὰ Δα_ρείῳ ““κριτῇin the opinion of DariusHdt. 3.160.

1497. The dative participle, without a noun or pronoun, is frequently used in the singular or plural to denote indefinitely the person judging or observing. This construction is most common with participles of verbs of coming or going and with participles of verbs of considering.

““ Θρᾴκη ἐστὶν ἐπὶ δεξιὰ εἰς τὸν Πόντον εἰσπλέοντιThrace is on the right as you sail into the PontusX. A. 6.4.1, ἔλεγον ὅτι ὁδὸς διαβάντι τὸν ποταμὸν ἐπὶ Λυ_δία_ν φέροι they said that, when you had crossed the river, the road led to Lydia 3. 5. 15, οὐκ οὖν ἄτοπον διαλογιζομένοις τὰ_ς δωρεὰ_ς νυ_νὶ πλείους εἶναι; is it not strange, when we reflect, that gifts are more frequent now? Aes. 3.179, ““τὸ μὲν ἔξωθεν ἁπτομένῳ σῶμα οὐκ ἄγα_ν θερμὸν ἦνif you touched the surface the body was not very hotT. 2.49, ““πρὸς ὠφέλειαν σκοπουμένῳ ἐπαινέτης τοῦ δικαίου ἀληθεύειif you look at the matter from the point of view of advantage, the panegyrist of justice speaks the truthP. R. 589c. So (ὡς) συνελόντι εἰπεῖν (X. A. 3.1.38) to speak briefly (lit. for one having brought the matter into small compass), συνελόντι D. 4.7.

a. The participle of verbs of coming or going is commonly used in statements of geographical situation.

b. The present participle is more common than the aorist in the case of all verbs belonging under 1497.

1498. Dative of the Participle expressing Time.—In expressions of time a participle is often used with the dative of the person interested in the action of the subject, and especially to express the time that has passed since an action has occurred (cp. “and this is the sixth month with her, who was called barren” St. Luke i. 36).

““ἀποροῦντι δ᾽ αὐτῷ ἔρχεται ΠρομηθεύςPrometheus comes to him in his perplexityP. Pr. 321c, ““Ξενοφῶντι πορευομένῳ οἱ ἱππεῖς ἐντυγχάνουσι πρεσβύ_ταιςwhile Xenophon was on the march, his horsemen fell in with some old menX. A. 6.3.10. The idiom is often transferred from persons to things: ἡμέραι μάλιστα ἦσαν τῇ Μυτιλήνῃ ἑα_λωκυίᾳ ἑπτά, ὅτ᾽ ἐς τὸ Ἔμβατον κατέπλευσαν about seven days had passed since the capture of Mytilene, when they sailed into Embatum T. 3.29. This construction is frequent in Hom. and Hdt. The participle is rarely omitted (T. 1.13.).

a. A temporal clause may take the place of the participle: ““τῇ στρατιᾷ, ἀφ᾽ οὗ ἐξέπλευσεν εἰς Σικελία_ν, ἤδη ἐστὶ δύο καὶ πεντήκοντα ἔτηit is already fifty-two years since the expedition sailed to SicilyIs. 6.14.


1499. Adjectives, adverbs, and substantives, of kindred meaning with the foregoing verbs, take the dative to define their meaning.

““βασιλεῖ φίλοιfriendly to the kingX. A. 2.1.20, ““εὔνους τῷ δήμῳwell disposed to the peopleAnd. 4.16, ““τοῖς ϝόμοις ἔνοχοςsubject to the lawsD. 21.35, ἐχθρὸν ἐλευθερίᾳ καὶ νόμοις ἐναντίον hostile to liberty and opposed to law 6. 25, ““ξυμμαχίᾳ πίσυνοιrelying on the allianceT. 6.2, φόρῳ ὑπήκοοι subject to tribute 7. 57, ἢν ποιῆτε ὅμοια τοῖς λόγοις if you act in accordance with your words 2. 72, στρατὸς ἴσος καὶ παραπλήσιος τῷ προτέρῳ an army equal or nearly so to the former 7. 42, ““ἀδελφὰ τὰ βουλεύματα τοῖς ἔργοιςplans like the deedsL. 2.64, ““ἀλλήλοις ἀνομοίωςin a way unlike to each otherP. Tim. 36d. For substantives see 1502.

a. Some adjectives, as φίλος, ἐχθρός, may be treated as substantives and take the genitive. Some adjectives often differ slightly in meaning when they take the genitive.

1500. With αὐτός the same.—““τὴν αὐτὴν γνώμην ἐμοὶ ἔχεινto be of the same mind as I amL. 3.21, ““τοῦ αὐτοῦ ἐμοὶ πατρόςof the same father as I amD. 40.34, ταὐτὰ φρονῶν ἐμοί agreeing with me 18. 304.

1501. With adjectives and adverbs of similarity and dissimilarity the comparison is often condensed (brachylogy) : ὁμοία_ν ταῖς δούλαις εἶχε τὴν ἐσθῆτα she had a dress on like (that of) her servants X. C. 5.1.4 (the possessor for the thing possessed, = τῇ ἐσθῆτι τῶν δουλῶν), Ὀρφεῖ γλῶσσα ἐναντία_ a tongue unlike (that of) Orpheus A. Ag. 1629.

a. After adjectives and adverbs of likeness we also find καί, ὅσπερ (ὥσπερ). Thus, ““παθεῖν ταὐτὸν ὅπερ πολλάκις πρότερον πεπόνθατεto suffer the same as you have often suffered beforeD. 1.8, οὐχ ὁμοίως πεποιήκα_σι καὶ Ὅμηρος they have not composed their poetry as Homer did P. Ion 531 d.

1502. The dative after substantives is chiefly used when the substantive expresses the act denoted by the kindred verb requiring the dative: ““ἐπιβουλὴ ἐμοίa plot against meX. A. 5.6.29, διάδοχος Κλεάνδρῳ a successor to Cleander 7. 2. 5, ““ ἐμὴ τῷ θεῷ ὑπηρεσία_my service to the godP. A. 30a. But also in other cases: ““φιλία_ τοῖς Ἀθηναίοιςfriendship for the AtheniansT. 5.5, ““ὕμνοι θεοῖςhymns to the godsP. R. 607a, ““ἐφόδια τοῖς στρατευομένοιςsupplies for the troopsD. 3.20, ἧλοι ταῖς θύραις nails for the doors (1473).

a. Both a genitive and a dative may depend on the same substantive: ““ τοῦ θεοῦ δόσις ὑ_μῖνthe god's gift to youP. A. 30d.


1503. The Greek dative, as the representative of the lost instrumental case, denotes that by which or with which an action is done or accompanied. It is of two kinds: (1) The instrumental dative proper; (2) The comitative dative.

1504. When the idea denoted by the noun in the dative is the instrument or means, it falls under (1); if it is a person (not regarded as the instrument or means) or any other living being, or a thing regarded as a person, it belongs under (2); if an action, under (2).

1505. Abstract substantives with or without an attributive often stand in the instrumental dative instead of the cognate accusative (1577).


1506. The dative denotes instrument or means, manner, and cause.

1507. Instrument or Means.—““ἔβαλλέ με λίθοιςhe hit me with stonesL. 3.8, ἵ_ησι τῇ ἀξί_νῃ he hurls his ax at him (hurls with his ax) X. A. 1.5.12, ταῖς μαχαίραις κόπτοντες hacking them with their swords 4. 6. 26, ““οὐδὲν ἤνυε τούτοιςhe accomplished nothing by thisD. 21.104, ἐζημίωσαν χρήμασιν they punished him by a fine T. 2.65, ὕ_οντος πολλῷ (ὕδατι) during a heavy rain X. H. 1.1.16 (934). So with δέχεσθαι: τῶν πόλεων οὐ δεχομένων αὐτοὺς ἀγορᾷ οὐδὲ ἄστει, ὕδατι δὲ καὶ ὅρμῳ as the cities did not admit them to a market nor even into the town, but (only) to water and anchorage T. 6.44. Often with passives: ““ᾠκοδομημένον πλίνθοιςbuilt of bricksX. A. 2.4.12.

a. The instrumental dative is often akin to the comitative dative: ““ἀλώμενος νηί τε καὶ ἑτάροισιwandering with his ship and companionsλ 161, ““νηυσὶν οἰχήσονταιthey shall go with their shipsΩ 731, ““θυ_μῷ καὶ ῥώμῃ τὸ πλέον ἐναυμάχουν ἐπιστήμῃthey fought with passionate violence and brute force rather than by a system of tacticsT. 1.49.

b. Persons may be regarded as instruments: ““φυλαττόμενοι φύλαξιdefending themselves by picketsX. A. 6.4.27. Often in poetry (S. Ant. 164).

c. Verbs of raining or snowing take the dative or accusative (1570 a).

1508. Under Means fall:

a. The dative of price (cp. 1372): ““μέρει τῶν ἀδικημάτων τὸν κίνδυ_νον ἐξεπρίαντοthey freed themselves from the danger at the price of a part of their unjust gainsL. 27.6.

b. Rarely, the dative with verbs of filling (cp. 1369): ““δάκρυσι πᾶν τὸ στράτευμα πλησθένthe entire army being filled with tearsT. 7.75.

c. The dative of material and constituent parts: ““κατεσκευάσατο ἅρματα τροχοῖς ἰσχυ_ροῖςhe made chariots with strong wheelsX. C. 6.1.29.

1509. χρῆσθαι use (strictly employ oneself with, get something done with; cp. uti), and sometimes νομίζειν, take the dative. Thus, οὔτε τούτοις (τοῖς νομίμοις) ““χρῆται οὔθ᾽ οἷς ἄλλη Ἑλλὰς νομίζειneither acts according to these institutions nor observes those accepted by the rest of GreeceT. 1.77. A predicate noun may be added to the dative: ““τούτοις χρῶνται δορυφόροιςthey make use of them as a body-guardX. Hi. 5.3. The use to which an object is put may be expressed by a neuter pronoun in the accus. (1573); τί χρησόμεθα τούτῳ; what use shall we make of it? D. 3.6.

1510. The instrumental dative occurs after substantives: ““μί_μησις σχήμασιimitation by means of gesturesP. R. 397b.

1511. The instrumental dative of means is often, especially in poetry, reinforced by the prepositions ἐν, σύν, ὑπό: ““ἐν λόγοις πείθεινto persuade by wordsS. Ph. 1393, ““οἱ θεοὶ ἐν τοῖς ἱεροῖς ἐσήμηνανthe gods have shown by the victimsX. A. 6.1.31; ““σὺν γήρᾳ βαρεῖςheavy with old ageS. O. T. 17; πόλις χερσὶν ὑφ᾽ ἡμετέρῃσιν ἁλοῦσα a city captured by our hands B 374.

1512. Dative of Standard of Judgment.—That by which anything is measured, or judged, is put in the dative: ξυνεμετρήσαντο ταῖς ἐπιβολαῖς τῶν πλίνθων they measured the ladders by the layers of bricks. T. 3.20, ““τῷδε δῆλον ἦνit was plain from what followedX. A. 2.3.1, ““οἷς πρὸς τοὺς ἄλλους πεποίηκε δεῖ τεκμαίρεσθαιwe must judge by what he has done to the restD. 9.10, τίνι χρὴ κρί_νεσθαι τὰ μέλλοντα καλῶς κριθήσεσθαι; ἆρ᾽ οὐκ ἐμπειρίᾳ τε καὶ φρονήσει καὶ λόγῳ; by what standard must we judge that the judgment may be correct? Is it not by experience and wisdom and reasoning? P. R. 582a. With verbs of judging ἐκ and ἀπό are common.

1513. Manner (see also 1527).—The dative of manner is used with comparative adjectives and other expressions of comparison to mark the degree by which one thing differs from another (Dative of Measure of Difference).

κεφαλῇ ἐλά_ττων a head shorter (lit. by the head) P. Ph. 101a, ““οὐ πολλαῖς ἡμέραις ὕστερον ἦλθενhe arrived not many days laterX. H. 1.1.1, ““ἰόντες δέκα ἡμέραις πρὸ Παναθηναίωνcoming ten days before the Panathenaic festivalT. 5.47, ““τοσούτῳ ἥδι_ον ζῶ ὅσῳ πλείω κέκτημαιthe more I possess the more pleasant is my lifeX. C. 8.3.40, ““πολλῷ μείζων ἐγίγνετο βοὴ ὅσῳ δὴ πλείους ἐγίγνοντοthe shouting became much louder as the men increased in numberX. A. 4.7.23. So with πολλῷ by much, ὀλίγῳ by little, τῷ παντί in every respect (by all odds).

a. With the superlative: ““μακρῷ ἄρισταby far the bestP. L. 858e.

1514. With comparatives the accusatives (1586) τί, τὶ, οὐδέν, μηδέν without a substantive are always used: ““οὐδὲν ἧττονnihilo minusX. A. 7.5.9. In Attic prose (except in Thuc.) πολύ and ὀλίγον are more common than πολλῷ and ὀλίγῳ with comparatives. Hom. has only πολὺ μείζων.

1515. Measure of difference may be expressed by ἔν τινι; εἴς τι, κατά τι; or by ἐπί τινι.

1516. The dative of manner may denote the particular point of view from which a statement is made. This occurs chiefly with intransitive adjectives but also with intransitive verbs (Dative of Respect). (Cp. 1600.)

““ἀνὴρ ἡλικίᾳ ἔτι νέοςa man still young in yearsT. 5.43, τοῖς σώμασι τὸ πλέον ἰσχύ_ουσα τοῖς χρήμασιν a power stronger in men than in money 1. 121, ““ἀσθενὴς τῷ σώματιweak in bodyD. 21.165, ““τῇ φωνῇ τρα_χύςharsh of voiceX. A. 2.6.9, ““φρονήσει διαφέρωνdistinguished in understandingX. C. 2.3.5, ““τῶν τότε δυνάμει προύχωνsuperior in power to the men of that timeT. 1.9, ὀνόματι σπονδαί a truce so far as the name goes 6. 10.

a. The accusative of respect (1600) is often nearly equivalent to the dative of respect.

1517. Cause.—The dative, especially with verbs of emotion, expresses the occasion (external cause) or the motive (internal cause).

Occasion: ““τῇ τύχῃ ἐλπίσα_ςconfident by reason of his good fortuneT. 3.97, θαυμάζω τῇ ἀποκλῄσει μου τῶν πυλῶν I am astonished at being shut out of the gates 4. 85, ““τούτοις ἥσθηhe was pleased at thisX. A. 1.9.26, ἠχθόμεθα τοῖς γεγενημένοις we were troubled at what had occurred 5. 7. 20, χαλεπῶς φέρω τοῖς παροῦσι πρά_γμασιν I am troubled at the present occurrences 1. 3. 3. Motive: ““φιλίᾳ καὶ εὐνοίᾳ ἑπόμενοιfollowing out of friendship and good willX. A. 2.6.13. Occasion and motive: οἱ μὲν ἀπορίᾳ ἀκολούθων, οἱ δὲ ἀπιστίᾳ some (carried their own food) because they lacked servants, others through distrust of them T. 7.75, ““ὕβρει καὶ οὐκ οἴνῳ τοῦτο ποιῶνdoing this out of insolence and not because he was drunkD. 21.74.

1518. Some verbs of emotion take ἐπί (with dat.) to denote the cause; so always μέγα φρονεῖν to plume oneself, and often χαίρειν rejoice, λυ_πεῖσθαι grieve, ἀγανακτεῖν be vexed, αἰσχύ_νεσθαι be ashamed. Many verbs take the genitive (1405).

1519. The dative of cause sometimes approximates to a dative of purpose (1473): Ἀθηναῖοι ἐφ᾽ ἡμᾶς ὥρμηνται Λεοντί_νων κατοικίσει the Athenians have set out against us (with a view to) to restore the Leontines T. 6.33. This construction is common with other verbal nouns in Thucydides.

1520. Cause is often expressed by διά with the accusative, ὑπό with the genitive, less frequently by ἀμφί or περί with the dative (poet.) or ὑπέρ with the genitive (poet.).


1521. The comitative form of the instrumental dative denotes the persons or things which accompany or take part in an action.

1522. Prepositions of accompaniment (μετά with gen., σύν) are often used, especially when the verb does not denote accompaniment or union.

1523. Dative of Association.—The dative is used with words denoting friendly or hostile association or intercourse. This dative is especially common in the plural and after middle verbs.

a. ““κακοῖς ὁμι_λῶν καὐτὸς ἐκβήσῃ κακόςif thou associate with the evil, in the end thou too wilt become evil thyselfMen. Sent. 274, ““ἀλλήλοις διειλέγμεθαwe have conversed with each otherP. A. 37a, ““τῷ πλήθει τὰ ῥηθέντα κοινώσαντεςcommunicating to the people what had been saidT. 2.72, δεόμενοι τοὺς φεύγοντας ξυναλλάξαι σφίσι asking that they reconcile their exiles with them 1. 24, ““εἰς λόγους σοι ἐλθεῖνto have an interview with youX. A. 2.5.4, ““μετεσχήκαμεν ὑ_μῖν θυσιῶνwe have participated in your festivalsX. H. 2.4.20, ἀλλήλοις σπονδὰ_ς ἐποιήσαντο they made a truce with one another 3. 2. 20, ““αὐτοῖς διὰ φιλία_ς ἰέναιto enter into friendship with themX. A. 3.2.8. So with verbs of meeting: προσέρχεσθαι, προστυγχάνειν and ἐντυγχάνειν, ἀπαντᾶν.

b. ““πολλοῖς ὀλίγοι μαχόμενοιfew fighting with manyT. 4.36, Κύ_ρῳ πολεμοῦντες waging war with Cyrus 1. 13, ἀμφισβητοῦσι μὲν δι᾽ εὔνοιαν οἱ φίλοι τοῖς φίλοις, ἐρίζουσι δὲ οἱ διάφοροι ἀλλήλοις friends dispute with friends good-naturedly, but adversaries wrangle with one another P. Pr. 337b, ““δίκα_ς ἀλλήλοις δικάζονταιthey bring lawsuits against one anotherX. M. 3.5.16, ““διαφέρεσθαι τούτοιςto be at variance with these menD. 18.31 (and so many compounds of διά), ““οὐκ ἔφη τοὺς λόγους τοῖς ἔργοις ὁμολογεῖνhe said their words did not agree with their deedsT. 5.55. So also τινὶ διὰ πολέμου (διὰ μάχης, εἰς χεῖρας) ἰέναι, τινὶ ὁμόσε χωρεῖν, etc.

N. 1.—πολεμεῖν (μάχεσθαι) σύν τινι (μετά τινος) means to wage war in conjunction with some one.

N. 2.—Verbs of friendly or hostile association, and especially periphrases with ποιεῖσθαι (πόλεμον, σπονδά_ς), often take the accusative with πρός.

1524. Dative of Accompaniment.—The dative of accompaniment is used with verbs signifying to accompany, follow, etc.

““ἀκολουθεῖν τῷ ἡγουμένῳto follow the leaderP. R. 474c, ἕπεσθαι ὑ_μῖν βούλομαι I am willing to follow you X. A. 3.1.25. μετά with the genitive is often used, as are σύν and ἅμα with the dative.

1525. With αὐτός.—The idea of accompaniment is often expressed by αὐτός joined to the dative. This use is common when the destruction of a person or thing is referred to. Thus, ““τῶν ϝεῶν μία αὐτοῖς ἀνδράσινone of the ships with its crewT. 4.14, ““εἶπεν ἥκειν εἰς τὰ_ς τάξεις αὐτοῖς στεφάνοιςhe bade them come to their posts, crowns and allX. C. 3.3.40. The article after αὐτός is rare; and σύν is rarely added (X. C. 2.2.9). Hom. has this dative only with lifeless objects.

1526. Dative of Military Accompaniment.—The dative is used in the description of military movements to denote the accompaniment (troops, ships, etc.) of a leader: ““ἐξελαύνει τῷ στρατεύματι παντίhe marches out with all his armyX. A. 1.7.14. σύν is often used with words denoting troops (T. 6.62).

a. An extension of this usage occurs when the persons in the dative are essentially the same as the persons forming the subject (distributive use): ““ἡμῖν ἐφείποντο οἱ πολέμιοι καὶ ἱππικῷ καὶ πελταστικῷthe enemy pursued us with their cavalry and peltastsX. A. 7.6.29.

b. The dative of military accompaniment is often equivalent to a dative of means when the verb does not denote the leadership of a general.

1527. Dative of Accompanying Circumstance.—The dative, usually of an abstract substantive, may denote accompanying circumstance and manner.

a. The substantive has an attribute: ““πολλῇ βοῇ προσέκειντοthey attacked with loud shoutsT. 4.127, παντὶ σθένει with all one's might 5. 23, ““τύχῃ ἀγαθῇwith good fortuneC.I.A. /lref>So παντὶ (οὐδενὶ, ἄλλῳ, τούτῳ τῷ) τρόπῳ. Manner may be expressed by the adjective, as βιαίῳ θανάτῳ ἀποθνῄσκειν to die (by) a violent death X. Hi. 4.3 (= βίᾳ).

b. Many particular substantives have no attribute and are used adverbially: ““θεῖν δρόμῳto run at full speedX. A. 1.8.19, βίᾳ by force, δίκῃ justly, δόλῳ by craft, (τῷ) ἔργῳ in fact, ἡσυχῇ quietly, κομιδῇ (with care) entirely, κόσμῳ in order, duly, κύκλῳ round about, (τῷ) λόγῳ in word, προφάσει ostensibly, σι_γῇ, σιωπῇ in silence, σπουδῇ hastily, with difficulty, τῇ ἀληθείᾳ in truth, τῷ ὄντι in reality, ὀργῇ in anger, φυγῇ in hasty flight.

N.—When no adjective is used, prepositional phrases or adverbs are generally employed: σὺν κραυγῇ, σὺν δίκῃ, μετὰ δίκης, πρὸς βία_ν (or βιαίως).

c. Here belongs the dative of feminine adjectives with a substantive (ὁδῷ, etc.) omitted, as ταύτῃ in this way, here, ἄλλῃ in another way, elsewhere, πῇ, in what (which) way. So δημοσίᾳ at public expense, ἰδίᾳ privately, κοινῇ in common, πεζῇ on foot.

N.—Some of these forms are instrumental rather than comitative, e.g. ταύτῃ.

1528. Space and Time.—The dative of space and time may sometimes be regarded as comitative.

a. Space: the way by which (qua), as ἐπορεύετο τῇ ὁδῷ ἣν πρότερον ἐποιήσατο he marched by the road (or on the road?) which he had made before T. 2.98; b. Time: κατηγόρει ὡς ἐκείνη τῷ χ<*>όνῳ πεισθείη she charged that she had been persuaded in (by) the course of time L. 1.20. Some of these uses are instrumental rather than comitative.


1529. Many adjectives and adverbs, and some substantives, take the instrumental dative by the same construction as the corresponding verbs.

““σύμμαχος αὐτοῖςtheir allyD. 9.58, χώρα_ ὅμορος τῇ Λακεδαιμονίων a country bordering on that of the Lacedaemonians 15. 22, ἀκόλουθα τούτοις conformable to this 18. 257. So κοινός (cp. 1414), σύμφωνος, συγγενής, μεταίτιος, and διάφορος meaning at variance with.—““ἑπομένως τῷ νόμῳconformably to the law