PREPOSITIONS[*] 1636. Prepositions define the relations of a substantival notion to the predicate. a. All prepositions seem to have been adverbs originally and mostly adverbs of place; as adverbs they are case-forms. Several are locatives, as περί. [*] 1637. The prepositions express primarily notions of space, then notions of time, and finally are used in figurative relations to denote cause, agency, means, manner, etc. Attic often differs from the Epic in using the prepositions to denote metaphorical relations. The prepositions define the character of the verbal action and set forth the relations of an oblique case to the predicate with greater precision than is possible for the cases without a preposition. Thus, ““μετὰ δὲ μνηστῆρσιν ἔειπε” he spake among the suitors” ρ 467 specifies the meaning with greater certainty than μνηστῆρσιν ἔειπε. So ὁ Ἑλλήνων φόβος may mean the fear felt by the Greeks or the fear caused by the Greeks; but with ἐξ or παρά (cp. X. A. 1.2.18, Lyc. 130) the latter meaning is stated unequivocally. The use of a preposition often serves to show how a construction with a composite case (1279) is to be regarded (genitive or ablative; dative, instrumental, or locative). [*] 1638. Development of the Use of Prepositions.— a. Originally the preposition was a free adverb limiting the meaning of the verb but not directly connected with it: κατ᾽ ἄρ᾽ ἕζετο down he sate him A 101. In this use the preposition may be called a ‘preposition-adverb.’ b. The preposition-adverb was also often used in sentences in which an oblique case depended directly on the verb without regard to the prepositionadverb. Here the case is independent of the preposition-adverb, as in βλεφάρων ἄπο δάκρυα πί_πτει from her eyelids, away, tears fall ξ 129. Here βλεφάρων is ablatival genitive and is not governed by ἀπό, which serves merely to define the relation between verb and noun. c. Gradually the preposition-adverb was brought into closer connection either (1) with the verb, whence arose compounds such as ἀποπί_πτειν, or (2) with the noun, the preposition-adverb having freed itself from its adverbial relation to the verb. In this stage, which is that of Attic prose, the noun was felt to depend on the preposition. Hence arose many syntactical changes, e.g. the accusative of the limit of motion (1588) was abandoned in prose for the preposition with the accusative. Prepositions have three uses. [*] 1639. (I) Prepositions appear as adverbs defining the action of verbs. [*] 1640. The preposition-adverb usually precedes the verb, from which it is often separated in Homer by nouns and other words: ἡμῖν ἀπὸ λοιγὸν ἀμῦναι to ward off destruction from (for) us A 67, πρὸ γὰρ ἧκε θεά_ the goddess sent her forth A 195, ἔχεν κάτα γαῖα the earth held him fast B 699. [*] 1641. So, as links connecting sentences, πρὸς δὲ καί and καὶ πρός and besides, ἐπὶ δέ and besides, μετὰ δέ and next, thereupon (both in Hdt.), ἐν δέ and among the number (Hdt.). [*] 1642. The verb (usually ἐστί or εἰσί, rarely εἰμί) may be omitted: ““οὐ γάρ τις μέτα τοῖος ἀνήρ” for no such man is among them” φ 93. Cp. 944. [*] 1643. The preposition-adverb may do duty for the verb in parallel clauses: ἄνδρες ἀνέσταν, ἂν μὲν ἄρ᾽ Ἀτρεΐδης . . . ἂν δ᾽ ἄρα Μηριόνης the men rose up, rose up Atreides, rose up Meriones Ψ 886. So in Hdt. [*] 1644. (II) Prepositions connect verbs and other words with the oblique cases of nouns and pronouns. [*] 1645. It is often impossible to decide whether the preposition belongs to the verb or to the noun. Thus, ἐκ δὲ Χρυ_σηὶς νηὸς βῆ A 439 may be Chryseïs went out of the ship or Chryseïs went-out-from (ἐξέβη) the ship. When important words separate the prep.-adv. from the noun, the prep.-adv. is more properly regarded as belonging with the verb, which, together with the prep.-adv., governs the noun: ἀμφὶ δὲ χαῖται ὤμοις ἀ_ΐσσονται and his mane floats-about his shoulders Z 509. The Mss. often vary: τοῖσιν ἐγὼ μεθ᾽ ὁμί_λεον (or μεθομί_λεον) with these I was wont to associate A 269. [*] 1646. (III) Prepositions unite with verbs (less frequently with nouns and other prepositions) to form compounds. Cp. 886 ff. a. From this use as a prefix the name ‘preposition’ (πρόθεσις praepositio) is derived. The original meaning of some prepositions is best seen in compounds. [*] 1647. Improper prepositions (1699) are adverbs used like prepositions, but incapable of forming compounds. The case (usually the genitive) following an improper preposition depends on the preposition alone without regard to the verb; whereas a true preposition was attached originally, as an adverb, to a case depending directly on the verb. [*] 1648. The addition of a preposition (especially διά, κατά, σύν) to a verbal form may mark the completion of the action of the verbal idea (perfective action). The local force of the preposition is here often lost. So διαφεύγειν succeed in escaping, καταδιώκειν succeed in pursuing, συντελεῖν accomplish, carry into effect (τελεῖν do, perform). [*] 1649. Two or more prepositions may be used with one verb, either sepa rately, as adverbs, or in composition with the verb. Thus, στῆ δὲ παρέξ (or παρ᾽ ἐξ) he stood forth beside him Λ 486. When two prepositions of like meaning are used in composition, that preposition precedes which has the narrower range: συμμετέχειν take part in with, ἀμφιπεριστέφεσθαι to be put round about as a crown. When two prepositions are used with one noun, the noun usually depends on the second, while the first defines the second adverbially; as ἀμφὶ περὶ κρήνην round about a spring B 305. It is often uncertain whether or not two prepositions should be written together. a. Such compound prepositions are ἀμφιπερί, παρέξ, ὑπέκ, ἀπέκ, διέκ, ἀποπρό, διαπρό, περιπρό. Improper prepositions may be used with true prepositions, as μέχρι εἰς τὸ στρατόπεδον as far as (into) the camp X. A. 6.4.26. [*] 1650. Tmesis (τμῆσις cutting) denotes the separation of a preposition from its verb, and is a term of late origin, properly descriptive only of the post-epic language, in which preposition and verb normally formed an indissoluble compound. The term ‘tmesis’ is incorrectly applied to the language of Homer, since in the Epic the prep.-adv. was still in process of joining with the verb. [*] 1651. In Attic poetry tmesis occurs chiefly when the preposition is separated from the verb by unimportant words (particles, enclitics), and is employed for the sake of emphasis or (in Euripides) as a mere ornament. Aristophanes uses tmesis only to parody the style of tragic choruses. [*] 1652. Hdt. uses tmesis frequently in imitation of the Epic; the intervening words are ὦν ( = οὖν), enclitics, δέ, μὲν . . . δέ, etc. [*] 1653. In Attic prose tmesis occurs only in special cases: ἀντ᾽ εὖ ποιεῖν (πάσχειν) and σὺν εὖ (κακῶς) ποιεῖν (πάσχειν). Thus, ““ὅσους εὖ ποιήσαντας ἡ πόλις ἀντ᾽ εὖ πεποίηκεν” all whom the city has requited with benefits for the service they rendered it” D. 20.64. Here εὖ πεποίηκεν is almost equivalent to a single notion. [*] 1654. The addition of a preposition to a verb may have no effect on the construction, as in ἐκβῆναι τῆς νεώς, whereas βῆναι τῆς νεώς originally, and still in poetry, can mean go from-the-ship; or it may determine the construction, as in ““περιγενέσθαι ἐμοῦ” to surpass me” D. 18.236. Prose tends to repeat the prefixed preposition: ἐκβῆναι ἐκ τῆς νεώς T. 1.137. [*] 1655. A preposition usually assumes the force of an adjective when compounded with substantives which do not change their forms on entering into composition, as σύνοδος a national meeting (ὁδός). Otherwise the compound usually gets a new termination, generally -ον, -ιον neuter, or -ίς feminine, as ἐνύπνιον dream (ὕπνος), ἐπιγουνίς thigh-muscle (γόνυ). [*] 1656. The use of prepositions is, in general, more common in prose than in poetry, which retained the more primitive form of expression. [*] 1657. A noun joined by a preposition to its case without the help of a verb has a verbal meaning: ““ἀπὸ πα_σῶν ἀρχῶν ἐλευθερία_” freedom from all rule” P. L. 698a (cp. ἐλευθεροῦν ἀπό τινος). [*] 1658. In general, when depending on prepositions expressing relations of place, the accusative denotes the place (or person) toward which or the place over which, along which motion takes place, the dative denotes rest in or at, the genitive (ablative) passing from. Thus, ““ἥκω παρὰ σέ” I have come to you” T. 1.137, ““οἱ παρ᾽ ἑαυτῷ βάρβαροι” the barbarians in his own service” X. A. 1.1.5, παρὰ βασιλέως πολλοὶ πρὸς Κῦρον ἀπῆλθον many came over from the king to Cyrus 1. 9. 29. The true genitive denotes various forms of connection. [*] 1659. Constructio Praegnans.—a. A verb of motion is often used with a preposition with the dative to anticipate the rest that follows the action of the verb: ἐν τῷ ποταμῷ ἔπεσον they fell (into and were) in the river X. Ages. 1.32. This use is common with τιθέναι, ἱδρύ_ειν, καθιστάναι, etc., and with tenses of completed action which imply rest; as οἱ ἐν τῇ νήσῳ ἄνδρες διαβεβηκότες the men who had crossed to (and were in) the island T. 7.71. b. A verb of rest is often followed by a preposition with the accusative to denote motion previous to or following upon the action of the verb: παρῆσαν εἰς Σάρδεις (they came to Sardis and were in the city) they arrived at Sardis X. A. 1.2.2, ““ἐς Κυ_^ρήνην ἐσώθησαν” they were saved by reaching Cyrene” T. 1.110, ᾑρέθη πρεσβευτὴς εἰς Λακεδαίμονα he was chosen ambassador (to go) to Lacedaemon X. H. 2.2.17. Cp. 1692. 1. a. [*] 1660. Stress is often laid on (a) the starting-point or (b) the goal of an action. a. καταδήσα_ς ἀπὸ δένδρων τοὺς ἵππους tying his horses to (from) trees X. H. 4.4.10. By anticipation of the verbal action (attraction of the prep. with the article): ““τὴν ἀπὸ στρατοπέδου τάξιν ἔλιπεν” he deserted his post in the army” Aes. 3.159, οἱ ἐκ τῆς ἀγορᾶς καταλιπόντες τὰ ὤνια ἔφυγον the market-people (οἱ ἐν τῇ ἀγορᾷ) left their wares and fled X. A. 1.2.18. b. With verbs of collecting (ἀθροίζειν, συλλέγειν) and enrolling (ἐγγράφειν): εἰς πεδίον ἀθροίζονται they are mustered in（to) the plain X. A. 1.1.2, εἰς ἄνδρας ἐγγράψαι to enrol in（to) the list of men D. 19.230. [*] 1661. So with adverbs: ὅπον ἐληλύθαμεν where ( = whither, ὅποι) we have gone X. C. 6.1.14, ὅθεν ἀπελίπομεν, ἐπανέλθωμεν let us return to the point whence ( = where, ὅπου) we left off P. Ph. 78b, ἀγνοεῖ τὸν ἐκεῖθεν πόλεμον δεῦρο ἥξοντα he does not know that the war in that region will come hither ( = τὸν ἐκεῖ πόλεμον ἐκεῖθεν) D. 1.15. [*] 1662. Some adverbs and adverbial phrases meaning from are used with reference to the point of view of the observer: ἑκατέρωθεν on either side, ἔνθεν καὶ ἔνθεν on this side and that, ἐκ δεξιᾶς on the right (a dextra), οἱ ἀπὸ τῆς σκηνῆς the actors, τὸ ἐκ τοῦ ἰσθμοῦ τεῖχος, τὸ ἐς τὴν Παλλήνην τεῖχος the wall (seen) from the isthmus, the wall toward (looking to) Pallene T. 1.64 (of the same wall). [*] 1663. Position.—The preposition usually precedes its noun. It may be separated from it a. By particles (μέν, δέ, γέ, τέ, γάρ, οὖν) and by οἶμαι I think: ἐν οὖν τῇ πόλει P. R. 456d, εἰς δέ γε οἶμαι τὰ_ς ἄλλα_ς πόλεις to the other cities I think 568 c. Note that the order τὴν μὲν χώρα_ν (1155) usually becomes, e.g. πρὸς μὲν τὴν χώρα_ν or πρὸς τὴν χώρα_ν μέν. Demonstrative ὁ μέν and ὁ δέ, when dependent on a preposition, regularly follow the preposition, and usually with order reversed (1109): ἐν μὲν ἄρα τοῖς συμφωνοῦμεν, ἐν δὲ τοῖς οὔ in some things then we agree, but not in others P. Phae. 263b. b. By attributives: ““εἰς Καΰστρου πεδίον” to the plain of the Cayster” X. A. 1.2.11. c. By the accusative in oaths and entreaties (with πρός): πρός σε τῆσδε μητρός by my mother here I implore thee E. Phoen. 1665; cp. per te deos oro and see 1599. N.—A preposition is usually placed before a superlative and after ὡς or ὅτι qualifying the superlative: ““ὡς ἐπὶ πλεῖστον τοῦ ὁμί_λου” over the very greatest part of the throng” T. 2.34. πολύ, πάνυ, μάλα may precede the preposition and its case: ““πολὺ ἐν πλείονι αἰτίᾳ” with far better reason” T. 1.35. [*] 1664. In poetry a preposition is often placed between an adjective and its substantive; very rarely in prose (““τοιᾷδε ἐν τάξει” in the following manner” P. Criti. 115c). [*] 1665. περί is the only true preposition that may be placed after its case in Attic prose: ““σοφία_ς πέρι” about wisdom” P. Phil. 49a, ““ὧν ἐγὼ οὐδὲν οὔτε μέγα οὔτε μι_κρὸν πέρι ἐπαΐω” about which I understand nothing either much or little” P. A. 19c. When used with two substantives πέρι is placed between them: ““τοῦ ὁσίου τε πέρι καὶ τοῦ ἀνοσίου” concerning both that which is holy and that which is unholy” P. Euth. 4e. πέρι occurs very often in Plato, only once in the orators and possibly twice in Xenophon. On anastrophe, see 175. a. ἕνεκα and χάριν (usually) and ἄνευ (sometimes) are postpositive. The retention of the postpositive use of περί may be due to the influence of ἕνεκα. In poetry many prepositions are postpositive.
VARIATION OF PREPOSITIONS[*] 1666. The preposition in the second of two closely connected clauses may be different from that used in the first clause either (1) when the relation is essentially the same or (2) when it is different. Thus (1) ““ἔκ τε τῆς Κερκύ_ρα_ς καὶ ἀπὸ τῆς ἠπείρου” from Corcyra and the mainland” T. 7.33, and (2) οὔτε κατὰ γῆν οὔτε διὰ θαλάσσης neither by land nor by (the help of the, the medium of the) sea 1. 2. Cp. 1668.
REPETITION AND OMISSION OF PREPOSITIONS, ETC.[*] 1667. a. For the sake of emphasis or to mark opposition and difference, a preposition is repeated with each noun dependent on the preposition: ““κατά τε πόλεμον καὶ κατὰ τὴν ἄλλην δίαιταν” in the pursuit of war and in the other occupations of life” P. Tim. 18c. b. A preposition is used with the first noun and omitted with the second when the two nouns (whether similar or dissimilar in meaning) unite to form a complex: περὶ τοῦ δικαίου καὶ ἀρετῆς ‘concerning the justice of our cause and the honesty of our intentions’ T. 3.10. c. In poetry a preposition may be used only with the second of two nouns dependent on it: ““Δελφῶν κἀ_πὸ Δαυλία_ς” from Delphi and Daulia” S. O. T. 734. [*] 1668. In contrasts or alternatives expressed by ἤ, ἢ . . . ἤ, καὶ . . . καί, etc., the preposition may be repeated or omitted with the second noun: ““καὶ κατὰ γῆν καὶ κατὰ θάλατταν” both by land and by sea” X. A. 1.1.7, ““πρὸς ἐχθρὸν ἢ φίλον” to foe or friend” D. 21.114. [*] 1669. When prepositions of different meaning are used with the same noun, the noun is repeated; thus neither upon (the earth) nor under the earth is οὔτ᾽ ἐπὶ γῆς οὔθ᾽ ὑπὸ γῆς P. Menex. 246d. [*] 1670. In explanatory appositional clauses (988) the preposition may be repeated for the sake of clearness or emphasis; as ““ἐκ τούτων οἱ ὀνομαστοὶ γίγνονται, ἐκ τῶν ἐπιτηδευσάντων ἕκαστα” the men of mark come from those who have practised each art” P. Lach. 183c, and commonly after demonstratives. The preposition is not repeated when such an appositional clause is closely connected with what precedes: εἰκὸς μηδὲ νομίσαι περὶ ἑνὸς μόνου, δουλεία_ς ἀντ᾽ ἐλευθερία_ς, ἀγωνίζεσθαι nor should you think that you are contending for a single issue alone: to avert slavery instead of maintaining your freedom T. 2.63. A preposition is usually not repeated before descriptive appositional clauses (987): περὶ χρημάτων λαλεῖς, ἀβεβαίου πρά_γματος you are talking about wealth, an unstable thing Com. frag. 3. 38 (No. 128). [*] 1671. Before a relative in the same case as a noun or pronoun dependent on a preposition, the preposition is usually omitted: ““κατὰ ταύτην τὴν ἡλικία_ν ἦν ἣν ἐγὼ νῦν” he was at that age at which I now am” D. 21.155, φιλεῖται ὑπὸ ὧν ( = τούτων ὧν) ““φιλεῖται” is loved by whom it is loved” P. Euth. 10c. But the preposition is repeated if the relative precedes: ““πρὸς ὅ τις πέφυ_κε, πρὸς τοῦτο ἕνα πρὸς ἓν ἕκαστον ἔργον δεῖ κομίζειν” it is necessary to set each individual to some one work to which he is adapted by nature” P. R. 423d. [*] 1672. In Plato a preposition is often omitted in replies: ἡττώμενος—ὑπὸ τίνος; φήσει. τοῦ ἀγαθοῦ, φήσομεν overcome—by what? he will say. By the good, we shall say Pr. 355 c. [*] 1673. The preposition is usually omitted with the main noun or pronoun when it is used in a clause of comparison with ὡς (rarely ὥσπερ) as: ““δεῖ ὡς περὶ μητρὸς καὶ τροφοῦ τῆς χώρα_ς βουλεύεσθαι” they ought to take thought for their country as their mother and nurse” P. R. 414e; so, usually, when the two members are closely united: ““ὡς πρὸς εἰδότ᾽ ἐμὲ σὺ τἀ_ληθῆ λέγε” speak the truth to me as to one who knows” Ar. Lys. 993. The preposition is often omitted in the clause with ὡς (ὥσπερ) as, ἤ than: ““οἳ παρ᾽ οὐδὲν οὕτως ὡς τὸ τοιαῦτα ποιεῖν ἀπολώλα_σιν” who owe their ruin to nothing so much as to such a course of action” D. 19.263, ““περὶ τοῦ μέλλοντος μᾶλλον βουλεύεσθαι ἢ τοῦ παρόντος” to deliberate about the future rather than the present” T. 3.44. [*] 1674. A preposition with its case may have the function of the subject, or the object, of a sentence; or it may represent the protasis of a condition. Subject: ““ἔφυγον περὶ ὀκτακοσίους” about eight hundred took to flight” X. H. 6.5.10; (gen. absol.) συνειλεγμένων περὶ ἑπτακοσίους, λαβὼν αὐτοὺς καταβαίνει when about seven hundred had been collected he marched down with them 2. 4. 5. Object: ““διέφθειραν ἐς ὀκτακοσίους” they killed about eight hundred” T. 7.32. Protasis: ““ἐπεὶ διά γ᾽ ὑ_μᾶς αὐτοὺς πάλαι ἂν ἀπωλώλειτε” for had it depended on your selves you would have perished long ago” D. 18.49 (cp. 2344).
ORDINARY USES OF THE PREPOSITIONS[*] 1675. Use of the Prepositions in Attic Prose.— With the accusative only: ἀνά, εἰς. With the dative only: ἐν, σύν. With the genitive only: ἀντί, ἀπό, ἐξ, πρό. With the accusative and genitive: ἀμφί, διά, κατά, μετά, ὑπέρ. With accusative, genitive, and dative: ἐπί, παρά, περί, πρός, ὑπό. a. With the dative are also used in poetry: ἀνά, ἀμφί (also in Hdt.), μετά. ἀπό (ἀπύ), ἐξ (ἐς) take the dative in Arcadian and Cyprian. b. The genitive is either the genitive proper (of the goal, 1349, 1350, etc.) or the ablatival genitive. c. The dative is usually the locative or the instrumental, rarely the dative proper (as with ἐπί and πρός of the goal). [*] 1676. Ordinary Differences in Meaning.—
|ἀμφί, περί||concerning||round about, near|
|κατά||against||along, over, according to|
|ὑπέρ||above, in behalf of||over, beyond|
|ἐπί||on||on||to, toward, for|
|παρά||from||with, near||to, contrary to|
|πρός||on the side of||at, besides||to, toward|
LIST OF PREPOSITIONS
[*] 1681. ἀμφί (cp. ἄμφω, ἀμφότερος, Lat. ambi-, amb-, am-) originally on both sides (either externally only, or inside and outside), hence about. Cp. the use of περί (1693) throughout. Chiefly poetic, Ionic, and Xenophontic. In Attic prose chiefly with the accusative.
1. ἀμφί with the GenitiveLocal (very rare and doubtful): ““οἱ ἀμφὶ ταύτης οἰκέοντες τῆς πόλιος” dwellers round about this city” Hdt. 8.104 (only here). Cause: about, concerning: ““ἀμφὶ σῆς λέγω παιδός” I speak about thy child” E. Hec. 580, ““ἀμφὶ ὧν εἶχον διαφερόμενοι” quarrelling about what they had” X. A. 4.5.17.
2. ἀμφί with the DativeLocal: ““ἀμφ᾽ ὤμοισιν ἔχει σάκος” he has a shield about his shoulders” Λ 527. Cause: ““φοβηθεὶς ἀμφὶ τῇ γυναικί” afraid on account of his wife” Hdt. 6.62, ἀμφὶ φόβῳ by reason of (encompassed by) terror E. Or. 825; Means: ἀμφὶ σοφίᾳ ‘with the environment of poetic art’ Pind. P. 1. 12. Often in Pindar.
3. ἀμφί with the AccusativeLocal: ““ἀμφὶ Μί_λητον” about Miletus” X. A. 1.2.3, ““ἔδραμον ἀμφ᾽ Ἀχιλῆα” they ran around Achilles” Σ 30; temporal: ““ἀμφὶ δείλην” towards evening” X. A. 2.2.14. Number: ἀμφὶ τούς δισχι_λίους about two thousand 1. 2. 9; of occupation with an object: ““ἀμφὶ δεῖπνον εἶχεν” he was busy about dinner” X. C. 5.5.44. a. οἱ ἀμφί τινα the attendants, followers of a person, or the person himself with his attendants, etc.: ““ἀνὴρ τῶν ἀμφὶ Κῦρον πιστῶν” one of the trusty adherents of Cyrus” X. A. 1.8.1, οἱ ἀμφὶ Χειρίσοφον Chirisophus and his men 4. 3. 21, ““οἱ ἀμφὶ Πρωταγόρα_ν” the school of Protagoras” P. Th. 170c. This last phrase contains the only use of ἀμφί in Attic prose outside of Xenophon.
4. ἀμφί in CompositionAround, about' ἀμφιβάλλειν throw around (on both sides), ἀμφιλέγειν dispute (speak on both sides).
[*] 1682. ἀνά (Lesb. ὀν, Lat. an- in anhelare, Eng. on): originally up to, up (opposed to κατά). Cp. ἄνω.
1. ἀνά with the DativeLocal only (Epic, Lyric, and in tragic choruses): ἀνὰ σκήπτρῳ upon a staff A 15.
2. ἀνά with the AccusativeUp along; over, through, among (of horizontal motion). Usually avoided by Attic prose writers except Xenophon (three times in the orators). a. Local: To a higher point: ““ἀνὰ τὸν ποταμόν” up stream” Hdt. 1.194 (cp. κατὰ τὸν ποταμόν). Extension: ἀνὰ στρατόν through the camp A 10, ἀνὰ πᾶσαν τὴν γῆν over the whole earth X. Ag. 11. 16, βασιλῆας ἀνὰ στόμ᾽ ἔχων having kings in thy mouth B 250 (cp. διὰ στόματος ἔχειν). b. Extension in Time: ““ἀνὰ νύκτα” through the night” Ξ 80. See c. c. Other relations: Distributively: ““ἀνὰ ἑκατὸν ἄνδρας” by hundreds” X. A. 3.4.21, ““ἀνὰ πᾶσαν ἡμέρα_ν” daily” X. C. 1.2.8. Manner: ἀνὰ κράτος with all their might (up to their strength) X. A. 1.10.15 (better Attic κατὰ κράτος), ““ἀνὰ λόγον” proportionately” P. Ph. 110d.
3. ἀνά in CompositionUp (ἀνίστασθαι stand up, ἀναστρέφειν turn upside down), back (ἀναχωρεῖν go back, ἀναμιμνῄσκειν remind), again (ἀναπνεῖν breathe again, ἀναπειρᾶσθαι practise constantly), often with a reversing force force (ἀναλύ_ειν unlcose).
[*] 1683. ἀντί: originally in the face of, opposite to; cp. ἄντα, ἐναντίος, Lat. ante (with meaning influenced by post), Germ. Antwort, ‘reply.’
1. ἀντί with the Genitive onlyLocal: ἀνθ᾽ ὧν ἑστηκότες standing opposite to (from the point of view of the speaker, i.e. behind) which (pine-trees) X. A. 4.7.6. In other meanings: Instead of, for, as an equivalent to: ““ἀντὶ πολέμου εἰρήνη” peace instead of war” T. 4.20, ““τὰ παρ᾽ ἐμοὶ ἑλέσθαι ἀντὶ τῶν οἴκοι” to prefer what I have to offer you here instead of what you have left at home” X. A. 1.7.4, ““τὴν τελευτὴν ἀντὶ τῆς τῶν ζώντων σωτηρία_ς ἠλλάξαντο” they exchanged death for the safety of the living” P. Menex. 237a; in return for, hence ““ἀνθ᾽ ὅτου” wherefore” S. El. 585; for πρός in entreaty: ““σ᾽ ἀντὶ παίδων τῶνδε ἱκετεύομεν” we entreat thee by these children here” S. O. C. 1326.
2. ἀντί in CompositionInstead, in return (ἀντιδιδόναι give in return), against, in opposition to (ἀντιλέγειν speak against).
[*] 1684. ἀπό (Lesb. etc. ἀπύ) from, off, away from; originally of separation and departure. Cp. Lat. ab, Eng. off, of.
1. ἀπό with the Genitive onlya. Local: ““καταπηδήσα_ς ἀπὸ τοῦ ἵππου” leaping down from his horse” X. A. 1.8.28, ἐθήρευεν ἀπὸ ἵππου he used to hunt (from a horse) on horseback 1. 2. 7, ““ἀπὸ θαλάσσης” at a distance from the sea” T. 1.7. Figuratively: ““ἀπὸ θεῶν ἀρχόμενοι” beginning with the gods” X. A. 6.3.18. b. Temporal: ἀφ᾽ ἑσπέρα_ς after evening began (after sundown) X. A. 6.3.23, ἀπὸ τοῦ αὐτοῦ σημείου on the same signal 2. 5. 32, ἀπὸ τῶν σί_των after meals X. R. L. 5.8, ἀφ᾽ οὗ since. c. Other relations: (1) Origin, Source: in prose of more remote ancestry: τοὺς μὲν ἀπὸ θεῶν, τοὺς δ᾽ ἐξ αὐτῶν τῶν θεῶν γεγονότας some descended (remotely) from gods, others begotten (directly) of the gods themselves I. 12.81. (This distinction is not always observed.) Various other relations may be explained as source. (2) Author: as agent with passives and intransitives, when an action is done indirectly, through the influence of the agent (ὑπό of the direct action of the agent himself). Not common, except in Thuc. (chiefly with πρἀ_ττεσθαι, λέγεσθαι, and verbs of like meaning): ““ἐπρά_χθη ἀπ᾽ αὐτῶν οὐδὲν ἔργον” nothing was done under their rule” T. 1.17. The startingpoint of an action is often emphasized rather than the agent: ““ἀπὸ πολλῶν καὶ πρὸς πολλοὺς λόγοι γιγνόμενοι” speeches made by many and to many” T. 8.93. (3) Cause (remote): ““ἀπὸ τούτου τοῦ τολμήματος ἐπῃνέθη” he was praised in consequence of this bold deed” T. 2.25, ““ταῦτα οὐκ ἀπὸ τύχης ἐγίγνετο, ἀλλ᾽ ἀπὸ παρασκευῆς τῆς ἐμῆς” this happened not from chance but by reason of the preparations I made” L. 21.10. (4) Means, Instrument: ““στράτευμα συνέλεξεν ἀπὸ χρημάτων” he raised an army by means of money” X. A. 1.1.9; rarely of persons: ““ἀπ᾽ αὐτῶν βλάψαι” to do injury by means of them” T. 7.29. (5) Manner: ““ἀπὸ τοῦ προφανοῦς” openly” T. 1.66. (6) Conformity: ““ἀπὸ τοῦ ἴσου” on a basis of equality” T. 3.10, ἀπὸ ξυμμαχία_ς αὐτόνομοι independent by virtue of (according to) an alliance 7. 57. N.—ἀπό with gen. is sometimes preferred to the simple gen., often for emphasis: ““οἱ λόγοι ἀφ᾽ ὑ_μῶν” the words that proceed from you” T. 6.40, ὀλίγοι ἀπὸ πολλῶν a few of the many 1. 110 (cp. 1317 a). Thuc. has many free uses of ἀπό.
2. ἀπό in CompositionFrom, away, off (ἀπιέναι go away, ἀποτειχίζειν wall off), in return, back (ἀποδιδόναι give back what is due, ἀπαιτεῖν demand what is one's right). Separation involves completion (hence ἀπανα_λίσκειν utterly consume, ἀποθύ_ειν pay off a vow), or privation and negation (ἀπαγορεύειν forbid, ἀποτυγχάνειν miss). Often almost equivalent to an intensive (ἀποφάναι speak out, ἀποδεικνύναι point out, ἀποτολμᾶν dare without reserve).
[*] 1685. διά (Lesb. ζά) through, originally through and out of, and apart (separation by cleavage), a force seen in comp. (cp. Lat. dis-, Germ. zwi-schen).
1. διά with the Genitivea. Local: through and out of (cp. Hom. διέκ, διαπρό), as ““δι᾽ ὤμου ἔγχος ἦλθεν” the spear went clear through his shoulder” Δ 481, ἀκοῦσαι διὰ τέλους to listen from beginning to end Lyc. 16. Through, but not out of: διὰ πολεμία_ς (γῆς) ““πορεύεσθαι” to march through the enemy's country” X. Hi. 2.8 and often in figurative expressions: ““διὰ χειρὸς ἔχειν” to control” T. 2.13, διὰ στόματος ἔχειν to have in one's mouth (be always talking of) X. C. 1.4.25 (also ἀνὰ στόμα). b. Temporal: of uninterrupted duration, as ““διὰ νυκτός” through the night” X. A. 4.6.22, ““διὰ παντός” constantly” T. 2.49. c. Intervals of Space or Time: ““διὰ δέκα ἐπάλξεων” at intervals of ten battlements” T. 3.21, ““διὰ χρόνου” after an interval” L. 1.12, intermittently Aes. 3.220, ““διὰ πολλοῦ” at a long distance” T. 3.94. d. Other relations: Means, Mediation (per): ““αὐτὸς δι᾽ ἑαυτοῦ” ipse per se” D. 48.15, ““διὰ τούτου γράμματα πέμψα_ς” sending a letter by this man” Aes. 3.162. State or feeling: with εἶναι, γίγνεσθαι, ἔχειν, of a property or quality: ““διὰ φόβου εἰσί” they are afraid” T. 6.34, δι᾽ ἡσυχία_ς εἶχεν he kept in quiet 2. 22, ἐλθεῖν ἡμῖν διὰ μάχης to meet us in battle 2. 11, ““αὐτοῖς διὰ φιλία_ς ἰέναι” to enter into friendship with them” X. A. 3.2.8. Manner: ““διὰ ταχέων” quickly” T. 4.8.
2. διά with the Accusativea. Local: of space traversed, through, over (Epic, Lyric, tragic choruses): διὰ δώματα through the halls A 600; διὰ νύκτα Θ 510 is quasi-temporal. b. Cause: owing to, thanks to, on account of, in consequence of (cp. propter, ob): ““διὰ τοὺς θεοὺς ἐσῳζόμην” I was saved thanks to the gods” D. 18.249, τι_μώμενος μὴ δι᾽ ἑαυτόν, ὰλλὰ διὰ δόξαν προγόνων honoured, not for himself, but on account of the renown of his ancestors P. Menex. 247b. So in εἰ μὴ διά τινα (τι) had it not been for in statements of an (unsurmounted) obstacle: ““φαίνονται κρατήσαντες ἂν τῶν βασιλέως πρα_γμάτων, εἰ μὴ διὰ Κῦρον” it seems they would have got the better of the power of the king, had it not been for Cyrus” I. 5.92. c. διά is rarely used (in place of ἕνεκα) to denote a purpose or object: ““διὰ τὴν σφετέρα_ν δόξαν” for the sake of their honour” T. 2.89, ““δι᾽ ἐπήρειαν” for spite” D. 39.32 (cp. ““διὰ νόσον ἕνεκα ὑγιεία_ς” on account of disease in order to gain health” P. Lys. 218e). d. διά with gen. is used of direct, διά with accus. of indirect, agency (fault, merit, of a person, thing, or situation). διά with gen. is used of an agent employed to bring about an intended result; διά with accus. is used of a person, thing, or state beyond our control (accidental agency). (1) Persons: ““ἔπρα_ξαν ταῦτα δι᾽ Εὐρυμάχου” they effected this by the mediation of Eurymachus” T. 2.2, τὰ διὰ τούτους ἀπολωλότα what has been lost by (the fault of) these men D. 6.34. The accus. marks a person as an agent not as an instrument. (2) Things: νόμοι, δι᾽ ὧν ἐλευθέριος ὁ βίος παρασκευασθήσεται laws, by means of which a life of freedom will be provided X. C. 3.3.52, διὰ τοὺς νόμους βελτί_ους γιγνόμενοι ἄνθρωποι men become better thanks to the laws 8. 1. 22. Sometimes there is little difference between the two cases: δι᾽ ὧν ἅπαντ᾽ ἀπώλετο D. 18.33, δι᾽ οὓς ἅπαντ᾽ ἀπώλετο 18. 35. N.—διά with gen. ( = through) is distinguished from the simple dative ( = by): δι᾽ οὗ ὁρῶμεν καὶ ᾧ ἀκούομεν P. Th. 184c. e. For διά with accus. to express the reason for an action, the dative is sometimes used (1517): ““τοῖς πεπρα_γμένοις φοβούμενος τοὺς Ἀθηναίους” fearing the Athenians by reason of what had happened” T. 3.98. The dative specifies the reason less definitely than διά with the accusative. f. When used in the same sentence, the dative may express the immediate, διά with the accus. the remoter, cause: ““ἀσθενείᾳ σωμάτων διὰ τὴν σι_τοδεία_ν ὑπεχώρουν” they gave ground from the fact that they were weak through lack of food” T. 4.36. g. διά with accus. contrasted with ὑπό with gen.: φήσομεν αὐτὸ δι᾽ ἐκεῖνα ὑπὸ τῆς αὑτοῦ κακία_ς ἀπολωλέναι we shall say that it (the body) is destroyed on account of those (remoter) causes (as badness of food) by its own evil (immediately) P. R. 609e.
3. διά in CompositionThrough, across, over (διαβαίνειν cross), apart, asunder (διακόπτειν cut in two, διακρί_νειν discernere, διαφέρειν differ, διαζυγνύναι disjoin), severally (διαδιδόναι distribute). δια- often denotes intensity, continuance, or fulfilment (διαμένειν remain to the end, διαφθείρειν destroy completely). δια- is common in the reciprocal middle (1726), as in διαλέγεσθαι converse; often of rivalry (οἱ διαπολι_τευόμενοι rival statesmen, διακοντίζεσθαι contend in throwing the javelin).
[*] 1686. εἰς, ἐς into, to, opposed to ἐξ; from ἐν ¨ ς (cp. Lat. abs from ab + s). See on ἐν. On εἰς with the genitive by ellipsis, see 1302.
1. εἰς with the Accusative onlyIn the Old Attic alphabet (2 a), generally used in Attica in the fifth century, ΕΣ was written, and this may be either εἰς or ἐς. In the fourth century ΕΙΣ was generally written. In Thuc. ἐς is printed, but its correctness may be doubted; other Attic prose writers use εἰς, the poets εἰς or (less frequently) ἐς. It is not true that in poetry ἐς is used only before consonants, εἰς only before vowels. a. Local: of the goal: ““Σικελοὶ ἐξ Ἰταλία_ς διέβησαν ἐς Σικελία_ν” the Sicels crossed over out of Italy into Sicily” T. 6.2; with a personal object: ἦλθεν ἐκ τῆς Ἀσία_ς ἐς ἀνθρώπους ἀπόρους he came from Asia to (a land of) poor men T. 1.9, ἐσπέμπει γράμματα ἐς (v. l. πρὸς) βασιλέα_ he dispatches a letter to (the palace of) the king 1. 137 (of sending, etc., to individuals ὡς or πρός is used); against: ““ἐστράτευσαν ἐς τὴν Ἀττικήν” they invaded Attica” T. 3.1, πόλεμος τοῖς Κορινθίοις ἐς τοὺς Ἀθηναίους war between the Corinthians and the Athenians 1. 55; with verbs of rest, 1659 b. The idea of motion holds where Eng. uses in or at: ““τελευτᾶν εἴς τι” to end in” T. 2.51. Extension: ““Πελοποννησίους διαβαλεῖν ἐς τοὺς Ἕλληνας” to raise a prejudice against the Peloponnesians among the Greeks” T. 3.109; in the presence of (coram): ἐς τὸ κοινὸν λέγειν to speak before the assembly 4. 58. b. Temporal: of the goal: up to, until: ““ἐς ἐμέ” up to my time” Hdt. 1.52, ἐς τέλος finally 3. 40; at (by) such a time (of a fixed or expected time): προεῖπε εἰς τρίτην ἡμέρα_ν παρεῖναι commanded them to be present on the third day X. C. 3.1.42, ἥκετε εἰς τρια_κοστὴν ἡμέρα_ν come on the thirtieth day 5. 3. 6. Limit of time attained: ““εἰς τοιοῦτον καιρὸν ἀφι_γμένοι” arriving at such a time” L. 16.5. Extension (over future time): ““εἰς τὸν λοιπὸν χρόνον” in all future time” L. 16.2. c. Measure and Limit with numerals: εἰς χι_λίους to the number of (up to) a thousand X. A. 1.8.5, εἰς δύο two abreast 2. 4. 26, ““ἐς δραχμήν” to the amount of a drachma” T. 8.29. d. Other relations: Goal, Purpose, Intention: ““ἡ σὴ πατρὶς εἰς σὲ ἀποβλέπει” your country looks for help to you” X. H. 6.1.8, ““χρῆσθαι εἰς τὰ_ς σφενδόνα_ς” to use for the slings” X. A. 3.4.17, ““παιδεύειν εἰς ἀρετήν” to train with a view to virtue” P. G. 519e. Relation to: ““καλὸν εἰς στρατιά_ν” excellent for the army” X. C. 3.3.6, often in Thuc. ( = πρός with accus.). Manner: ““εἰς καιρόν” in season” X. C. 3.1.8, εἰς δύναμιν to the extent of one's powers 4. 5. 52.
2. εἰς in CompositionInto, in, to (εἰσβαίνειν enter, εἰσπρά_ττειν get in, exact a debt).
[*] 1687. ἐν in (poetic ἐνί, εἰν, εἰνί), Lat. in with the abl., en-; opposed to εἰς into, ἐξ out of. On ἐν with the genitive by ellipsis, see 1302.
1. ἐν with the Dative (Locative) onlya. Local: in, at, near, by, on, among: ““ἐν Σπάρτῃ” in Sparta” T. 1.128, ““ἡ ἐν Κορίνθῳ μάχη” the battle at Corinth” X. Ages. 7.5, ““πόλις οἰκουμένη ἐν τῷ Εὐξείνῳ πόντῳ” a city built on the Euxine” X. A. 4.8.22, ἐν τῇ κλί_νῃ ἑστηκώς standing upon the bed L. 1.24 (ἐν of superposition is rare), ““νόμοι ἐν πᾶσιν εὐδόκιμοι τοῖς Ἕλλησιν” laws famous among all the Greeks” P. L. 631b, ἐν ὑ_μῖν ἐδημηγόρησεν he made an harangue before (coram) you D. 8.74. With verbs of motion, see 1659 a. Of circumstance, occupation, as ““οἱ ἐν τοῖς πρά_γμασιν” the men at the head of affairs” D. 9.56 (so ἐν εἰρήνῃ, ἔργῳ, ὠφελείᾳ, φιλοσοφίᾳ, φόβῳ εἶναι; ἐν αἰτίᾳ ἔχειν to blame, ἐν ὀργῇ ἔχειν to be angry with); in the power of: ἐν τῷ θεῷ τὸ τέλος ἦν, οὐκ ἐμοί the issue rested with God, not with me D. 18.193, ““ἐν ἑαυτῷ ἐγένετο” he came to himself” X. A. 1.5.17. b. Temporal: in, within, during (cp. 1542): ““ἐν πέντε ἔτεσιν” in five years” L. 19.29, ““ἐν σπονδαῖς” during a truce” T. 1.55, ἐν ᾧ while. c. Instrument, Means, Cause, Manner (originally local): ἐν ὀφθαλμοῖσιν ἴδωμαι see with the eyes A 587, ἐν ἑνὶ κινδυ_νεύεσθαι to be endangered by (i.e. to depend on) a single person T. 2.35, ““ἐν τούτοις ἢ λυ_πούμενοι ἢ χαίροντες” either grieving or rejoicing at this” P. R. 603c, ἐν τούτῳ δηλῶσαι to make clear by this 392 e, ““ἐν τῷ φανερῷ” openly” X. A. 1.3.21. Conformity: ““ἐν τοῖς ὁμοίοις νόμοις ποιήσαντες τὰ_ς κρίσεις” deciding according to equal laws” T. 1.77, ““ἐν ἐμοί” in my opinion” E. Hipp. 1320. N.—In many dialects, e.g. those north of the Corinthian Gulf (rarely in Pindar), ἐν retains its original meaning of in (with dat.) and into (with accus.). The latter use appears in ἐνδέξια towards the right.
2. ἐν in CompositionIn, at, on, among (ἐμπί_πτειν fall in or on, ἐντυγχάνειν fall in with, ἐγγελᾶν laugh at, ἐνάπτειν bind on).
[*] 1688. ἐξ, ἐκ out, out of, from, from within, opposed to ἐν, εἰς; cp. Lat. ex, e. As contrasted with ἀπό away from, ἐξ denotes from within. ἐς ( = ἐξ) takes the dative. a. Local: ““ἐκ Φοινί_κης ἐλαύνων” marching out of Phoenicia” X. A. 1.7.12; of transition: ἐκ πλείονος ἔφευγον they fled when at (from) a greater distance 1. 10. 11. On ἐξ in the constructio praegnans, see 1660 a. b. Temporal: ““ἐκ τοῦ ἀ_ρίστου” after breakfast” X. A. 4.6.21, ἐκ παίδων from boyhood 4. 6. 14. c. Other relations: immediate succession or transition: ““ἄλλην ἐξ ἄλλης πόλεως ἀμειβόμενος” exchanging one city for another” P. A. 37d, ἐκ πολέμου ποιούμενος εἰρήνην making peace after (a state of) war D. 19.133, ἐκ πτωχῶν πλούσιοι γίγνονται from beggars they become rich 8. 66. Origin: immediate origin (whereas ἀπό is used of remote origin, 1684. 1. c): ““ἀγαθοὶ καὶ ἐξ ἀγαθῶν” noble and of noble breed” P. Phae. 246a. Agent, regarded as the source: with pass. and intr. verbs instead of ὑπδ (chiefly poetic and in Hdt.): πόλεις ἐκ βασιλέως δεδομέναι cities a gift (having been given) of (by) the king X. A. 1.1.6, ““ὡμολογεῖτο ἐκ πάντων” it was agreed by all” T. 2.49; but ἐκ is often used with a different force, as ἐκ τῶν τυχόντων ἀνθρώπων συνοικισθῆναι to have been settled by the vulgar (as constituent parts of a whole) Lyc. 62. Consequence: ““ἐξ αὐτοῦ τοῦ ἔργου” in consequence of the fact itself” T. 1.75. Cause or ground of judgment (where the dat, is more usual with inanimate objects): ““ἐξ οὗ διέβαλλεν αὐτόν” for which reason he accused him” X. A. 6.6.11. Material: ““τὸ ἄγκιστρον ἐξ ἀδάμαντος” the hook of adamant” P. R. 616c. Instrument and means: ““ἐκ τῶν πόνων τὰ_ς ἀρετὰ_ς κτᾶσθαι” to acquire by labour the fruits of virtue” T. 1.123. Conformity: ““ἐκ τῶν νόμων” in accordance with the laws” D. 24.28. Manner (rare): ““ἐκ τοῦ ἴσου” on equal terms” T. 2.3. Partitive (cp. 1317 a): ““ἐκ τῶν δυναμένων εἰσί” they belong to the class that has power” P. G. 525e. ἐξελαύνειν drive out and away); often with an implication of fulfilment, completion, thoroughness, resolution (ἐκπέρθειν sack utterly, ἐκδιδάσκειν teach thoroughly). Cp. 1648.
[*] 1689. ἐπί (cp. Lat. ob) upon, on, on the surface of; opposed to ὑπό under, and to ὑπέρ when ὑπέρ means above the surface of.
1. ἐπί with the Genitivea. Local: upon: ““οὔτ᾽ ἐπὶ γῆς οὔθ᾽ ὑπὸ γῆς” neither upon the earth nor under the earth” P. Menex. 246d, ““ἐπὶ θρόνου ἐκαθέζετο” he seated himself on a throne” X. C. 6.1.6; of the vehicle (lit. or figur.) upon which: ἐπὶ τῶν ἵππων ὀχεῖσθαι to ride on horseback 4. 5. 58 (never ἐπί with dat.), ““ἐπὶ τῆς ἐμῆς νεώς” on my ship” L. 21.6; in the direction of: ““ἐπὶ Σάρδεων ἔφευγε” he fled toward Sardis” X. C. 7.2.1; in the presence of (cp. παρά with dat.): ἐπὶ μαρτύρων before witnesses Ant. 2. γ. 8. ἐπί is rarely used of mere proximity in poetry or standard prose. N.—In expressions of simple superposition ἐπί with the gen. denotes familiar relations and natural position; whereas ἐπί with the dat. gives clear and emphatic outlines to statements of the definite place of an object or action, is used in detailed pictures, and marks the object in the dative as distinct from the subject of the verbal action. ἐπί with the gen. is colourless and phraseological, and often makes, with the verb or the subject, a compound picture. Even in contrasting two objects ἐπί with gen. is used since no special point is made of position. With (unemphatic) pronouns of reference (αὐτοῦ) ἐπί with gen. is much more frequent than ἐπί with dat. The distinction between the two cases is often the result of feeling; and certain phrases become stereotyped, now with the gen., now with the dat. b. Temporal, usually with personal gen.: in the time of: ““ἐπὶ τῶν προγόνων” in the time of our ancestors” Aes. 3.178, ““ἐπ᾽ ἐμοῦ” in my time” T. 7.86, ““ἐπὶ τοῦ Δεκελεικου᾽ πολέμου” in the Decelean war” D. 22.15. c. Other relations: ““μενεῖν ἐπὶ τῆς ἀνοία_ς τῆς αὐτῆς” to persist in the same folly” D. 8.14, ““ἃ ἐπὶ τῶν ἄλλων ὁρᾶτε, ταῦτ᾽ ἐφ᾽ ὑ_μῶν αὐτῶν ἀγνοεῖτε” what you see in the case of others, that you ignore in your own case” I. 8.114, ““ἐφ᾽ ἑαυτῶν ἐχώρουν” they proceeded by themselves” X. A. 2.4.10, ἐπὶ τεττάρων four deep 1. 2. 15, ““οἱ ἐπὶ τῶν πρα_γμάτων” the men in power” D. 18.247.
2. ἐπί with the Dativea. Local: on, by: ““οἰκοῦσιν ἐπὶ τῷ ἰσθμῷ” they dwell on the isthmus” T. 1.56, τὸ ἐπὶ θαλάσσῃ τεῖχος the wall by the sea 7. 4. The dat. with ἐπί denotes proxim ity much more frequently than the gen. with ἐπί; but denotes superposition less often than the gen. with ἐπί. b. Temporal (rare in prose): ““ἦν ἥλιος ἐπὶ δυσμαῖς” the sun was near setting” X. A. 7.3.34. c. Other relations: Succession, Addition: ““τὸ ἐπὶ τούτῳ γ᾽ ἀπόκρι_ναι” answer the next question” P. A. 27b, ““ἀνέστη ἐπ᾽ αὐτῷ” he rose up after him” X. C. 2.3.7, ““ἐπὶ τῷ σί_τῳ ὄψον” relish with bread” X. M. 3.14.2. Supervision: ““ἄρχων ἐπὶ τούτοις ἦν” there was a commander over them” X. C. 5.3.56. Dependence: ““καθ᾽ ὅσον ἐστὶν ἐπ᾽ ἐμοί” as far as is in my power” I. 6.8. Condition: ““ἐφ᾽ οἷς τὴν εἰρήνην ἐποιησάμεθα” on what terms we made the peace” D. 8.5. Reason, motive, end, as with verbs of emotion (instead of the simple dative, 1517): πάντα ταῦτα θαυμάζω ἐπὶ τῷ κάλλει I am astonished at all these trees because of their beauty X. O. 4.21, οὐκ ἐπὶ τέχνῃ ἔμαθες ἀλλ᾽ ἐπὶ παιδείᾳ you learned this not to make it a profession but to gain general culture P. Pr. 312b. Hostility (less common in prose than in poetry; usually with accus.): ““ἡ ἐπὶ τῷ Μήδῳ ξυμμαχία_” the alliance against the Medes” T. 3.63. Price: ἐπὶ πόσῳ; for how much? P. A. 41a.
3. ἐπί with the Accusativea. Local: of the goal: ““ἐξελαύνει ἐπὶ τὸν ποταμόν” he marches to the river” X. A. 1.4.11, ἀφί_κοντο ἐπὶ τὸν ποταμόν they arrived at the river 4. 7. 18 (rarely the gen. with verbs of arrival), ““ἀνέβαινεν ἐπὶ τὸν ἵππον” he mounted his horse” X. C. 7.1.1. Extension: ““ἐπὶ πᾶσαν Ἀσία_ν ἐλλόγιμοι” famous over all Asia” P. Criti. 112e. b. Temporal: extension: ““ἐπὶ πολλὰ_ς ἡμέρα_ς” for many days” D. 21.41. c. Quantity, measure: ἐπὶ μι_κρόν a little, ἐπὶ πλέον still more, ἐπὶ πᾶν in general, πλάτος ἔχων πλεῖον ἢ ἐπὶ δύο στάδια wider than (up to) two stades X. C. 7.5.8. d. Other relations: Purpose, object in view: ““πέμπειν ἐπὶ κατασκοπήν” to send for the purpose of reconnoitering” X. C. 6.2.9, ““ἀπέστειλαν ἐπὶ χρήματα” they sent for money” T. 6.74. Hostility: ἔπλεον ἐπὶ τοὺς Ἀθηναίους they sailed against the Athenians 2. 90. Reference: τὸ ἐπ᾽ ἐμέ (with or without εἶναι) as far as I am concerned (more commonly ἐπ᾽ ἐμοί); τό γε ἐπ᾽ ἐκεῖνον εἶναι L. 13.58. N.—To express purpose ἐπί with accus. is generally used when the purpose involves actual or implied motion to an object; ἐπί with dat. is used when the purpose may be attained by mental activity.
4. ἐπί in CompositionUpon (ἐπιγράφειν write upon), over (ἐπιπλεῖν sail over), at, of cause (ἐπιχαίρειν rejoice over or at), to, toward (ἐπιβοηθεῖν send assistance to), in addition (ἐπιδιδόναι give in addition), against (ἐπιβουλεύειν plot against), after (ἐπιγίγνεσθαι be born after, ἐπισκευάζειν repair); causative (ἐπαληθεύειν verify); intensity (ἐπικρύπτειν hide; ἐπιβουλεύεσθαι further deliberate = reflect); reciprocity (ἐπιμείγνυσθαι ἀλλήλοις exchange friendly dealings).
[*] 1690. κατά down (cp. κάτω), opposed to ἀνά. With the genitive (the genitive proper (of the goal) and the ablatival genitive) and the accusative. With the genitive, the motion is perpendicular; with the accusative, horizontal.
1. κατά with the Genitivea. Local: down from, down toward, under: ““ἁλάμενοι κατὰ τῆς πέτρα_ς” having leapt down from the rock” X. A. 4.2.17, κατ᾽ ἄκρα_ς utterly, completely (down from the summit) P. L. 909b, ““ψυ_χὴ κατὰ χθονὸς ᾤχετο” his soul went down under the earth” Ψ 100, μύρον κατὰ τῆς κεφαλῆς καταχέαντες having poured myrrh (down) over their heads P. R. 398a; rarely of rest: ““ὁ κατὰ γῆς” the man under the earth” X. C. 4.6.5. b. Temporal (very rare): κατὰ παντὸς τοῦ αἰῶνος for all eternity Lyc. 7. c. Other relations: against, as ““κατ᾽ ἐμαυτοῦ ἐρεῖν” to speak against myself” P. A. 37b; rarely in a favourable or neutral sense, as ““οἱ κατὰ Δημοσθένους ἔπαινοι” the eulogies on Demosthenes” Aes. 3.50, ““κατὰ πάντων λέγειν” to speak with regard to all” X. C. 1.2.16; by (with verbs of swearing), as ὀμνύντων τὸν ὅρκον κατὰ ἱερῶν τελείων let them swear the oath by (lit. down over) fullgrown victims T. 5.47.
2. κατά with the Accusativea. Local: ““ἔπλεον κατὰ ποταμόν” they sailed down-stream” Hdt. 4.44, ““κατὰ τὰ_ς εἰσόδους ἐφεπόμενοι” following to the entrances” X. C. 3.3.64. Extension: καθ᾽ ὅλην τὴν πόλιν throughout the entire city Lyc. 40, ““κατὰ γῆν” by land” L. 2.32, ““διώκοντες τοὺς καθ᾽ αὑτούς” pursuing those stationed opposite themselves” X. A. 1.10.4. b. Temporal (post-Homeric): ““κατὰ πλοῦν” during the voyage” T. 3.32, κατ᾽ ἐκεῖνον τὸν χρόνον at that time 1. 139, ““οἱ καθ᾽ ἑαυτόν” his contemporaries” D. 20.73. c. Other relations: Purpose: ““κατὰ θέα_ν ἧκεν” came for the purpose of seeing” T. 6.31. Conformity: ““κατὰ τούτους ῥήτωρ” an orator after their style” P. A. 17b, ““κατὰ τοὺς νόμους” according to the laws” D. 8.2. Ground on which an act is based: ““κατὰ φιλία_ν” owing to friendship” T. 1.60. Comparisons: μείζω ἢ κατὰ δάκρυα πεπονθότες having endured sufferings too great for (than according to) tears 7. 75 (cp. maior quam pro). Manner: ““καθ᾽ ἡσυχία_ν” quietly” T. 6.64. Distribution: ““κατ᾽ ἔθνη” nation by nation” T. 1.122, ““δέκα δραχμαὶ κατ᾽ ἄνδρα” ten drachmae the man” Aes. 3.187, ““κατὰ σφᾶς αὐτούς” per se” T. 1.79. Approximate numbers: ““κατὰ πεντήκοντα” about fifty” Hdt. 6.79.
3. κατά in CompositionDown from above (καταπί_πτειν fall down), back (καταλείπειν leave behind), against, adversely (καταγιγνώσκειν condemn, decide against, καταφρονεῖν despise), completely (καταπετροῦν stone to death, κατεσθίειν eat up), often with an intensive force that cannot be translated. An intransitive verb when compounded with κατά may become transitive (1559).
[*] 1691. μετά: original meaning amid, among (cp. Germ. mit, Eng. mid in midwife). Hence properly only with plurals or collectives (so in Hom. with gen. and dat.). μετά denotes participation, community of action. πεδά (Lesb. and other dialects) agrees in meaning with μετά, but is of different origin.
1. μετά with the GenitiveUsually of persons and abstract nouns. Local: among, together with, as ““καθήμενος μετὰ τῶν ἄλλων” sitting among the rest” P. R. 359e, ““θῦσαι μετ᾽ ἐκείνων” to sacrifice in company with them” X. C. 8.3.1; on the side of, as ““οἱ μετὰ Κύ_ρου βάρβαροι” the barbarians in the army of Cyrus” X. A. 1.7.10, ““μετὰ τῶν ἠδικημένων πολεμεῖν” to wage war on the side of the wronged” D. 9.24, ““οὐ μετὰ τοῦ πλήθους” without the consent of the people” T. 3.66; besides: ““γενόμενος μετὰ τοῦ ξυνετοῦ καὶ δυνατός” showing himself powerful as well as sagacious” T. 2.15. Accompanying circumstances (concurrent act or state): μετὰκινδύ_νων κτησάμενοι (τὴν τάξιν) having acquired their position amid dangers D. 3.36, ““λύ_πη μετὰ φόβου” grief and terror” T. 7.75. Joint efficient cause: μετὰ πόνων ἐλευθέρα_ν ἐποίησαν τὴν Ἑλλάδα by (amid) struggles they freed Greece L. 2.55. Conformity: μετὰ τῶν νόμων in accordance with the laws 3. 82.
2. μετά with the Dative (Locative）Chiefly Epic (usually with the plural or with the collective singular of persons or things personified, or of the parts of living objects): ““μετὰ μνηστῆρσιν ἔειπεν” he spake amid the suitors” ρ 467, ““μετὰ φρεσί” in their hearts” Δ 245.
3. μετά with the AccusativeLocal: into the midst of: νεκροὺς ἔρυσαν μετὰ λα_ὸν Ἀχαιῶν they dragged the dead into the midst of the host of the Achaeans E 573; with an idea of purpose: ἰέναι μετὰ Νέστορα to go after (in quest of) Nestor K 73. Extension over the midst of: μετὰ πληθύ_ν throughout the multitude B 143. Phrase: ““μετὰ χεῖρας ἔχειν” to have in hand” T. 1.138. N.—From the use in ““μετ᾽ ἴχνια βαῖνε θεοῖο” he went after the steps of the goddess” γ 30 is derived the prose use: after (of time or rank), as ““μετὰ τὰ Τρωϊκά” after the Trojan war” T. 2.68, μετὰ θεοὺς ψυ_χὴ θειότατον after the gods the soul is most divine P. L. 726. The range of μετά with acc. in Attic prose is not wide.
4. μετά in CompositionAmong (μεταδιδόναι give a share), after, in quest of (μεταπέμπεσθαι send for). When one thing is among other things, it may be said to come after another, to succeed or alternate with it; hence of succession (μεθημερινός diurnus; cp. μεθ᾽ ἡμέρα_ν after daybreak), alteration or change (μεταγράφειν rewrite, μεταμέλειν repent i.e. care for something else). When contrasted with σύν, μετά often denotes participation: ὁ μέτοχος the partner, ὁ συνών the companion. σύν often denotes something added. But μετά is usually the prose preposition for σύν, though it does not mean inclusive of.
[*] 1692. παρά (Hom. παραί, Lat. por- in porrigere) alongside, by, near. Except with the accusative παρά is commonly used of persons and personified things.
1. παρά with the (Ablatival) GenitiveUsually coming or proceeding from a person, in Hom. also of things; cp. de chez. a. Local: ““οἱ αὐτομολοῦντες παρὰ βασιλέως” the deserters from the king” X. A. 2.1.6. In poetry, where we might expect the dat. (1659 a): ἔγρετο παρ᾽ Ἥρης lit. he awoke from the side of Hera O 5. In standard Attic prose παρά with the gen. of a thing is excessively rare. When so used, the thing is personified, or the thing implies a person (as πόλις, ἀρχή, θέα_τρον). b. Author, Source (cp. 1410): with verbs of receiving, taking, asking, learning, sending, etc.: ““παρὰ Μήδων τὴν ἀρχὴν ἐλάμβανον Πέρσαι” the Persians wrested the empire from the Medes” X. A. 3.4.8, ““παρὰ σοῦ ἐμάθομεν” we learned from you” X. C. 2.2.6; ““ἡ παρὰ τῶν θεῶν εὔνοια” the good-will on the part of the gods” D. 2.1 (less commonly ἀπό); with passives and intransitives (instead of ὑπό with the gen. of the agent): ““τὰ παρὰ τῆς τύχης δωρηθέντα” the gifts of Fortune” I. 4.26, τοῦτο παρὰ πάντων ὁμολογεῖται this is acknowledged on all sides (on the part of all) L. 30.12.
2. παρά with the DativeAlmost always of persons in standard Attic prose; cp. chez. a. Local: ““οὐ παρὰ μητρὶ σι_τοῦνται οι᾽ παῖδες, ἀλλὰ παρὰ τῷ διδασκάλῳ” the boys do not eat with their mothers, but with their teachers” X. C. 1.2.8, παρ᾽ ἐμοί σκηνοῦν to mess with me (as chez moi) 6. 1. 49; of things: ““τὰ παρὰ θαλάττη χωρία” the places along the sea” X. A. 7.2.25. b. Other relations: Possessor: ““τὸ μὲν χρυ_σίον παρὰ τούτῳ, οἱ δὲ κίνδυ_νοι παρ᾽ ὑ_μῖν” this man has the gold, you the dangers” Aes. 3.240; of the superior in command: ““οἱ παρὰ βασιλεῖ ὄντες” those under the king” X. A. 1.5.16; of the person judging: ““ἀναίτιος παρὰ τοῖς στρατιώταις” blameless in the opinion of the troops” X. C. 1.6.10, ὁμολογεῖται παρὰ τῷ δήμῳ it is agreed in the opinion of the people Lyc. 54 (here παρά denotes the sphere of judgment); with the gen. after a passive (1692. 1. b) it denotes the source.
3. παρά with the Accusativea. Local: of motion to, in prose only of persons: ““ἧκε παρ᾽ ἐμέ” come to me” X. C. 4.5.25; motion along, by, past (a place): ““παρὰ γῆν πλεῖν” sail along shore” T. 6.13; of parallel extent (along, alongside, beside) with verbs of motion and of rest (often the dat.), and often when no verb is used: ““ἥνπερ ἔλαβον ναῦν, ἀνέθεσαν παρὰ τὸ τροπαῖον” the ship they captured they set up alongside of the trophy” T. 2.92, ““εἶπεν αὐτῷ μένειν παρ᾽ ἑαυτόν” he told him to remain close by him” X. C. 1.4.18, ““τὸ πεδίον τὸ παρὰ τὸν ποταμόν” the plain extending along the river” X. A. 4.3.1, ἦν παρὰ τὴν ὁδὸν κρήνη there was a spring by the road 1. 2. 13. Contrary to: παρὰ τοὺς νόμους ἢ κατ᾽ αὐτούς contrary to (i.e. going past) the laws or in accordance with them D. 23.20; in addition to (along beside): ““ἔχω παρὰ ταῦτα ἄλλο τι λέγειν” besides this I have to say something else” P. Ph. 107a. Phrase: παρ᾽ ὀλίγον ἐποιοῦντο Κλέανδρον they treated Cleander as of no account (cp. ‘next to nothing’) X. A. 6.6.11. b. Temporal: (duration) ““παρὰ πάντα τὸν χρόνον” throughout the whole time” D. 5.2, (momentary) ““παρὰ τὰ δεινά” in the hour of danger” Aes. 3.170, παρ᾽ αὐτὰ τἀ_δικήματα at the time of (i.e. immediately after) the offences themselves D. 18.13. c. Other relations: Cause = διά: ““παρὰ τὴν ἡμετέρα_ν ἀμέλειαν” in consequence of our negligence” D. 4.11, εἰ παρὰ τὸ προαισθέσθαι κεκώλυ_ται if it was prevented by being perceived in advance 19. 42. Dependence: παρὰ τοῦτο γέγονε τὰ ““τῶν Ἑλλήνων” the fortunes of the Greeks depend on this” D. 18.232. Measure: παρὰ μι_κρὸν ἤλθομεν ἐξανδραποδισθῆναι we had a narrow escape (came by a little) from being enslaved I. 7.6, ““παρὰ πολύ” by far” T. 2.8. Comparison: ““ἐξέτασον παρ᾽ ἄλληλα” contrast with each other” D. 18.265, χειμὼν μείζων παρὰ τὴν καθεστηκυῖαν ὥρα_ν stormy weather more severe than was to be expected at the season then present T. 4.6.
4. παρά in CompositionAlongside, by, beside (παριέναι go alongside), beyond, past (παρελαύνειν drive past), over (παρορᾶν overlook), aside, amiss (παρακούειν misunderstand).
[*] 1693. περί around (on all sides), about; cp. πέριξ round about. Lat. per in permagnus. περί is wider than ἀμφί: cp. X. Vect. 1.7 οὐ πεοίρρυτος οὖσα ὥσπερ νῆσος . . . ἀμφιθάλαττος γάρ ἐστι it (Attica) is not, like an island, surrounded by the sea . . . for it has the sea on two sides. On περί post-positive, see 1665.
1. περί with the Genitivea. Local (poetic): περὶ τρόπιος βεβαώς riding on (astride) the keel ε 130. b. Other relations: about, concerning (Lat. de), the subject about which an act or thought centres: ““περὶ πατρίδος μαχούμενοι” fighting for their country” T. 6.69 (cp. ὑπέρ), ““δείσα_ς περὶ τοῦ υἱοῦ” fearing for his son” X. C. 1.4.22, ““λέγειν περὶ τῆς εἰρήνης” to speak about peace” T. 5.55; τὰ περί τινος instead of τὰ περί τινα is used in the neighbourhood of a verb of saying or thinking (which takes περί with gen.): ““τὰ περὶ τῆς ἀρετῆς” the relations of virtue” P. Pr. 360e. Superiority (cp. 1402): ““περίεσσι γυναικῶν εἶδος” thou dost surpass women in beauty” ς 248, περὶ παντὸς ποιούμενοι regarding as (more than everything) all-important T. 2.11 (cp. 1373).
2. περί with the Dativea. Local: about: of arms, dress, etc., in prose: ““στρεπτοὶ περὶ τοῖς τραχήλοις” collars about their necks” X. A. 1.5.8, ἃ περὶ τοῖς σώμασιν ἔχουσιν the clothes about their persons I. ep. 9. 10 (only case in the orators), περὶ δουρί A 303. b. Other relations (usually poetic): External cause: ““δείσαντες περὶ ταῖς ναυσίν” afraid for their ships” T. 7.53 (with verbs of fearing, περί with the gen. is fear of or fear for). Inner impulse: ““περὶ τάρβει” from fear” A. Pers. 694.
3. περί with the Accusativea. Local: of position: ““ἀπέστειλαν ναῦς περὶ Πελοπόννησον” they despatched ships round about Peloponnese” T. 2.23, ᾤκουν περὶ πᾶσαν τὴν Σικελία_ν they settled all round Sicily 6. 2; of persons: ““οἱ περὶ Ἡρἁ_κλειτον” the followers of Heraclitus” P. Crat. 440c. b. Indefinite statement of time and number: ““περὶ ὄρθρον” about dawn” T. 6.101, περὶ ἑβδομήκοντα about seventy 1. 54. c. Other relations: Occupation: ““οἱ περὶ τὴν μουσικὴν ὄντες” those who are engaged in liberal pursuits” I. 9.4; connected with, of general relation (with reference to): ““οἱ νόμοι οἱ περὶ τοὺς γάμους” the laws about marriage” P. Cr. 50d, ““περὶ θεοὺς ἀσεβέστατοι” most impious in regard to the gods” X. H. 2.3.53, ““τὰ περὶ τὰ_ς ναῦς” naval affairs” T. 1.13. Verbs of action (except verbs of striving) prefer περί with accus., verbs of perception, emotion, knowing, prefer περί with gen. But the cases often shift.
4. περί in CompositionAround, about (περιέχειν surround), beyond, over (περιεῖναι excel; and περιορᾶ<*> look beyond, overlook, suffer), (remaining) over (περιγίγνεσθαι remain over, result, and excel), exceedingly (περιχαρής very glad).
[*] 1694. πρό (Lat. pro, for) before. Cp. ἀντί, which is narrower in meaning.
1. πρό with the Genitive onlya. Local: ““πρὸ τῶν ἁμαξῶν” in front of the wagons” X. C. 6.2.36. b. Temporal: ““πρὸ τῆς μάχης” before the battle” X. A. 1.7.13. c. Other relations: Defence or care (cp. ὑπέρ): διακινδυ_νευειν πρὸ βασιλέως to incur danger in defence of (prop. in front of) the king X. C. 8.8.4. Preference (cp. ἀντί): οἱ ἐπαινοῦντες πρὸ δικαιοσύνης ἀδικία_ν th<*>se who laud injustice in preference to justice P. R. 361e, πρὸ πολλοῦ ποιεῖσθαι to esteem highly (in preference to much) I. 5.138, φωνεῖν πρὸ τῶνδε to speak for them (as their spokesman) S. O. T. 10 (ἀντὶ τῶνδε = as their deputy, ὑπὲρ τῶνδε as their champion).
2. πρό in CompositionBefore, forward, forth (προβάλλειν put forward), for, in behalf of, in defence of, in public (προαγορεύειν give public notice), beforehand (πρόδηλος manifest beforehand), in preference (προαιρεῖσθαι choose in preference).
[*] 1695. πρός (Hom. also προτί), at, by (fronting). Of like meaning, but of different origin, is Hom. ποτί.
1. πρός with the Genitivea. Local (not common in prose): ““τὸ πρὸς ἑσπέρα_ς τεῖχος” the wall facing the west” X. H. 4.4.18, ““τὰ ὑποζύγια ἔχοντες πρὸς τοῦ ποταμοῦ” having the pack-animals on the side toward the river” X. A. 2.2.4. b. Other relations: Descent: ““πρὸς πατρός” on the father's side” Aes. 3.169. Characteristic: ““οὐ γὰρ ἦν πρὸς τοῦ Κύ_ρου τρόπου” for it was not the way of Cyrus” X. A. 1.2.11. Point of view of a person: πρὸς ἀνθρώπων αἰσχρός base in the eyes of men 2. 5. 20. Agent as the source, with passive verbs (instead of ὑπό): ὁμολογεῖται πρὸς πάντων it is agreed by all 1. 9. 20; to the advantage of; ““σπονδὰ_ς ποιησάμενος πρὸς Θηβαίων μᾶλλον ἢ πρὸς ἑαυτ ῶν” making a truce more to the advantage of the Thebans than of his own party” X. H. 7.1.17; in oaths and entreaties: ““πρὸς θεῶν” by the gods” X. H. 2.4.21.
2. πρός with the DativeIn a local sense, denoting proximity (generally, in prose, of towns or buildings, not of persons): ““πρὸς τῇ πόλει τὴν μάχην ποιεῖσθαι” to fight near the city” T. 6.49; sometimes like ἐν, as ““πρὸς ἱεροῖς τοῖς κοινοῖς ἀνατεθῆναι” to be dedicated in the common shrines” T. 3.57. Occupation: ““ἦν ὅλος πρὸς τῷ λήμματι” he was wholly intent upon his gain” D. 19.127. In addition to: ““πρὸς αὐτοῖς” besides these” T. 7.57. In the presence of: ““πρὸς τῷ διαιτητῆ λέγειν” to speak before the arbitrator” D. 39.22.
3. πρός with the Accusativea. Local (direction toward or to, strictly fronting, facing): ““ὑ_μᾶς ἄξομεν πρὸς αὐτούς” we will lead you to them” X. A. 7.6.6, πρὸς νότον (toward the) south T. 3.6, ““ἰέναι πρὸς τοὺς πολεμίους” to go against the enemy” X. A. 2.6.10. b. Temporal (rare): ““πρὸς ἡμέρα_ν” toward daybreak” X. H. 2.4.6. c. Other relations: friendly or hostile relation: ““πρὸς ἐμὲ λέγετε” speak to me” X. C. 6.4.19, ““φιλία_ πρὸς ὑ_μᾶς” friendship with you” I. 5.32, ““ἔχθρα_ πρὸς τοὺς Ἀργείους” enmity to the Argives” T. 2.68, but ἡ πρὸς ἡμᾶς ἔχθρα_ our enmity 6. 80, ἡ ἀπέχθεια πρὸς τοὺς Θηβαίους our enmity to the Thebans and the enmity of the Thebans to us D. 18.36. With words of hating, accusing, and their opposites, πρός is used either of the subject or of the object or of both parties involved. With words denoting warfare πρός indicates a double relation, and the context must determine which party is the aggressor or assailant: ““ναυμαχία_ Κορινθίων πρὸς Κερκυ_ραίους” a sea-fight between the Corinthians and the Corcyreans” T. 1.13 (here καί often suffices, as ὁ Λακεδαιμονίων καὶ Ἠλείων πόλεμος X. H. 3.2.31). Relation in general: ““οὐδὲν αὐτῷ πρὸς τὴν πόλιν ἐστίν” he has nothing to do with the city” D. 21.44, πρὸς τοὺς θεοὺς εὐσεβῶς ἔχειν to be pious toward the gods Lyc. 15. Purpose: πρὸς τί; to what end? X. C. 6.3.20, ““πρὸς χάριν λέγειν” to speak in order to court favour” D. 4.51; with a view to (often nearly = διά): ““πρὸς ταῦτα βουλεύεσθε εὖ” wherefore be well advised” T. 4.87, πρὸς τὰ παρόντα in consequence of the present circumstances 6. 41. Conformity: ““πρὸς τὴν ἀξία_ν” according to merit” X. C. 8.4.29. Standard of judgment: ““οὐδὲ πρὸς ἀργύριον τὴν εὐδαιμονία_ν ἔκρι_νον” nor did they estimate happiness by the money-standard” I. 4.76, χώρα_ ὡς πρὸς τὸ πλῆθος τῶν πολι_τῶν ἐλαχίστη a territory very small in proportion to the number of its citizens 4. 107; and hence of comparison: ““οί φαυλότεροι τῶν ἀνθρώπων πρὸς τοὺς ξυνετωτέρους . . . ἄμεινον οἰκοῦσι τὰ_ς πόλεις” the simpler class of men, in comparison with the more astute, manage their public affairs better” T. 3.37. Exchange: ““ἡδονὰ_ς πρὸς ἡδονὰ_ς καταλλάττεσθαι” to exchange pleasures for pleasures” P. Ph. 69a.
4. πρός in CompositionTo, toward (προσελαύνειν drive to, προστρέπειν turn toward), in addition (προσλαμβάνειν take in addition), against (προσκρούειν strike against, be angry with). Often in the general sense of additionally, qualifying the whole sentence rather than the verb.
[*] 1696. σύν (Older Attic ξύν; cp. Ion. ξυ_νός from κονιος ῀ κοινός, Lat. cum) with.
1. σύν with the Instrumental Dative only.a. In standard (i.e. not Xenophontic) prose σύν has been almost driven out of use by μετά. It is used (1) in old formulas, as σὺν (τοῖς) θεοῖς with the help of the gods, σὺν (τοῖς) ὅπλοις in arms, etc. (of things attached to a person), σὺν νῷ intelligently; (2) of sum totals (along with, including), as ““σὺν τοῖς ἔργοις πλέον ἢ δέκα τάλαντα ἔχει” he has more than ten talents interest included” D. 28.13. b. σύν is usually poetic (rare in comedy) and Xenophontic; it is often used in the formulas of a (1) and of persons and things personified. Its older and poetic meaning is along with (of something secondary or added to the action) and with the help of. So in Xen.: together with, along with: ““σὺν τῆ γυναικὶ δειπνεῖν” to sup with your wife” X. C. 6.1.49; to reinforce the simple dative: ἀκολουθεῖν σύν τινι, πορεύεσθαι σύν τινι (1524); with the collateral notion of help: with the aid of, as ““σὺν ἐκείνῳ μάχεσθαι” to fight with his help” X. C. 5.3.5. c. Means and Instrument (regarded as accompaniments of an action: the comitative instrumental): ἡ κτῆσις αὐτῶν ἔστιν οὐδαμῶς σὺν τῇ βίᾳ, ἀλλὰ μᾶλλον σὺν τῇ εὐεργεσίᾳ they (friends) are acquired, not by forcible means, but by kindness X. C. 8.7.13. d. Manner: ““σὺν γέλωτι ἦλθον” they went laughing” X. A. 1.2.18. In conformity with (opp. to παρά): οὐκ ἐπέτρεψε τῷ δήμῳ παρὰ τοὺς νόμους ψηφίσασθαι, ἀλλὰ σὺν τοῖς νόμοις ἠναντιώθη κτλ. he did not permit the people to vote contrary to the laws, but, in conformity with them, opposed himself, etc. X. M. 4.4.2.
2. σύν in CompositionTogether with (συμβιοῦν live with, συμπορεύεσθαι march in company with), together (συμβάλλειν conicere), completely (συμπληροῦν fill up), contraction in size (συντέμνειν cut short), and generally of union or connection. Standard prose uses συν- freely.
[*] 1697. ὑπέρ (Hom. also ὑπείρ) over, Lat. super. For the contrast with ἐπί, see 1689.
1. ὑπέρ with the Genitivea. Local: from over: ““ὑπὲρ τῶν ἄκρων κατέβαινον” they came down over the heights” T. 4.25; over, abover: ““ὑπὲρ τῆς κώμης γήλοφος ἦν” above the village was a hill” X. A. 1.10.12. b. Other relations: in defence of, on behalf of: μαχόμενος ὑπὲρ ὑ_μῶν fighting for you (standing over to protect) P. L. 642c; in place of, in the name of: ““ἐγὼ λέξω καὶ ὑπὲρ σοῦ καὶ ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν” I will speak both for you and for ourselves” X. C. 3.3.14. Purpose: ““ὑπὲρ τοῦ ταῦτα λαβεῖν” in order to get this” D. 8.44; concerning, about (often = περί in Demos. and the later orators; in inscr. after 300 B. C.): ““φόβος ὑπὲρ τοῦ μέλλοντος” fear for the future” T. 7.71, ““μὴ περὶ τῶν δικαίων μηδ᾽ ὑπὲρ τῶν ἔξω πρα_γμάτων” not about your just claims nor about your foreign interests” D. 6.35.
2. ὑπέρ with the Accusativea. Local: ““ὑπὲρ οὐδὸν ἐβήσετο” he passed over the threshold” ν 63, ““οἱ ὑπὲρ Ἑλλήσποντον οἰκοῦντες” those who dwell beyond the Hellespont” X. A. 1.1.9. b. Temporal ( = πρό) rare: ““ὑπὲρ τὰ Μηδικά” before the Persian wars” T. 1.41. c. Measure: ““ὑπὲρ ἥμισυ” more than half” X. C. 3.3.47, ““ὑπὲρ ἄνθρωπον” beyond the power of man” P. L. 839d.
3. ὑπέρ in CompositionOver, above (ὑπερβάλλειν cross over, ὑπερέχειν trans. hold over, intr. be above), in behalf of, for (ὑπερμαχεῖν poet. fight for), exceedingly (ὑπερφρονεῖν be over-proud).
[*] 1698. ὑπό (Hom. also ὑπαί, Lesbian ὐπα-), under, by, Lat. sub.