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THE INFINITIVE NOT IN INDIRECT DISCOURSE

1989. The infinitive as object not in indirect discourse is used after almost any verb that requires another verb to complete its meaning. The tenses of this infinitive are timeless, and denote only stage of action.

1990. The infinitive may be the only expressed object, or it may be one of two expressed objects, of the leading verb.

““παίδευσις καλὴ διδάσκει χρῆσθαι νόμοιςa good education teaches obedience to the lawsX. Ven. 12.14, ““διαγιγνώσκειν σε τοὺς ἀγαθοὺς καὶ τοὺς κακοὺς ἐδίδαξενhe taught you to distinguish the good and the badX. M. 3.1.9.

a. Verbs signifying to ask, bid, forbid, permit, teach, etc., allow an infinitive as one of two objects.

b. Many verbal expressions, formed by a substantive and a verb, take the infinitive. Thus, τοὺς ἄλλους διδάσκειν τέχνην ἔχουσιν they possess the skill to teach (the) others I. 16.11. Cp. 2000.

A. Object Infinitive after Verbs of Will or Desire

1991. Verbs of will or desire (and their opposites) are often followed by an infinitive. The infinitive with a subject accusative denotes that something should (may) be or be done. The negative is μή (see 2719-2721).

““ἤθελον αὐτοῦ ἀκούεινthey were willing to listen to himX. A. 2.6.11, ““ἐβουλεύοντο ἐκλιπεῖν τὴν πόλινthey planned to leave the cityHdt. 6.100, ““τὰ ἥδιστα . . . ζητεῖ ποιεῖνhe seeks to do what he likes bestX. M. 4.5.11, ““βασιλεὺς ἀξιοῖ σὲ ἀποπλεῖνthe king asks that you sail awayX. H. 3.4.25, ἱ_κέτευε μὴ ἀποκτεῖναι he entreated that they should not put him (self) to death L. 1.25, πέμπουσιν . . . στρατεύεσθαι ἐπὶ Κα_ρία_ν they send orders that he shall march upon Caria X. H. 3.1.7, ““ἔδοξε πλεῖν τὸν Ἀλκιβιάδηνit was decided that Alcibiades should sailT. 6.29.

a. Verbs of will or desire with an accusative subject of the infinitive form one of the classes of substantive clauses introduced in English by that, though the infinitive in English is often more idiomatic.

1992. Of verbs of will or desire that take the infinitive some have an object

a. In the accusative (or are intransitive), e.g.: αἱροῦμαι choose, αἰτῶ, αἰτοῦμαι ask, ἀξιῶ claim, ask, βουλεύομαι resolve, βούλομαι wish, will, δικαιῶ deem right, διανοοῦμαι intend, ἐθέλω (poet. θέλω), wish, will, εἴωθα am wont to, ἐπιχειρῶ attempt, ἐῶ permit, ζητῶ seek, κελεύω command, suggest, invite, μέλλω delay, πειρῶμαι try, πέμπω send, προθυ_μοῦμαι am zealous, προκαλοῦμαι invite, προτρέπω urge, σπεύδω hasten, am eager, σπουδάζω am eager, τολμῶ dare, φιλῶ am wont to, ψηφίζομαι vote.

b. In the genitive, e.g.: δέομαι ask, ἐπιθυ_μῶ and ὀρέγομαι desire.

c. In the dative, e.g.: εὔχομαι pray, παραγγέλλω and προστάττω command, ἐπιβουλεύω purpose, συμβουλεύω advise, ἐπιτρέπω and συγχωρῶ permit, παραινῶ exhort, δοκῶ μοι I have a mind to; and λέγω, εἶπον, φωνῶ, φράζω tell (and βοῶ shout) in the sense of command.

N.—πείθω urge to a course of action, takes the infinitive, πείθω convince generally has ὡς, rarely the accusative with the infinitive. Thus, ““ἔπειθεν αὐτὸν καθ᾽ αὑτὸν πορεύεσθαιhe urged him to go by himselfX. A. 6.2.13, ““οὐ γὰρ πείσονται οἱ πολλοί, ὡς σὺ αὐτὸς οὐκ ἠθέλησας ἀπιέναιfor most people will not be convinced that of your own free will you did not desire to go awayP. Cr. 44c (infinitive X. M. 1.1.20).

1993. Verbs of will or desire not to do anything are e.g.: δέδοικα, φοβοῦμαι fear, φεύγω avoid, ὀκνῶ scruple, αἰσχύ_νομαι, αἰδοῦμαι (2126) feel shame to, ἀπαγορεύω forbid, κωλύ_ω hinder, ἀπέχομαι abstain from, εὐλαβοῦμαι, φυλάττομαι beware of. Thus, ““φοβοῦμαι διελέγχειν σεI fear to refute youP. G. 457e, ““αἰσχύ_νομαι ὑ_μῖν εἰπεῖν τἀ_ληθῆI am ashamed to tell you the truthP. A. 22b.

1994. Under verbs of will or desire are included verbs expressing an activity to the end that something shall or shall not be done. Thus, δίδωμι offer, give, διαμάχομαι struggle against, ποιῶ, διαπρά_ττομαι, κατεργάζομαι manage, effect, παρέχω offer (others in 1992, 1993).

1995. Several verbs of will or desire take ὅπως with the future or the subjunctive (verbs of effort, 2211, 2214); or μή with the subjunctive (verbs of fear, 2225); some take the participle (2123 ff.).

1996. The infinitive may be used with the

a. Genitive or dative when the expression of desire is addressed to a person and the genitive or dative depends on the leading verb. Here the sentence is simple. Thus, ““δέομαι ὑ_μῶν . . . τὰ δίκαια ψηφίσασθαιI ask you to render a just verdictI. 19.51, ““τοῖς ἄλλοις πᾶσι παρήγγελλεν ἐξοπλίζεσθαιhe ordered all the rest to arm themselvesX. A. 1.8.3.

b. Accusative when the action of a person is desired (example in 1979). Such sentences are complex.

N.—Verbs of commanding allow either a or b; but only κελεύω with the accusative permits either meaning: κελεύω σὲ ταῦτα μὴ ποιει_ν I tell you not to do this and I command that you shall not do this. Cp. 1981.

1997. Several verbs signifying to say are also used as verbs of will and then mean command. The agent commanded usually stands in the accusative subject of the infinitive. So with λέγω, εἶπον, φράζω, φωνῶ. Thus ““λέγω σ᾽ ἐγὼ δόλῳ Φιλοκτήτην λαβεῖνI say that thou shalt take Philoctetes by craftS. Ph. 101, ““τούτοις ἔλεγον πλεῖνI told them that they should sailD. 19.150, ““πάντες ἔλεγον τοὺς τούτων ἄρξαντας δοῦναι δίκηνall said that the ringleaders should suffer punishmentX. A. 5.7.34, εἶπον τὴν θύρα_ν κεκλεῖσθαι they commanded that the door should be shut (and stay shut) X. H. 5.4.7, βασιλεὺς ἔγραψε πά_σα_ς τὰ_ς ἐν τῇ Ἑλλάδι πόλεις αὐτονόμους εἶναι the king issued a written order that all the cities in Greece should be independent (not: wrote that they were independent) X. H. 6.3.12.

a. The agent may stand in the dative as ““χαλᾶν λέγω σοιI bid thee let goS. O. C. 840.

1998. The present and aorist infinitive (both timeless) are the usual tenses of the infinitive after verbs of will or desire (see 1869). The perfect is rare; as εἶπον τὴν θύρα_ν κεκλεῖσθαι (1997). δοκῶ and δοκῶ μοι signifying I have a mind to or I am determined to take the present or aorist like ““δοκεῖ: τὸν ὄνον ἐξάγειν δοκῶI have a mind to bring out the assAr. Vesp. 177, ἐγὼ οὖν μοι δοκῶ . . . ὑφηγήσασθαι κτλ. now I have a mind to show, etc. P. Eu. 288c. Cp. 1983 a. When it is clearly denoted that the action resolved on is to follow without delay the future is used; as in ““ἀλλά μοι δοκῶ . . . οὐ πείσεσθαι αὐτῷbut I am determined that I will not accept his opinionP. Th. 183d.

a. Some verbs, as κελεύω, which might be held to introduce indirect discourse, are classed under ver<*>s of will or desire, because, like these verbs, they do not regularly take the future infinitive; and because, unlike verbs of saying and thinking (which admit all the tenses of the infinitive) they introduce infinitives which do not show differences of time. The future infinitive does not express a command. For a few cases of the future after verbs of will or desire, see 1869.

1999. Verbs signifying to hope, expect, promise, threaten , and swear, when followed by the aorist (less often the present) infinitive (1868), have the construction of verbs of will or desire. When such verbs take the future infinitive they have the construction of indirect discourse.

B. Infinitive after Other Verbs

2000. The infinitive follows many verbs, especially such as denote ability, fitness, necessity, etc. (and their opposites).

““οὐκέτι ἐδύνατο . . . βιοτεύεινhe was no longer able to liveT. 1.130, ““νεῖν ἐπιστάμενοςknowing how to swimX. A. 5.7.25, ““πεφύ_κα_σί τε ἅπαντες . . . ἁμαρτάνεινand all men are by nature prone to errT. 3.45, ““μανθάνουσιν ἄρχειν τε καὶ ἄρχεσθαιthey learn how to govern and be governedX. A. 1.9.4; also after the impersonals of 1985.

a. ἔχω I can is derived from the meaning I have especially with a verb of saying. Thus, ““Διὸς πλα_γὰ_ν ἔχουσιν εἰπεῖνthey can proclaim a stroke of ZeusA. Ag. 367.

C. Infinitive after Adjectives, Adverbs, and Substantives

2001. The infinitive serves to define the meaning of adjectives, adverbs, and substantives, especially those denoting ability, fitness, capacity, etc. (and their opposites), and generally those analogous in meaning to verbs which take the infinitive (2000). Here the datival meaning (purpose, destination) is often apparent. Cp. 1969.

2002. Adjectives and Adverbs.—““ἱκανοὶ ἡμᾶς ὠφελεῖνable to assist usX. A. 3.3.18, ““δεινὸς λέγειν, κακὸς βιῶναιskilled in speaking, evil in lifeAes. 3.174, ““οἷοι φιλεῖνable to loveD. 25.2, ““ἕτοιμοί εἰσι μάχεσθαιthey are ready to fightX. C. 4.1.1, ““ἄρχειν ἀξιώτατοςmost worthy to governX. A. 1.9.1, ὁδὸς . . . ἀμήχανος εἰσελθεῖν στρατεύματι a road impracticable for an army to enter 1. 2. 21, χαλεπὸν διαβαίνειν hard to cross 5. 6. 9, ““ἐπινοῆσαι ὀξεῖςquick to conceiveT. 1.70. So also after ῥᾴδιος easy, ἡδύς pleasant, δίκαιος just, ἀναγκαῖος necessary, ἐπιτήδειος suitable, ἀγαθός good, αἴτιος responsible for, μαλακός incapable of; cp. ὀλίγος 1063. After adverbs: ““κάλλιστα ἰδεῖνmost splendid to beholdX. C. 8.3.5.

a. Some of these adjectives take the infinitive by analogy to the related verbs, as πρόθυ_μος zealous (προθυ_μοῦμαι), ἐπιστήμων knowing how (ἐπίσταμαι).

2003. οἷος fit, ὅσος sufficient take the infinitive like the fuller expressions τοιοῦτος οἷος, τοσοῦτος ὅσος. Thus, ““οὐ γὰρ ἦν ὥρα_ οἵα_ τὸ πεδίον ἄρδεινfor it was not the proper season to irrigate the plainX. A. 2.3.13, ““ὅσον ἀποζῆνsufficient to live off ofT. 1.2, ““τοιοῦτος οἷος . . . πείθεσθαιthe kind of a man to be convincedP. Cr. 46b. On τοσοῦτος ὥστε (ὡς) see 2263. Hom. has the infinitive after τοῖος, τόσος, etc.

2004. Substantives.—As, ““οἱ παῖδες ὑ_μῖν ὀλίγου ἡλικία_ν ἔχουσι παιδεύεσθαιyour children are almost of an age to be educatedP. Lach. 187c. With ἐστί omitted: ““σχολή γε ἡμῖν μανθάνεινwe have leisure to learnX. C. 4.3.12, ““ἀνάγκη πείθεσθαιthere is need to obeyX. H. 1.6.8, ““περαίνειν ἤδη ὥρα_it is high time to finishX. A. 3.2.32. Cp. 1985.

2005. The infinitive is added, like an accusative of respect (1601, 1602), to intransitive verbs (especially in poetry), to adjectives (more frequently in poetry), and to substantives (rarely). Thus, τοῖος ἰδεῖν such in aspect (lit. to look on) Theognis 216, ““ὁρᾶν στυγνόςof a repulsive expressionX. A. 2.6.9, ἀκοῦ- ““σαι παγκάλως ἔχειit is very fine to hearD. 19.47, ““θαῦμα καὶ ἀκοῦσαιa marvel even to hear ofP. L. 656d.

2006. The infinitive limiting the meaning of an adjective is commonly active (or middle) in cases where the passive is more natural in English. Thus, ““λόγος δυνατὸς κατανοῆσαιa speech capable of being understoodP. Ph. 90c, ““ἄξιος θαυμάσαιworthy to be admiredT. 1.138 (but ἄξιος θαυμάζεσθαι X. C. 5.1.6).

a. The active use is due to the old datival function of the infinitive: δυνατὸς κατανοῆσαι capable for understanding.

2007. The infinitive, with or without ὥστε or ὡς, may be used with than after comparatives, depending on an (implied) idea of ability or inability. ὥστε is more common than or ὡς. Cp. 2264.

““τὸ γὰρ νόσημα μεῖζον φέρεινfor the disease is too great to be borneS. O. T. 1293, ““φοβοῦμαι μή τι μεῖζον ὥστε φέρειν δύνασθαι κακὸν τῇ πόλει συμβῇI fear lest some calamity befall the State greater than it can bearX. M. 3.5.17, ““βραχύτερα ὡς ἐξικνεῖσθαιtoo short to reachX. A. 3.3.7.

a. The force of ὥστε may be expressed by the genitive; as, κρεῖσσον λόγου (T. 2.50) = κρεῖσσον ὥστε λέγεσθαι. Cp. 1077.

b. Words implying a comparison may take the infinitive with ὥστε or ὡς (1063).

D. Infinitive of Purpose and Result

2008. Infinitive of Purpose.—The infinitive may express purpose (usually only with verbs taking the accusative).

““ταύτην τὴν χώρα_ν ἐπέτρεψε διαρπάσαι τοῖς Ἕλλησινhe gave this land over to the Greeks to plunderX. A. 1.2.19, τὸ ἥμισυ (τοῦ στρατεύματος) κατέλιπε φυλάττειν τὸ στρατόπεδον he left half (of the army) behind to guard the camp 5. 2. 1, ἰέναι ἐπὶ βασιλέα_ οὐκ ἐγίγνετο τὰ ἱερά the sacrifices did not turn out (favourable) for going against the king 2. 2. 3, ““Ἀριστάρχῳ . . . ἔδοτε ἡμέρα_ν ἀπολογήσασθαιyou granted a day to Aristarchus to make his defenceX. H. 1.7.28, θύρα_ ἐμὴ ἀνέῳκτο . . . εἰσιέναι τῷ δεομένῳ τι ἐμοῦ my door stood open for any petitioner of mine to enter 5. 1. 14, ““παρέχω ἐμαυτὸν ἐρωτᾶνI offer myself to be questionedP. A. 33b, τὰ_ς γυναῖκας πιεῖν φερούσα_ς the women bringing (something) to drink X. H. 7.2.9. Cp. also 2032 e.

2009. The infinitive of purpose is used in prose especially after verbs meaning to give, entrust, choose, appoint, take, receive. Verbs signifying to send, go, come usually take the future active participle (2065); but T. 6.50 has δέκα τῶν νεῶν προύπεμψαν ἐς τὸν μέγαν λιμένα πλεῦσαι they sent ahead ten ships to sail into the great harbour; and in poetry the infinitive often denotes purpose after these verbs, and after εἶναι in Homer (Λ 20) and Hdt. (5. 25).

2010. After verbs meaning to have (or be) at one's disposition: ““οἱ στρατιῶται ἀργύριον οὐκ εἶχον ἐπισι_τίζεσθαιthe soldiers did not have money by means of which they could provision themselvesX. A. 7.1.7, ““ἐκεῖ σκιά_ τ᾽ ἐστὶ καὶ πόα_ καθίζεσθαιthere is shade and grass to sit down inP. Phae. 229b.

2011. Infinitive of Result.—The infinitive may be used with ὥστε (sometimes with ὡς) to denote a result, often an intended result. See 2260 ff.

a. Several verbs, substantives, and adjectives usually taking the infinitive also admit ὥστε with the infinitive (2271); and the infinitive is found where ὥστε with the infinitive might be expected: μνημονεύουσιν ἀφεθέντα τοῦτον ἐλεύθερον εἶναι they recall that he was emancipated (lit. released so as to be free) D. 29.25. Here the redundant infinitive expresses an intended result.

N.—This redundant use of εἶναι is common in Hom. and Hdt.

E. Absolute Infinitive

2012. Certain idiomatic infinitives are used absolutely in parenthetical phrases to limit the application of a single expression or of the entire sentence.

a. Verbs of Saying.—ὡς ἔπος εἰπεῖν, ὡς εἰπεῖν so to speak, almost; (ὡς) ἁπλῶς εἰπεῖν, ὡς συνελόντι (1497) εἰπεῖν, ὡς (ἐν βραχεῖ or) συντόμως εἰπεῖν to speak briefly, concisely; ὡς ἐπὶ πᾶν εἰπεῖν, τὸ σύμπαν εἰπεῖν speaking generally; σχεδὸν εἰπεῖν so to say, almost (paene dixerim); σὺν θεῷ εἰπεῖν in God's name; and so ὡς with λέγειν, φράζειν, εἰρῆσθαι, as ὡς ἐν τύπῳ εἰρῆσθαι in general. Examples: ἀληθές γε ὡς ἔπος εἰπεῖν οὐδὲν εἰρήκα_σιν not one word of truth, I may say, did they utter P. A. 17a, ἀγαθὸν μὲν ἁπλῶς εἰπεῖν οὐδὲν γέγονε τῇ πόλει in a word the State gained no advantage Dinarchus 1.33.

b. ὡς (ἔπος) εἰπεῖν is often used to limit too strict an application of a general statement, especially πᾶς or οὐδείς. Thus, πάντες ὡς ἔπος εἰπεῖν nearly every one, οὐδεὶς ὡς ἔπος εἰπεῖν almost no one. It is thus used like paene dixerim; rarely, like ut ita dicam, to soften the strength of a metaphor.

c. Especially common is the absolute εἶναι in ἑκὼν willingly, intentionally, if you can help it, usually in negative or quasi-negative statements (ἑκών may be inflected). Also in τὸ κατὰ τοῦτον (ἐπὶ τούτῳ) εἶναι as far as he is concerned, ὡς . . . εἶναι as far as . . . is concerned, τὸ νῦν εἶναι at present. Examples: ““οὐδὲ ξένοις ἑκὼν εἶναι γέλωτα παρέχειςnor do you intentionally cause strangers to laughX. C. 2.2.15, ““ἑκοῦσα εἶναι οὐκ ἀπολείπεταιit is not willingly separatedP. Phae. 252a, τό γε ἐπ᾽ ἐκεῖνον εἶναι ἐσώθης (ἄν) so far, at least, as it depended on him you would have been saved L. 13.58.

d. Other expressions: ἐμοὶ δοκεῖν, ὡς ἐμοὶ δοκεῖν, ὡς ἐμοὶ κρῖναι as it seems to me, in my opinion, (ὡς) εἰκάσαι to make a guess, (ὡς) συμβάλλειν to compare, (ὡς) ἀκοῦσαι to the ear, ὡς ὑμομνῆσαι to recall the matter, ὅσον γέ μ᾽ εἰδέναι as far as I know, etc.; ὀλίγου δεῖν, μι_κροῦ δεῖν almost, all but (δεῖν may be omitted, 1399). Examples: γὰρ Κτήσιππος ἔτυχε πόρρω καθεζόμενος τοῦ Κλεινίου, ἐμοὶ δοκεῖν for Ctesippus, it seems to me, happened to be sitting at a distance from Clinias P. Eu. 274b, ““μι_κροῦ δεῖν τρία τάλανταalmost three talentsD. 27.29.

e. Some of these absolute infinitives may be explained by reference to the idea of purpose (2008) or result. Thus, συνελόντι εἰπεῖν for one compressing the matter to speak (cp. ut paucis dicam), μι_κροῦ δεῖν so as to lack little. Others recall the adverbial accusative (1606); cp. ἐμοὶ δοκεῖν with γνώμην ἐμήν.

F. Infinitive in Commands, Wishes, and Exclamations

2013. Infinitive in Commands.—The infinitive may be used for the second person of the imperative. The person addressed is regarded as the subject. This infinitive is commoner in poetry than in prose (where it has a solemn or formal force).

θαρσῶν νῦν, Διόμηδες, ἐπὶ Τρώεσσι μάχεσθαι with good courage now, Diomed, fight against the Trojans E 124, σὺ δέ, Κλεαρίδα_ . . . τὰ_ς πύλα_ς ἀνοίξα_ς ἐπεκθεῖν but do you, Clearidas, open the gates and sally forth T. 5.9.

a. This infinitive may be used in conjunction with an imperative: ““ἀκούετε λεῴ: κατὰ τὰ πάτρια τοὺς χόας πί_νεινhear ye, good people! drink the Pitchers as our sires drank!Ar. Ach. 1000.

b. The infinitive for the third person of the imperative often occurs in legal language (laws, treaties, etc.), and does not necessarily depend on the principal verb. Thus, ““ἔτη δὲ εἶναι τὰ_ς σπονδὰ_ς πεντήκονταand the treaty shall continue for fifty yearsT. 5.18. In this construction the infinitive has the force of an infinitive dependent on ἔδοξε (it was voted that) or the like. So in medical language, as πί_νειν δὲ ὕδωρ it is well for the patient to drink water Hippocrates 1. 151.

c. The infinitive (with subject accusative) is rarely used for the third person of the imperative when there is an unconscious ellipsis of a word like δός grant, or εὔχομαι I pray. Thus, τεύχεα συ_λήσα_ς φερέτω κοίλα_ς ἐπὶ νῆας, σῶμα δὲ οἴκαδ᾽ ἐμὸν δόμεναι πάλιν let him strip off my arms and carry them to the hollow ships, but let him give back my body to my home H 78.

d. In negative commands (prohibitions) μή with the infinitive is poetic and Ionic: οἷς μὴ πελάζειν do not approach these ( = μὴ πέλαζε) A. Pr. 712, ““μηδὲ καλεῖν πω ὄλβιονand do not call him happy yetHdt. 1.32.

2014. Infinitive in Wishes.—The infinitive with a subject accusative may be used in the sense of the optative of wish, usually with the same ellipsis as in 2013 c.

““θεοὶ πολῖται, μή με δουλεία_ς τυχεῖνye gods of my country, may bondage not be my lot!A. Sept. 253, Ζεῦ, ἐκγενέσθαι μοι Ἀθηναίους τείσασθαι oh Zeus, that it be granted to me to punish the Athenians! Hdt. 5.105 (cp. Ζεῦ, δός με τείσασθαι μόρον πατρός oh Zeus, grant that I may avenge my father's murder! A. Ch. 18). This construction is very rare in Attic prose: ““τὸν κυνηγέτην ἔχοντα ἐξιέναι . . . ἐλαφρὰ_ν ἐσθῆταthe hunter should go forth in a light dressX. Ven. 6.11. Here no definite verb can be supplied.

a. The nominative with the infinitive (instead of the optative) after αι᾽ γάρ occurs in Homer (η 311, ω 376).

2015. Infinitive in Exclamations.—The infinitive is often used in exclamations of surprise or indignation. The subject stands in the accusative.

““ἐμὲ παθεῖν τάδεthat I should suffer this!A. Eum. 837, ““τοιουτονὶ_ τρέφειν κύναto keep a dog like that!Ar. Vesp. 835.

On the infinitive with ἐφ᾽ (ἐφ᾽ ᾧτε) see 2279; with πρίν, see 2453.

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