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2079. Adverbs are often used to set forth clearly the relations of time, manner, cause, concession, etc., that are implied in the participle. They occur also with the genitive and accusative absolute. These adverbs modify either the principal verb or the participle itself.


2080. The adverbs ἔπειτα thereupon, τότε, εἶτα (less often ἐνταῦθα) then, ἤδη already, οὕτω so, when used with the verb of the sentence which contains a temporal participle, emphasize the temporal relation: (ὑ_μῶν δέομαι) ἀκροα_σαμένους διὰ τέλους τῆς ἀπολογία_ς τότε ἤδη ψηφίζεσθαι κτλ. (I beg you) when you have heard my defence to the end, then and not till then to vote, etc. And. 1.9, ὑπὲρ μεγίστων ““καὶ καλλίστων κινδυ_νεύσαντες οὕτω τὸν βίον ἐτελεύτησανthey incurred danger for a great and noble cause, and so ended their livesL. 2.79.

2081. ἅμα at the same time, αὐτίκα immediately, εὐθύς straightway, μεταξύ between, in the midst, though strictly modifying the main verb, are often placed close to a temporal participle which they modify in sense: ““ἅμα ταῦτ᾽ εἰπὼν ἀνέστηsaying this, he roseX. A. 3.1.47, τῷ δεξιῷ κέρᾳ τῶν Ἀθηναίων εὐθὺς ἀποβεβηκότι . . . ἐπέκειντο they fell upon the right wing of the Athenians as soon as it had disembarked (lit. upon the right wing when it had disembarked) T. 4.43, ““ἐξαναστάντες μεταξὺ δειπνοῦντεςgetting up in the middle of supperD. 18.169, πολλαχοῦ με ἐπέσχε λέγοντα μεταξύ it often checked me when the words were on my lips (in the very act of speaking) P. A. 40b.

2082. A participle implying opposition or concession (2066) may have its meaning rendered explicit by ὅμως yet, nevertheless (with or without καίπερ, 2083), εἶτα then or ἔπειτα afterwards to express censure or surprise (then, for all that): σὺν σοὶ ὅμως καὶ ἐν τῇ πολεμίᾳ ὄντες θαρροῦμεν with you, though we are in the enemies' country, nevertheless we have no fear X. C. 5.1.26, ἔπειτ᾽ ἀπολιπὼν τοὺς θεοὺς ἐνθάδε μενεῖς; and then, though you desert the gods, will you remain here? Ar. Pl. 1148. ὅμως may attach itself more closely to the participle, though belonging with the principal verb: ““πείθου γυναιξί, καίπερ οὐ στέργων ὅμωςtake the advice of women none the less though thou likest it notA. Sept. 712.

2083. With participles of opposition or concession (2066): καίπερ although, καί (infrequent), although καὶ ταῦτα (947) and that too. Thus, ““συμβουλεύω σοι καίπερ νεώτερος ὤνI give you advice though I am your juniorX. C. 4.5.32, ἀποπλεῖ οἴκαδε καίπερ μέσου χειμῶνος ὄντος he sailed off home though it was midwinter X. Ag. 2. 31, ““Κλέωνος καίπερ μανιώδης οὖσα ὑπόσχεσις ἀπέβηCleon's promise, insane though it was, was fulfilledT. 4.39, καὶ δοῦλος ὤν γὰρ τί_μιος πλουτῶν ἀνήρ for, slave though he be, the man of wealth is held in esteem E. fr. 142, ““ἀδικεῖς ὅτι ἄνδρα ἡμῖν τὸν σπουδαιότατον διαφθείρεις γελᾶν ἀναπείθων, καὶ ταῦτα οὕτω πολέμιον ὄντα τῷ γέλωτιyou do wrong in that you corrupt the most earnest man we have by tempting him to laugh, and that though he is such an enemy to laughterX. C. 2.2.16. On καίτοι see 2893 b.

a. In Homer the parts of καίπερ are often separated by the participle or an emphatic word connected with it: καὶ ἀχνύμενοί περ although distressed M 178. πέρ may stand alone without καί: ἀνάσχεο κηδομένη περ bear up, though vexed A 586. Both uses occur in tragedy. The part. with πέρ is not always concessive.

b. In a negative sentence, οὐδέ (μηδέ), with or without πέρ, takes the place of καί; as γυναικὶ πείθου μηδὲ τἀ_ληθῆ κλύων listen to a woman, though thou hearest not the truth E. fr. 440.

2084. With participles of cause (2064): οὕτως, διὰ τοῦτο (ταῦτα), ἐκ τούτου. Thus, ἀνελόμενοι τὰ ναυά_για . . . καὶ ὅτι αὐτοῖς . . . οὐκ ἀντεπέπλεον, διὰ ταῦτα τροπαῖον ἔστησαν because they had picked up the wrecks and because they (the enemy) did not sail against them, (for this reason) they set up a trophy T. 1.54.

2085. With participles of cause (2064): ἅτε (ἅτε δη), οἷα or οἷον (οἷον δή) inasmuch as, state the cause as a fact on the authority of the speaker or writer. Thus, Κῦρος, ἅτε παῖς ὤν, . . . ἥδετο τῇ στολῇ Cyrus, inasmuch as he was a child, was pleased with the robe X. C. 1.3.3, ἥκομεν ἑσπέρα_ς ἀπὸ τοῦ στρατοπέδου, οἷον δὲ διὰ χρόνου ἀφι_γμένος ἐπὶ τὰ_ς συνήθεις διατριβά_ς I returned in the evening from the camp, and, as I arrived after a long absence, I proceeded to my accustomed haunts P. Charm. 153a, ““οἷα δὴ ἀπιόντων πρὸς δεῖπνον . . . τῶν πελταστῶν, . . . ἐπελαύνουσιinasmuch as the peltasts were going off to supper, they rode against themX. H. 5.4.39. ὥστε has the same force in Hdt.

2086. With participles of cause or purpose, etc. (2064, 2065): ὡς. This particle sets forth the ground of belief on which the agent acts, and denotes the thought, assertion, real or presumed intention, in the mind of the subject of the principal verb or of some other person mentioned prominently in the sentence, without implicating the speaker or writer.

a. Thus, ἀπῆλθον ὡς νι_κήσαντες may mean either they departed under the impression that they had been victorious (though as a matter of fact they may have been defeated) or pretending that they had been victorious (when they knew they had been defeated). The use of ὡς implies nothing as to the opinion of the speaker or writer. On the other hand ἀπῆλθον νι_κήσαντες means that, as a matter of fact, and on the authority of the writer, they had been victorious.

b. ὡς may be rendered as if (though there is nothing conditional in the Greek use, as is shown by the negative οὐ, not μή), by in the opinion (belief) that, on the ground that, under pretence of, under the impression that, because as he said (or thought; in the hope of, with the (avowed) intention of (with the future participle).

c. ““ἐνταῦθ᾽ ἔμενον ὡς τὸ ἄκρον κατέχοντες : οἱ δ᾽ ου᾽ κατεῖχον, ἀλλὰ μαστὸς ἦν ὑπὲρ αὐτῶνthere they remained in the belief that they were occupying the summit; but in fact they were not occupying it, since there was a hill above themX. A. 4.2.5, ταύτην τὴν χώρα_ν ἐπέτρεψε διαρπάσαι τοῖς Ἕλλησιν ὡς πολεμία_ν οὖσαν he turned this country over to the Greeks to ravage on the ground that it was hostile 1. 2. 19, τὴν πρόφασιν ἐποιεῖτο ὡς Πι_σίδα_ς βουλόμενος ἐκβαλεῖν he made his pretence as if he wished (i.e. he gave as his pretext his desire) to expel the Pisidians 1. 2. 1, παρεσκευάζοντο ὡς πολεμήσοντες they made preparations to go to war (with the avowed intention of going to war) T. 2.7, συλλαμβάνει Κῦρον ὡς ἀποκτενῶν he seized Cyrus for the purpose (as he declared) of putting him to death X. A. 1.1.3, and often with the future participle. After verbs of motion ὡς is rarely used.

d. ὡς with the absolute participle: ““οὐ δεῖ ἀθυ_μεῖν ὡς οὐκ εὐτάκτων ὄντων Ἀθηναίωνwe must not be discouraged on the ground that the Athenians are not well disciplinedX. M. 3.5.20, ““ἔλεγε θαρρεῖν ὡς καταστησομένων τούτων ἐς τὸ δέονhe bade him be of good cheer in the assurance that this would arrange itself in the right wayX. A. 1.3.8, ““ὡς ἐξὸν ἤδη ποιεῖν αὐτοῖς τι βούλοιντο, πολλοὺς ἀπέκτεινονin the belief that it was already in their power to do what they pleased, they put many to deathX. H. 2.3.21. Cp. also 2078, and 2122.

2087. ὥσπερ as, just as, as it were, an adverb of comparison, denotes that the action of the main verb is compared with an assumed case. Thus, ““κατακείμεθ᾽ ὥσπερ ἐξὸν ἡσυχία_ν ἄγεινwe lie inactive just as if it were possible to take one's easeX. A. 3.1.3, ὠρχοῦντο . . . ὥσπερ ἐπιδεικνύμενοι they danced as it were making an exhibition 5. 4. 34, οἱ δὲ ὡς ἤκουσαν, ὥσπερ συὸς ἀγρίου φανέντος, ἵ_ενται ἐπ᾽ αὐτόν but when they heard him, just as though a wild boar had appeared, they rushed against him 5. 7. 24. Cp. 2078.

a. Where a condition is meant, we have ὥσπερ ἂν εἰ (ὡσπερανεί). Cp. 2480 a.

b. Hom. uses ὥς τε, ὡς εἰ, ὡς εἴ τε like ὥσπερ or ὡς. ὡς εἰ, ὡς εἴ τε occur also in tragedy, and do not have a conditional force. Thus, ““ὀλοφυ_ρόμενοι ὡς εἰ θανατόνδε κιόνταbewailing him as if he were going to deathΩ 328. Cp. 2481.

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