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2207. Two types of object (substantival) clauses are closely connected in construction with final clauses.

1. Object clauses after verbs of effort.

2. Object clauses after verbs of fearing.

Both stand in apposition to a demonstrative expressed or implied.

οὐδένα δεῖ τοῦτο μηχανᾶσθαι, ὅπως ἀποφεύξεται πᾶν ποιῶν θάνατον no man ought to contrive (this) how he shall escape death at any cost P. A. 39a, ““μηχανᾶσθαι ὅκως τὸ σῶμα . . . κομιεῖto contrive how he might bring home the bodyHdt. 2.121 γ, αὐτὸ τοῦτο φοβοῦμαι, μὴ . . . οὐ δυνηθῶ δηλῶσαι περὶ τῶν πρα_γμάτων I am afraid of this very thing, namely, that I may not be able to make the case plain D. 41.2, ““ἐφοβεῖτο . . . μὴ οὐ δύναιτο . . . ἐξελθεῖνhe was afraid that he could not escapeX. A. 3.1.12.

2208. Connection of Final with Object Clauses.—(1) Final clauses proper denote a purpose to accomplish or avert a result, which purpose is set forth in a definite action. (2) Object clauses after verbs of effort consider means to accomplish or avert a result; the action of the subordinate clause is the object purposed. Such clauses are incomplete final clauses, because, though the purpose is expressed, the action taken to effect the purpose is not expressed. (3) Object clauses after verbs of fearing deprecate an undesired result or express fear that a desired result may not be accomplished. According to the form of expression employed, the construction of these three kinds of clauses may differ in varying degree or be identical. Thus compare these usages of Attic prose:

(1) παρακαλεῖ ἰ_α_τρὸν ὅπως μὴ ἀποθάνῃ (common)

παρακαλεῖ ἰ_α_τρὸν ὅπως μὴ ἀποθανεῖται (occasionally)

παρακαλεῖ ἰ_α_τρὸν μὴ ἀποθάνῃ (rare)

he summons a physician in order that he may not die.

(2) ἐπιμελεῖται ὅπως μὴ ἀποθανεῖται (common)

ἐπιμελεῖται ὅπως μὴ ἀποθάνῃ (occasionally)

he takes care that he shall not die.

ὅρα_ μὴ ἀποθάνῃς (occasionally) see to it that you do not die.

(3) φοβεῖται μὴ ἀποθάνῃ (common)

φοβεῖται ὅπως μὴ ἀποθάνῃ (occasionally)

φοβεῖται ὅπως μὴ ἀποθανεῖται (occasionally)

he is afraid lest he die.


2209. Object clauses after verbs of effort are introduced by ὅπως, rarely by ὡς (Herodotus, Xenophon), scarcely ever by ἵνα. The negative is μή.

2210. Verbs of effort include verbs denoting to take care or pains, to strive.

ἐπιμελοῦμαι, μέλει μοι, μελετῶ, φρουρῶ, πρόνοιαν ἔχω, βουλεύομαι, μηχανῶμαι, παρασκευάζομαι, προθυ_μοῦμαι, πρά_ττω, πάντα ποιῶ (ποιοῦμαι), σπουδάζω, etc.

a. The same construction follows certain verbs of will signifying to ask, command, entreat, exhort , and forbid, and which commonly take the infinitive (αἰτῶ, δέομαι, παραγγέλλω, ἱκετεύω, δια- or παρακελεύομαι, ἀπαγορεύω, etc.).

b. Some verbs take, by analogy, but in negative clauses only, the construction either of verbs of effort or of verbs of fearing. These verbs signify to see to a thing: ὁρῶ, σκοπῶ (-οῦμαι), ἐσκεψάμην, σκεπτέον ἐστί, τηρῶ; to be on one's guard: εὐλαβοῦμαι, φροντίζω, φυλάττω (-ομαι). See 2220.

These verbs may take μή with the infinitive. εὐλαβοῦμαι and φυλάττομαι take the infinitive when they mean to guard against doing something.

2211. Object clauses after verbs of effort take the future indicative with ὅπως after primary and secondary tenses (rarely the optative after secondary tenses, 2212).

ἐπιμελοῦμαι ὅπως ταῦτα ποιήσει I take care that he shall do this.

ἐπιμελοῦμαι ὅπως μὴ ταῦτα ποιήσει I take care that he shall not do this.

ἐπεμελούμην ὅπως ταῦτα ποιήσει (ποιήσοι) I took care that he should do this.

ἐπεμελούμην ὅπως μὴ ταῦτα ποιήσει (ποιήσοι) I took care that he should not do this.

““εἰ ἀνάγκη ἐστὶ μάχεσθαι, τοῦτο δεῖ παρασκευάσασθαι ὅπως ὡς κράτιστα μαχούμεθαif it is necessary to fight, we must prepare to fight bravelyX. A. 4.6.10, ἔπρα_σσον ὅπως τις βοήθεια ἥξει they were managing (this, that) how some reinforcements should come T. 3.4, ““σκοπεῖσθε τοῦτο, ὅπως μὴ λόγους ἐροῦσιν μόνον . . . ἀλλὰ καὶ ἔργον τι δεικνύειν ἕξουσινsee to this, that they not only make speeches but also are able to show some proofD. 2.12, σκεπτέον μοι δοκεῖ εἶναι . . . ὅπως ὡς ἀσφαλέστατα ἄπιμεν (774) ““καὶ ὅπως τὰ ἐπιτήδεια ἕξομενit seems to me that we must consider how we shall depart in the greatest security and how we shall procure our provisionsX. A. 1.3.11. In ““δεῖ σε ὅπως δείξειςit is needful that thou proveS. Aj. 556 there is a confusion between δεῖ δεῖξαι and the construction of 2213.

2212. After secondary tenses the future optative occasionally occurs.

““ἐπεμέλετο ὅπως μήτε ἄσι_τοι μήτε ἄποτοί ποτε ἔσοιντοhe took care that they should never be without food or drinkX. C. 8.1.43.

a. The future optative occurs especially in Xenophon, and represents a thought that was originally expressed by the future indicative. Here the indicative would present the thought vividly, i.e. as it was conceived in the mind of the subject.

2213. ὅπως and ὅπως μή with the future indicative may be used without any principal clause, to denote an urgent exhortation or a warning. Originally the ὅπως clause depended on σκόπει (σκοπεῖτε), ὅρα_ (ὁρᾶτε) see to it; but the ellipsis was gradually forgotten and the construction used independently.

““ὅπως οὖν ἔσεσθε ἄνδρες ἄξιοι τῆς ἐλευθερία_ς ἧς ἧς κέκτησθεbe men worthy of the freedom which you possessX. A. 1.7.3, ““ὅπως δὲ τοῦτο μὴ διδάξεις μηδέναbut don't tell anybody thisAr. Nub. 824, and very often in Ar. This use is also preceded by ἄγε (X. S. 4. 20). The third person is very rare (L. 1.21).

2214. Verbs of effort sometimes have the construction of final clauses, and take, though less often, ὅπως with the present or second aorist subjunctive or optative (cp. 2196). The subjunctive may be used after secondary tenses.

ἔπρα_σσεν . . . ὅπως πόλεμος γένηται he tried to bring it about that war should be occasioned T. 1.57, ““ὅρα_ . . . ὅπως μὴ παρὰ δόξαν ὁμολογῇςsee to it that it does not prove that you acquiesce in what you do not really thinkP. Cr. 49c, οὐ φυλάξεσθ᾽ ὅπως μὴ . . . δεσπότην εὕρητε; will you not be on your guard lest you find a master? D. 6.25. Future and subjunctive occur together in X. A. 4.6.10. In Xenophon alone is the subjunctive (and optative) more common than the future.

a. The object desired by the subject of a verb of effort is here expressed by the same construction as is the purpose in the mind of the subject of a final clause.

2215. ἄν is sometimes added to ὅπως with the subjunctive to denote that the purpose is dependent on certain circumstances.

““ὅπως ἂν . . . οἱ στρατιῶται περὶ τοῦ στρατεύεσθαι βουλεύωνται, τούτου πειρἁ_σομαι ἐπεμέλεσθαιI will endeavour to make it my care that the soldiers deliberate about continuing the warX. C. 5.5.48, ““μηχανητέον ὅπως ἂν διαφύγῃplans must be made for his escapeP. G. 481a (the same passage has ὅπως with the subjunctive and the future). In Attic this use occurs in Aristophanes, Xenophon, and Plato.

2216. ὡς and ὡς ἄν with subjunctive and optative and ὅπως ἄν with the optative occur in Xenophon, ὡς ἄν and ὅπως ἄν with the optative being used after primary and secondary tenses. Hdt. has ὅκως ἄν after secondary tenses. The optative with ὡς ἄν and ὅπως ἄν is potential.

2217. After verbs meaning to consider, plan , and try ὄπως or ὡς with the subjunctive (with or without κέ) or optative is used by Homer, who does not employ the future indicative in object clauses denoting a purpose. Thus, ““φράζεσθαι . . . ὅππως κε μνηστῆρας . . . κτείνῃςconsider how thou mayest slay the suitorsα 295, ““πείρα_ ὅπως κεν δὴ σὴν πατρίδα γαῖαν ἵκηαιtry that thou mayest come to thy native landδ 545. Here ὅπως with the future indicative would be the normal Attic usage.

2218. Verbs of will or desire signifying to ask, command, entreat, exhort , and forbid, which usually have an infinitive as their object, may take ὅπως (ὅπως μή) with the future indicative (or optative) or the subjunctive (or optative). The ὅπως clause states both the command, etc. and the purpose in giving it. Between take care to do this and I bid you take care to do this the connection is close. Cp. impero, postulo with ut (ne).

““διακελεύονται ὅπως τι_μωρήσεταιthey urge him to take revengeP. R. 549e, ““δεήσεται δ᾽ ὑ_μῶν ὅπως . . . δίκην μὴ δῷhe will entreat you that he may not suffer punishmentAnt. 1.23, παραγγέλλουσιν ὅπως ἂν (2215) τῇδε τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τελευτήσῃ they give orders (to the end) that he die to-day P. Ph. 59e, ““Λακεδαιμονίων ἐδέοντο τὸ ψήφισμ᾽ ὅπως μεταστραφείηthey begged the Lacedaemonians that the decree might be changedAr. Ach. 536, ““ἀπηγόρευες ὅπως μὴ τοῦτο ἀποκρινοίμηνyou forbade me to give this answerP. R. 339a.

2219. Dawes' Canon.—The rule formulated by Dawes and afterwards extended (that the first aorist subjunctive active and middle after ὅπως, ὅπως μή, and οὐ μή is incorrect and should be emended) is applicable only in the case of verbs of effort. After these verbs the future is far more common than subjunctive or optative (except in Xenophon), and some scholars would emend the offending sigmatic subjunctives where they occur in the same sentence with second aorists (as And. 3.14) or even where the future has a widely different form (as ἐκπλευσεῖται, subj. ἐκπλεύσῃ, cp. X. A. 5.6.21).


2220. Verbs of caution (2210 b, 2224 a) have, in negative clauses, the construction either of

a. Verbs of effort, and take ὅπως μή with the future indicative:

““εὐλαβούμενοι ὅπως μὴ . . . οἰχήσομαιtaking care that I do not departP. Ph. 91c, ““ὅρα_ ὅκως μή σευ ἀποστήσονταιbeware lest they revolt from theeHdt. 3.36.

b. Verbs of fearing, and take μή (μὴ οὐ) or ὅπως μή (2230) with the subjunctive (or optative):

““ὁρᾶτε μὴ πάθωμενtake care lest we sufferX. C. 4.1.15, ““φυλάττου ὅπως μὴ . . . εἰς τοὐναντίον ἔλθῃςbe on your guard lest you come to the oppositeX. M. 3.6.16, ““ὑποπτεύομεν . . . ὑ_μᾶς μὴ οὐ κοινοὶ ἀποβῆτεwe suspect that you will not prove impartialT. 3.53, ὑποπτεύσα_ς μὴ τὴν θυγατέρα λέγοι, ἤρετο κτλ. suspecting that he meant his daughter, he asked, etc. X. C. 5.2.9. So with a past indicative (2233).


2221. Object clauses after verbs of fear and caution are introduced by μή that, lest (Lat. ne), μὴ οὐ that . . . not, lest . . . not (Lat. ut = ne non).

a. μή clauses denote a fear that something may or might happen; μὴ οὐ clauses denote a fear that something may not or might not happen. Observe that the verb is negatived by οὐ and not by μή, which expresses an apprehension that the result will take place. μή is sometimes, for convenience, translated by whether; but it is not an indirect interrogative in such cases.

2222. The construction of μή after verbs of fearing has been developed from an earlier coördinate construction in which μή was not a conjunction (that, lest) but a prohibitive particle. Thus, δείδω μή τι πάθῃσιν (Λ 470) I fear lest he may suffer aught was developed from I fear + may he not suffer aught (1802); φυλακὴ δέ τις . . . ἔστω, μὴ λόχος εἰσέλθῃσι πόλιν (Θ 521) but let there be a guard, lest an ambush enter the city, where the clause μὴεἰσέλθῃσι meant originally may an ambush not enter. Here μή expresses the desire to avert something (negative desire).

a. When μή had become a pure conjunction of subordination, it was used even with the indicative and with the optative with ἄν. Some scholars regard μή with the indicative as standing for ἆρα μή (hence an indirect interrogative). Observe that the character of μή after verbs of fearing is different from that in final clauses, though the construction is the same in both cases.

2223. For the use of the subjunctive, without a verb of fearing, with μή, see 1801, 1802; with μὴ οὐ see 1801, with οὐ μή see 1804.

2224. Verbs and expressions of fear are: φοβοῦμαι, δέδοικα or δέδια, ταρβῶ, τρῶ and πέφρι_κα (mostly poetical); δεινός εἰμι, δεινόν ἐστι, δέος ἐστί, φοβερός εἰμι, φοβερόν ἐστι, etc.

a. Sometimes it is not actual fear that is expressed but only apprehension, anxiety, suspicion, etc. These are the verbs and expressions of caution: ὀκνῶ, ἀθυ_μῶ, ἀπιστῶ, ἀπιστία_ν ἔχω (παρέχω), ὑποπτεύω, ἐνθυ_μοῦμαι, αἰσχύ_νομαι (rare), κίνδυ_νός ἐστι, προσδοκία_ ἐστί. Here belong also, by analogy, ὁρῶ, σκοπῶ, ἐννοῶ, εὐλαβοῦμαι, φροντίζω, φυλάττω (-ομαι), which admit also the construction of verbs of effort (2210 b).


2225. Object clauses after verbs of fear and caution take the subjunctive after primary tenses, the optative (or subjunctive, 2226) after secondary tenses.

φοβοῦμαι μὴ γένηται I fear it may happen.

φοβοῦμαι μὴ οὐ γένηται I fear it may not happen.

ἐφοβούμην μὴ γένξιτο (or γένηται) I feared it might happen.

ἐφοβούμην μὴ οὐ γένοιτο (regularly γένηται) I feared it might not happen.

““δέδοικα μὴ . . . ἐπιλαθώμεθα τῆς οἴκαδε ὁδοῦI am afraid lest we may forget the way homeX. A. 3.2.25, ““φοβεῖται μὴ . . . τὰ ἔσχατα πάθῃhe is afraid lest he suffer the severest punishmentX. C. 3.1.22, φροντίζω μὴ κράτιστον μοι σι_γᾶν I am thinking that it may prove (2228) best for me to be silent X. M. 4.2.39, ““ἔδεισαν οἱ Ελληνες μὴ προσάγοιεν πρὸς τὸ κέρας καὶ . . . αὐτοὺς κατακόψειανthe Greeks were seized with fear lest they might advance against their flank and cut them downX. A. 1.10.9, ““δέδιμεν μὴ οὐ βέβαιοι ἦτεwe fear you are not to be depended onT. 3.57, οὐ τοῦτο δέδοικα, μὴ οὐκ ἔχω τι δῶ ἑκάστῳ τῶν φίλων . . . ἀλλὰ μὴ οὐκ ἔχω ἱκανοὺς οἷς δῶ I am afraid not that I may not have enough (lit. anything) to give to each of my friends, but that I may not have enough friends on whom to bestow my gifts X. A. 1.7.7.

a. The aorist is very common after μή. After secondary tenses Hom. usually has the optative.

b. μὴ οὐ with the optative is rare and suspicious (X. A. 3.5.3).

2226. After secondary tenses, the subjunctive presents the fear vividly, i.e. as it was conceived by the subject. Cp. 2197.

ἐφοβοῦντο μή τι πάθῃ they feared lest she might (may) meet with some accident X. S. 2. 11, ἐφοβήθησαν μὴ καὶ ἐπὶ σφῖς στρατὸς χωρήσῃ they became fearful that the army might (may) advance against themselves too T. 2.101. So when the fear extends up to the present time: ““ἐφοβήθην . . . καὶ νῦν τεθορύβημαι μή τινες ὑ_μῶν ἀγνοήσωσί μεI was struck with fear and even now I am in a state of agitation lest some of you may disregard meAes. 2.4. The vivid use of subjunctive is common in the historians, especially Thucydides.

2227. The optative after a primary tense is rare and suspected (I 245, Hdt. 7.103, S. Aj. 279).

2228. The subjunctive and optative after μή (or ὅπως μή) may denote what may prove to be an object of fear (future ascertainment).

““δέδοικα μὴ ἄριστον I am afraid lest it prove to be bestS. Ant. 1114, ἔδεισαν μὴ λύττα τις . . . ἡμῖν ἐμπεπτώκοι they feared lest some madness might prove to have fallen upon us X. A. 5.7.26. The aorist subjunctive refers to the past in δείδοικα . . . μή σε παρείπῃ I fear it may prove that she beguiled thee A 555; cp. K 99, ν 216, ω 491 (after ὁρῶ).

2229. The future is rare with verbs of fearing after μή.

φοβοῦμαι δὲ μή τινας ἡδονὰ_ς ἡδοναῖς εὑρήσομεν ἐναντία_ς and I apprehend that we shall find some pleasures opposite to other pleasures P. Phil. 13a. So with verbs of caution: ““ὅρα_ μὴ πολλῶν ἑκάστῳ ἡμῶν χειρῶν δεήσειsee to it lest each one of us may have need of many handsX. C. 4.1.18.

a. The future optative seems not to occur except in X. H. 6.4.27, X. M. 1.2.7, P. Euth. 15d.

2230. ὅπως μή with the subjunctive or optative is sometimes used instead of μή after verbs of fear and caution to imply fear that something will happen.

οὐ φοβεῖ . . . ὅπως μὴ ἀνόσιον πρᾶγμα τυγχάνῃς πρά_ττων; are you not afraid that you may chance to be doing an unholy deed? P. Euth. 4e, ἡδέως γ᾽ ἄν (θρέψαιμι τὸν ἄνδρα), ““εἰ μὴ φοβοίμην ὅπως μὴ ἐπ᾽ αὐτόν με τράποιτοI should gladly keep the man if I did not fear lest he might turn against meX. M. 2.9.3; see also 2220 b.

2231. ὅπως μή with the future indicative (as after verbs of effort) is sometimes used instead of μή with the subjunctive.

δέδοικα ὅπως μὴ . . . ἀνάγκη γενήσεται (v. l. γένηται) I fear lest a necessity may arise D. 9.75. The future optative occurs once (I. 17.22). On μή or ὅπως μή with verbs of caution, see 2220 a.

2232. The potential optative with ἄν is rarely used after μή.

δεδιότες μὴ καταλυθείη ἂν (Mss. καταλυθείησαν) ““ δῆμοςfearful lest the people should be put downL. 13.51. The potential use is most evident when an optative occurs in the protasis: εἰ δέ τινες φοβοῦνται μὴ ματαία_ ἂν γένοιτο αὕτη κατασκευή, εἰ πόλεμος ἐγερθείη, ἐννοησάτω ὅτι κτλ. if some are afraid that this condition of things may prove vain, if war should arise, let them (him) consider that, etc. X. Vect. 4.41.


2233. Fear that something actually is or was is expressed by μή with the indicative (negative μὴ οὐ).

““δέδοικα . . . μὴ πληγῶν δέειI fear that you need a beatingAr. Nub. 493, ““ἀλλ᾽ ὅρα_ μὴ παίζων ἔλεγενbut have a care that he was not speaking in jestP. Th. 145b, ““φοβούμεθα μὴ ἀμφοτέρων ἅμα ἡμαρτήκαμενwe are afraid that we have failed of both objects at onceT. 3.53, ““ὁρᾶτε μὴ οὐκ ἐμοὶ . . . προσήκει λόγον δοῦναιhave a care lest it does not rest with me to give an accountAnd. 1.103.

a. Contrast φοβοῦμαι μὴ ἀληθές ἐστιν I fear that it is true with φοβοῦμαι μὴ ἀληθὲς I fear it may prove true (2228).

b. The aorist occurs in Homer: ““δείδω μὴ δὴ πάντα θεὰ_ νημερτέα εἶπενI fear that all the goddess said was trueε 300.


2234. In Indirect Questions.—Here the ideas of fear and doubt are joined. Thus, φόβος εἰ πείσω δέσποιναν ἐμήν (direct πείσω; 1916) I have my doubts whether I shall (can) persuade my mistress E. Med. 184, τὴν θεὸν δ᾽ ὅπως λάθω δέδοικα (direct πῶς λάθω; 1805) I am fearful how I shall escape the notice of the goddess E. I. T. 995, ““δέδοικα τι ἀποκρινοῦμαιI am afraid what to answerP. Th. 195c.

2235. In Indirect Discourse with ὡς (rarely ὅπως) that.—Verbs of fearing may have the construction of verbs of thinking and be followed by a dependent statement. This occurs regularly only when the expression of fear is negatived. Thus, ““ἀνδρὸς δὲ τῇ θυγατρὶ μὴ φοβοῦ ὡς ἀπορήσειςdo not fear that you will be at a loss for a husband for your daughterX. C. 5.2.12. Here μή or ὅπως μή would be regular. With ὡς the idea is fear, thinking that.

2236. With ὅτι (ὡς) Causal.—““ἐφοβεῖτο ὅτι ἀπὸ Διὸς . . . τὸ ὄναρ ἐδόκει αὐτῷ εἶναιhe was afraid because the dream seemed to him to be from ZeusX. A. 3.1.12.

2237. With a Causal Participle.—οὔτε τὴν ἀκρόπολιν . . . προδιδοὺς ἐφοβήθη nor was he terrified at having betrayed the Acropolis Lyc. 17.

2238. With the Infinitive.—Verbs of fearing often take an object infinitive (present, future or aorist) with or without the article; and with or without μή (2741). Thus, ““φοβήσεται ἀδικεῖνhe will be afraid to injureX. C. 8.7.15, ““οὐ φοβούμεθα ἐλασσώσεσθαιwe are not afraid that we shall be beatenT. 5.105 (the future infinitive is less common than μή with the subjunctive), φυλαττόμενος τὸ λυ_πῆσαί τινα ( = μὴ λυ_πήσω) taking care to offend no one D. 18.258, ἐφυλάξατο μὴ ἄπιστος γενέσθαι he took precautions not to become an object of distrust X. Ag. 8. 5.

a. With the articular infinitive, φοβοῦμαι, etc. means simply I fear; with the infinitive without the article, φοβοῦμαι commonly has the force of hesitate, feel repugnance, etc. Cp. φοβοῦμαι ἀδικεῖν and φοβοῦμαι μὴ ἀδικεῖν; I fear to do wrong (and do not do it); φοβοῦμαι τὸ ἀδικεῖν I fear wrong-doing (in general, by myself or by another), like φοβοῦμαι τὴν ἀδικία_ν.

2239. With ὥστε of Result (after a verb of caution).—ἢν οὖν ἔλθωμεν ἐπ᾽ αὐτοὺς πρὶν φυλάξασθαι ὥστε μὴ ληφθῆναι if then we move against them before they take precautions (so as) not to be caught X. A. 7.3.35.

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