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VARIATIONS FROM THE ORDINARY FORMS AND MEANINGS OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

MODIFICATIONS OF THE PROTASIS

2344. Substitutions for the Protasis.—For the protasis with εἰ there may be substituted a participle, often in the genitive absolute (2067, 2070), an adverb, a prepositional phrase, a relative clause (2560), or some other single word or phrase. The present participle represents the imperfect, as the perfect represents the pluperfect.

πῶς δῆτα δίκης οὔσης (= εἰ δίκη ἐστίν) Ζεὺς οὐκ ἀπόλωλεν τὸν πατέρ᾽ αὑτοῦ δήσα_ς; how, pray, if there is any justice, has Zeus not perished since he bound his own father? Ar. Nub. 904, οὐ γὰρ ἦν μοι δήπου βιωτὸν τοῦτο ποιήσαντα (= εἰ ἐποίησα) for of course life had not been worth living if I had done this D. 21.120, οὐ γὰρ ἂν ἐβλήθη ἀτρεμίζων καὶ μὴ διατρέχων (= εἰ ἠτρέμιζε καὶ μὴ διέτρεχε) for he would not have been hit if he had been keeping quiet and not running across Ant. 3. β. 5, δικαίως ἂν ἀπέθανον I should justly (i.e. if I had met with my deserts) have been put to death D. 18.209, ἐμοὶ δὲ ἀρκοῦν ἂν ἐδόκει εἶναι for myself (i.e. if I had to decide) it would seem to be sufficient T. 2.35, διά γε ὑ_μᾶς αὐτοὺς (= εἰ ὑ_μεῖς αὐτοὶ μόνοι ἦτε) ““πάλαι ἂν ἀπολώλειτεif you had been left to yourselves, you would have perished long agoD. 18.49, ὀλοῦμαι μὴ μαθών (= ἐὰ_ν μὴ μάθω) I shall be undone if I don't learn Ar. Nub. 792, νι_κῶντες (= εἰ νι_κῷεν) μὲν οὐδένα ἂν κατακάνοιεν, ἡττηθέντων (= εἰ ἡττηθεῖεν) ““οὐδεὶς ἂν λειφθείηshould they be victorious they would kill no one, but if defeated no one would be leftX. A. 3.1.2, οὕτω (= εἰ οὕτως ἔχοιεν) ““γὰρ πρὸς τὸ ἐπιέναι τοῖς ἐναντίοις εὐψυ_χότατοι ἂν εἶενfor thus they would be most courageous in regard to attacking the enemyT. 2.11, ““οὐδ᾽ ἂν δικαίως ἐς κακὸν πέσοιμί τιnor should I justly come to any troubleS. Ant. 240.

a. Sometimes the protasis has to be supplied from what precedes (example in 1825); or from a main clause with ἀλλά, which follows: οὐδέ κεν αὐτὸς ὑπέκφυγε κῆρα μέλαιναν: ἀλλ᾽ Ἥφαιστος ἔρυτο (= εἰ μὴ ἔρυτο) nor would he himself have escaped black fate; but Hephaestus guarded him E 23 (cp. X. A. 3.2.24-25).

2345. Verb of the Protasis Omitted.—The verb of the protasis is usually omitted when the apodosis has the same verb. The protasis is often introduced by εἴ τις, εἴ ποτε, εἴπερ (ποτέ).

εἴ τις καὶ ἄλλος ἀνήρ, καὶ Κῦρος ἄξιός ἐστι θαυμάζεσθαι if any other man (is worthy to be admired), Cyrus, too, is worthy to be admired X. C. 5.1.6, φημὶ δεῖν . . . τῷ πολέμῳ προσέχειν, εἴπερ ποτέ (ἔδει), καὶ νῦν I say that we must now, if ever, apply ourselves to the war D. 1.6.

2346. So with certain special phrases:

a. εἰ μή (if not) except: οὐ γὰρ . . . ὁρῶμεν εἰ μὴ ὀλίγους τούτους ἀνθρώπους for we do not see any except a few men yonder X. A. 4.7.5, ““οὐ γὰρ ἄν ποτε ἐξηῦρον ὀρθῶς τὰ μετέωρα πρά_γματα, εἰ μὴ κρεμάσα_ς τὸ νόημαfor I could never have discovered aright things celestial, except by suspending the intellectAr. Nub. 229. So ἐὰ_ν μή D. 24.45 (in a decree).

b. εἰ μὴ εἰ (if not if, unless if) except if: ἐπρά_χθη τε οὐδὲν ἀπ᾽ αὐτῶν ἔργον ἀξιόλογον, εἰ μὴ εἴ τι πρὸς τοὺς περιοίκους τοὺς αὐτῶν ἑκάστοις and nothing noteworthy was done on their part except it might be (lit. except if there was done) something between each of them and his neighbours T. 1.17. Here εἰ μὴ is adverbial.

c. εἰ μὴ διά (if not on account of) except for: (οὐ) Μιλτιάδην . . . εἰς τὸ βάραθρον ἐμβαλεῖν ἐψηφίσαντο, καὶ εἰ μὴ διὰ τὸν πρύτανιν, ἐνέπεσεν ἄν; did they not vote to throw Miltiades into the pit, and except for the prytan would he not have been thrown there? P. G. 516e. With εἰ μὴ διά the ellipsis (which was not conscious to the Greeks) is to be supplied by the negatived predicate of the main clause (here οὐκ ἐνέπεσεν).

d. εἰ δὲ μή (but if not = si minus, sin aliter) otherwise, in alternatives, introduces a supposition opposed to something just said: ἀπῄτει τὰ τῶν Καλχηδονίων χρήματα: εἰ δὲ μή, πολεμήσειν ἔφη αὐτοῖς he demanded back the property of the Calchedonians; otherwise (i.e. if they should not restore it: εἰ μὴ ἀποδοῖεν) he said that he should make war upon them X. H. 1.3.3.

N. 1.—εἰ δὲ μή often occurs even where the preceding clause is negative and we expect εἰ δέ, as ““μὴ ποιήσῃς ταῦτα: εἰ δὲ μὴ . . . αἰτία_ν ἕξειςdo not do this; but if you do, you will have the blameX. A. 7.1.8. Conversely εἰ δέ, where we expect εἰ δὲ μή, as εἰ μὲν βούλεται, ἑψέτω: εἰ δ᾽, τι βούλεται, τοῦτο ποιείτω if he wishes, let him boil me; otherwise, let him do whatever he wishes P. Eu. 285c.

N. 2.—εἰ δὲ μή is used where (after a preceding ἐά_ν) we expect ἐὰ_ν δὲ μή, as ἐὰ_ν μέν τι ὑ_μῖν δοκῶ ἀληθὲς λέγειν, ξυνομολογήσατε: εἰ δὲ μή, ἀντιτείνετε if I seem to you to speak the truth, agree with me; otherwise, oppose me P. Ph. 91c.

N. 3.—The verb of the apodosis of the first of the alternatives is often omitted: ἐὰ_ν μὲν ἑκὼν πείθηται (scil. καλῶς ἕξει): εἰ δὲ μὴ . . . εὐθύ_νουσιν ἀπειλαῖς if he willingly obeys (it will be well; otherwise they straighten him by threats P. Pr. 325d.

2347. On ὡς εἰ in comparative conditional clauses see 2484.

2348. In the Homeric εἰ δ᾽ ἄγε come now, well! εἰ probably has the force of an interjectional or demonstrative adverb (cp. Lat. eia age). Thus, εἰ δ᾽ ἄγε τοι κεφαλῇ κατανεύσομαι come now! I will nod assent to thee with my head A 524.

2349. Omission of the Protasis.—The potential optative, and the indicative, with ἄν stand in independent sentences; in many cases a protasis may be supplied either from the context or generally; in other cases there was probably no conscious ellipsis at all; and in others there was certainly no ellipsis. Cp. 1785, 1825.

ποῦ δῆτ᾽ ἂν εἶεν οἱ ξένοι; where, pray (should I inquire) would the strangers be found to be? S. El. 1450, ἀριθμὸν δὲ γράψαι . . . οὐκ ἂν ἐδυνάμην ἀκριβῶς but to give the number accurately I should not be able (if I were trying) T. 5.68, δεινὸν οὖν ἦν ψεύσασθαι it had been terrible to break my word (if it had been possible) D. 19.172.

MODIFICATIONS OF THE APODOSIS

2350. The apodosis may be expressed in a participle or infinitive with or without ἄν as the construction may require; cp. 1846, 1848.

αἰτεῖ αὐτὸν εἰς δισχι_λίους ξένους καὶ τριῶν μηνῶν μισθόν, ὡς οὕτως περιγενόμενος (= περιγενοίμην) ἂν τῶν ἀντιστασιωτῶν he asked him for pay for two thousand mercenaries and for three months, stating that thus he would get the better of his adversaries X. A. 1.1.10. (Here οὕτως represents the protasis, 2344.) οὐδενὸς ἀντειπόντος διὰ τὸ μὴ ἀνασχέσθαι ἂν τὴν ἐκκλησία_ν no one spoke in opposition because the assembly would not have suffered it (= εἰ ἀντεῖπε, οὐκ ἂν ἠνέσχετο ἐκκλησία_) X. H. 1.4.20, εἰ (Τεγέα_) ““σφίσι προσγένοιτο, νομίζοντες ἅπα_σαν ἂν ἔχειν Πελοπόννησονthey thought that, if Tegea too should come over to them, they would have the whole of the PeloponneseT. 5.32. See 2616.

2351. Verb of the Apodosis Omitted.—The verb of the apodosis is often omitted, and especially when the protasis has the same verb (cp. 2345). Here a potential optative with ἄν is represented by ἄν alone (1764 a, 1766 a). Thus, εἰ δή τῳ σοφώτερός του φαίην εἶναι, τούτῳ ἄν (φαίην εἶναι) if I should say that in any respect I am wiser than any one, (I should say) in this P. A. 29b. Also in other cases, as τί δῆτ᾽ ἄν (λέγοις), ἕτερον εἰ πύθοιο Σωκράτους φρόντισμα; what then would (you say), if you should hear another excogitation of Socrates? Ar. Nub. 154. On ὥσπερ εἰ, ὥσπερ ἂν εἰ, ὡς εἰ, see 1766 a, 2478, 2484.

2352. Omission of the Apodosis.—a. When the conclusion is it is well (καλῶς ἔχει) or the like, it is often omitted. So often when the second of alternative opposing suppositions is expressed by εἰ δὲ μή (2346 d, N. 3). Cp. “yet now, if thou wilt forgive this sin, —: and if not, blot me . . . out of thy book” (Exodus 32. 32).

b. When we should introduce the conclusion by know that or I tell you: εἰ καὶ οἴει με ἀδικοῦντά τι ἄγεσθαι, οὔτε ἔπαιον οὐδένα οὔτε ἔβαλλον if you possibly think that I was taken for some wrong-doing, know that I neither struck nor hit any one X. A. 6.6.27. Here the apodosis might be introduced by σκέψασθε, ἐνθυ_μήθητε, etc.

c. Sometimes when the protasis is merely parenthetical: ““ χρυ_σός, εἰ βούλοιο τἀ_ληθῆ λέγειν, ἔκτεινε τὸν ἐμὸν παῖδαit was the gold—wouldst thou only tell the truth—that slew my childE. Hec. 1206.

d. In passionate speech for rhetorical effect (aposiopēsis, 3015): εἴ περ γάρ κ᾽ ἐθέλῃσιν Ὀλύμπιος ἀστεροπητὴς ἐξ ἑδέων στυφελίξαι: γὰρ πολὺ φέρτατός ἐστιν for if indeed the Olympian lord of the lightning will to thrust us out from our habitations, thrust us he will; for he is by far the most powerful A 581.

e. There is properly no omission of an apodosis after clauses with εἰ, εἰ γάρ, εἴθε, etc., in wishes (see 1816). In such clauses it is often possible to find an apodosis in an appended final clause: ““ποτανὰ_ν εἴ μέ τις θεῶν κτίσαι, διπόταμον ἵνα πόλιν μόλωif only some one of the gods were to make me winged so that I might come to the city of twin rivers!E. Supp. 621.

PROTASIS AND APODOSIS COMBINED

2353. εἰ and ἄν both in Protasis.—The potential optative with ἄν or the unreal indicative with ἄν, standing as the apodosis in the conditional clause with εἰ, is the apodosis of another protasis expressed or understood.

a. Potential Optative.—ἀλλὰ μὴν εἴ γε μηδὲ δοῦλον ἀκρατῆ δεξαίμεθ᾽ ἄν, πῶς οὐκ ἄξιον αὐτόν γε φυλάξασθαι τοιοῦτον γενέσθαι; and yet indeed if we would not accept even a slave who was intemperate, how is it not right for a man (the master) to guard against becoming so himself? X. M. 1.5.3. Here δεξαίμεθα is the protasis with εἰ; and also, with ἄν, the apodosis to an understood protasis (e.g. if we should think of so doing). The verb of the protasis may be contained in a participle, as εἰ δὲ μηδεὶς ἂν ὑ_μῶν ἀξιώσειε ζῆν ἀποστερούμενος τῆς πατρίδος, προσήκει κτλ. but if no one of you should think life worth having if he were to be deprived of his country, it is right, etc. I. 6.25. Such clauses form simple present conditions (if it is true that we would accept, etc.). The verb following the compressed condition stands usually in the present, at times in the future, indicative. X. C. 3.3.55: θαυμάζοιμι ἂν . . . εἰ ἂν ὠφελήσειε is an exception.

b. Unreal Indicative.—εἰ τοίνυν τοῦτο ἰσχυ_ρὸν ἦν ἂν τούτῳ τεκμήριον . . ., κἀ_μοὶ γενέσθω τεκμήριον if then this would have been strong evidence for him (if he had been able to bring it forward), let it be evidence for me too D. 49.58. This is a present condition (if it is true that this would, etc.) except in so far as the unexpressed protasis refers to the past. Such conditions may also be past.

N. 1.—The real protasis is: if it is (or was) the case that something could now (or hereafter) be (or could have been), it follows that.

N. 2.—In some of these cases, εἰ has almost the force of ἐπεί since (D. 49.58).

2354. ει᾽, ἐά_ν, on the chance that.—εἰ or ἐά_ν may set forth the motive for the action or feeling expressed by the apodosis, and with the force of on the chance that, in case that, in the hope that, if haply.

After primary tenses in the apodosis, we have εἰ with the indicative or ἐά_ν (πως) with the subjunctive; after secondary tenses, εἰ with the optative or, occasionally, ἐά_ν (πως) with the subjunctive. Homer has sometimes the optative after primary tenses. The reference is to the future as in final clauses.

The protasis here depends, not on the apodosis proper, but on the idea of purpose or desire suggested by the thought. The accomplishment of the purpose may be desired or not desired, and by the subject either of the apodosis or of the protasis.

νῦν αὖτ᾽ ἐγχείῃ πειρήσομαι, αἴ κε τύχωμι but now I will make trial with my spear on the chance (in the hope) that I may hit thee E279, ἄκουσον καὶ ἐμοῦ, ἐά_ν σοι ἔτι ταὐτὰ δοκῇ listen to me too on the chance (in the hope) that you may still have the same opinion P. R. 358b, ““πορευόμενοι ἐς τὴν Ἀσία_ν ὡς βασιλέα_, εἴ πως πείσειαν αὐτόνgoing into Asia to the king in the hope that somehow they might persuade himT. 2.67, πρὸς τὴν πόλιν, εἰ ἐπιβοηθοῖεν, ἐχώρουν they advanced toward the city on the chance that they (the citizens) should make a sally 6. 100.

N.—This use is to be distinguished from that of εἰ ἄρα if perchance, εἰ μὴ ἄρα unless perchance (often ironical).

a. This construction should be distinguished from cases like ““ἐπιβουλεύουσιν . . . ἐξελθεῖν . . ., ἢν δύνωνται βιάσασθαιthey planned to get out, if they might make their way by forceT. 3.20, where we have implied indirect discourse (ἐξέλθωμεν, ἢν δυνώμεθα βιάσασθαι).

b. Homer uses this construction as an object clause in dependence on οἶδα, εἶδον, or on a verb of saying. Thus τίς δ᾽ οἶδ᾽, εἴ κέν οἱ σὺν δαίμονι θυ_μὸν ὀρί_νω παρειπών; who knows if, perchance, with God's help I may rouse his spirit by persuasion? O 403 (i.e. the chances of rousing his spirit, if haply I may), ἐνίσπες, εἴ πως . . . ὑπεκπροφύγοιμι Χάρυβδιν tell me if haply I shall (might) escape Charybdis μ 112. Here the apodosis is entirely suppressed. Observe that this construction is not an indirect question.

LESS USUAL COMBINATIONS OF COMPLETE PROTASIS AND APODOSIS

2355. In addition to the ordinary forms of correspondence between protasis and apodosis (2297), Greek shows many other combinations expressing distinct shades of feeling. Most of these combinations, though less frequent than the ordinary forms, are no less “regular.” Shift of mental attitude is a known fact of all speech, though the relation of cause to effect must not be obscured. A speaker or writer, having begun his sentence with a protasis of one type, may alter the course of his thought: with the result that he may conclude with an apodosis of another form, in some cases even with an apodosis “unsymmetrical” with the protasis and logically dependent upon a protasis that is only suggested by the form actually adopted. Since either protasis or apodosis may choose the form of expression best suited to the meaning, the student should beware of thinking that conditional sentences invariably follow a conventional pattern, departure from which is to be counted as violation of rule. Some combinations are less usual than others: most of the more common variations from the ordinary type have been mentioned under the appropriate sections, and are here summarized (2356-2358). Special cases are considered in 2359-2365.

2356. The optative with ἄν (the potential optative) may be used as the apodosis of

εἰ with the indicative in Simple Present and Past conditions (2300 e),

εἰ with the past indicative in Unreal conditions in Homer (rarely in Attic, 2312),

εἰ with the future indicative in Emotional Future conditions (2328),

εἰ with the optative in Less Vivid Future conditions (2329). In Present conditions (2353): εἰ λέγοιμ᾽ ἄν supposing I would say, whereas εἰ λέγοιμι means supposing I should say.

ἐά_ν with the subjunctive in More Vivid Future conditions (2326 d).

a. When the protasis is a future indicative or a subjunctive, the optative with ἄν sometimes seems to be merely a mild future and to have no potential force. Thus, ἢν οὖν μάθῃς μοι τὸν ἄδικον τοῦτον λόγον, οὐκ ἂν ἀποδοίην οὐδ᾽ ἂν ὀβολὸν οὐδενί if then you learn this unjust reason for me, I will not pay even an obol to anybody Ar. Nub. 116.

2357. The subjunctive of exhortation, prohibition, or deliberation, the optative of wish, and the imperative, may be used as the apodosis of

εἰ with the indicative in Simple Present and Past conditions (2300 c, d, f),

εἰ with the future indicative in Emotional Future conditions (2328),

ἐά_ν with the subjunctive in More Vivid Future conditions (2326 c-e).

2358. The unreal indicative with or without ἄν may be used as the apodosis of

a. εἰ with the indicative in Simple Present and Past conditions (2300 b). So after εἰ with the future denoting present intention or necessity that something shall be done (2301), as εἰ γὰρ γυναῖκες εἰς τόδ᾽ ἥξουσιν θράσους . . ., παρ᾽ οὐδὲν αυ<*>ταῖς ἦν ἂν ὀλλύναι πόσεις for if women are to reach this height of boldness, it would be as nothing for them to destroy their husbands E. Or. 566.

b. εἰ with the past indicative in Present and Past Unreal conditions (2302).

ei) with the Optative, Apodosis a primary tense of the Indicative, etc.

2359. εἰ with the optative (instead of ἐά_ν with the subjunctive) is not infrequent in the protasis with a primary tense of the indicative, a subjunctive, or an imperative, in the apodosis. The reference is usually either to general present time (with the present indicative), or to future time. When the apodosis contains a present indicative it frequently precedes the protasis.

a. Compare the analogous usage in English commonly with should, would: “There is some soul of goodness in things evil, would men observingly distil it” (Shakespeare). “If you should die, my death shall follow yours” (Dryden). “I shall scarcely figure in history, if under my guidance such visitations should accrue” (Disraeli). “If he should kill thee . . ., he has nothing to lose” (Sedley). “But if an happy soil should be withheld . . . think it not beneath thy toil” (Philips).

2360. Present Indicative.—a. In general statements and maxims. The apodosis is sometimes introduced by a verb requiring the infinitive.

““ἀνδρῶν γὰρ σωφρόνων μέν ἐστιν, εἰ μὴ ἀδικοῖντο, ἡσυχάζεινfor it is the part of prudent men to remain quiet if they should not be wrongedT. 1.120, εἴ τι τυγχάνοι κακόν, εἰς ὄμματ᾽ εὔνου φωτὸς ἐμβλέψαι γλυκύ (ἐστιν) if any ill betide, 'tis sweet to look into the face of a loyal friend E. Ion 731, τί δεῖ καλῆς γυναικός, εἰ μὴ τὰ_ς φρένας χρηστὰ_ς ἔχοι; what boots the beauty of a woman if she have not a mind that is chaste? E. fr. 212.

b. The present indicative sometimes has the force of an emphatic future. Thus, πάντ᾽ ἔχεις, εἴ σε τούτων μοῖρ᾽ ἐφίκοιτο καλῶν thou hast all things, should the portion of these honours come to thee Pindar, Isthm. 4 (5). 14. Present and future occur together in Ant. 4. α. 4.

c. Other examples of the present: Hom. I 318, α 414, ε 484, η5 1, θ 138, ξ 56; Hesiod Op. 692 (εἴ κε); Pind. Pyth. 1. 81, 8. 13, Isthm. 2. 33; Bacchylides 5. 187; Hdt. 1.32; S. Ant. 1032, O. T. 249; E. Hec. 786, fr. 212, 253 (v.l.); T. 2.39, 3. 9, 4. 59, 6. 86; X. C. 1.6.43, H. 6. 3. 5, 6. 5. 52, O. 1. 4, 1. 5; P. A. 19e, Cr. 46 b, Pr. 316 c, 329 a, b, L. 927 c; Isocr. 14. 39; D. 18.21, 20. 54, 20. 154, 24. 35; Antiphanes fr. 324.

2361. Future Indicative.—εἰ σώσαιμί σ᾽, εἴσῃ μοι χάριν; should I save thee, wilt thou be grateful to me? E. frag. 129, τί τῷ πλήθει περιγενήσεται εἰ ποιήσαιμεν ἐκεῖνοι προστάττουσιν; what profit will there be for the people, if we should do what they enjoin? L. 34.6.

a. Other examples: Hom. I 388, K 222, Υ 100 (B 488, ρ 539, ἄν (κέ) with fut. or subj.); Pind. Ol. 1.3. 105; S. O. T. 851; Ant. 4. α. 4; T. 1.121; P. Meno 80 d, Ph. 91 a, L. 658 c; Isocr. 2. 45, 9. 66; Aristotle, Nic. Eth. 1095 b. 6, 1100 b. 4; Lucian, Timon 15.

2362. Perfect Indicative (very rare).—εἰ . . . διδάξειεν ὡς οἱ θεοὶ ἅπαντες τὸν τοιοῦτον θάνατον ἡγοῦνται ἄδικον εἶναι, τί μᾶλλον ἐγὼ μεμάθηκα . . . τί ποτ᾽ ἐστὶν τὸ ὅσιον; if he should prove that all the gods consider such a death unjust, how have I learned anything more of the nature of piety? P. Euth. 9c.

2363. Subjunctive (very rare).—““εἰ δὲ βούλοιό γε, καὶ τὴν μαντικὴν εἶναι συγχωρήσωμεν ἐπιστήμην τοῦ μέλλοντος ἔσεσθαιbut if you will, let us agree that mantic too is a knowledge of the futureP. Charm. 173c. Cp. X. O. 8.10; Λ 386 (ἄν with subj.), Ψ 893, δ 388 (?).

2364. Imperative.—““εἴ τις τάδε παραβαίνοι . . ., ἐναγὴς ἔστωif any one transgresses these injunctions, let him be accursedAes. 3.110 (quoted from an ancient imprecation), ““τὸ μὲν δὴ ἀργύριον, εἰ μή τις ἐπίσταιτο αὐτῷ χρῆσθαι, οὕτω πόρρω ἀπωθείσθω ὥστε μηδὲ χρήματα εἶναιbut as regards money then, if a man does not know how to use it, let him remove it so far from his consideration as not to be regarded even as propertyX. O. 1.14. Cp. P. Hipp. M. 297e, L. 642 a.

2365. An unreal indicative in conjunction with εἰ and the optative is very rare.

εἰ μὲν γὰρ εἰς γυναῖκα σωφρονεστέρα_ν ξίφος μεθεῖμεν, δυσκλεὴς ἂν ἦν φόνος (for ἂν εἴη) for if we should draw the sword upon a purer woman, foul were the murder E. Or. 1132. Cp. L. 10.8, X. C. 2.1.9 (text doubtful) and X. Ven. 12.22, P. Alc. 1, 111 e, Lyc. 66.

TWO OR MORE PROTASES OR APODOSES IN ONE SENTENCE

2366. A conditional sentence may have several protases and one apodosis or one protasis and several apodoses. Two such protases or apodoses are coördinate or one of the two is subordinate to the other.

2367. Two coördinated protases with a single apodosis, or two coördinated apodoses with a single protasis, may refer to the same time or to different times.

εἰ δὲ μήτ᾽ ἔστι (τι βέλτι_ον) μήτ᾽ ἦν μήτ᾽ ἂν εἰπεῖν ἔχοι μηδεὶς μηδέπω καὶ τήμερον, τί τὸν σύμβουλον ἐχρῆν ποιεῖν; but if there neither is nor was any better plan, and if yet even to-day no one can suggest any, what was it the duty of the statesman to do? D. 18.190, καὶ γὰρ ἂν καὶ ὑπερφυὲς εἴη, εἰ κατὰ μὲν τῶν Ὀλυνθίους προδόντων πολλὰ καὶ δείν᾽ ἐψηφίσασθε, τοὺς δὲ παρ᾽ ὑ_μῖν αὐτοῖς ἀδικοῦντας μὴ κολάζοντες φαίνοισθε and in fact it would be actually monstrous if, whereas you have passed many severe votes against the betrayers of the Olynthians, you appear not to punish the wrongdoers in your midst D. 19.267, εἰ ἐγὼ ἐπεχείρησα πρά_ττειν τὰ πολι_τικὰ πρά_γματα, πάλαι ἂν ἀπολώλη καὶ οὔτ᾽ ἂν ὑ_μᾶς ὠφελήκη οὐδὲν οὔτ᾽ ἂν ἐμαυτόν if I had tried to engage in politics, I should have long ago perished and benefited neither you nor myself at all P. A. 31d.

2368. When two or more protases are not coördinated in the same sentence, one is of chief importance and any other protasis is subordinate to it. Such protases may follow each other or one may be added after the apodosis; and may show the same or a different modal form.

ἀξιοῦμεν, εἰ μέν τινα ὁρᾶτε σωτηρία_ν ἡμῖν (ἐσομένην), ἐὰ_ν διακαρτερῶμεν πολεμοῦντες, διδάξαι καὶ ἡμᾶς κτλ. if you see any safety for us if we persist in making war, we beg that you will inform us too what it is X. H. 7.4.8 (here ἐὰ_ν διακαρτερῶμεν depends on εἰ ὁρᾶτε); ἐὰ_ν δὲ ἡδέα πρὸς λυ_πηρά (ἱστῇς), ἐὰ_ν μὲν τὰ ἀνια_ρὰ ὑπερβάλληται ὑπὸ τῶν ἡδέων, ἐά_ν τε τὰ ἐγγὺς ὑπὸ τῶν πόρρω ἐά_ν τε τὰ πόρρω ὑπὸ τῶν ἐγγύς, ταύτην τὴν πρᾶξιν πρα_κτέον ἐν ἂν ταῦτ᾽ ἐνῇ: ἐὰ_ν δὲ τὰ ἡδέα ὑπὸ τῶν ἀνια_ρῶν, οὐ πρα_κτέα but if you weight pleasures against pains, if on the one hand what is painful is exceeded by what is pleasurable (whether the near by the distant or the distant by the near), you must adopt that course of action in which this is the case; if on the other hand the pleasurable (is exceeded) by the painful, the former must not be adopted P. Pr. 356b (here to ἐὰ_ν ἡδέα ἱστῇς are subordinated ἐὰ_ν μέν and ἐὰ_ν δέ, and to ἐὰ_ν μέν are subordinated ἐά_ν τε . . . ἐά_ν τε); εἰ δέ σε ἠρόμην ἐξ ἀρχῆς τί ἐστι καλόν τε καὶ αἰσχρόν, εἴ μοι ἅπερ νῦν ἀπεκρί_νω, ἆρ᾽ οὐκ ἂν ὀρθῶς ἀπεκέκρισο; but if I had asked you at the start what beauty and ugliness is—if you had answered me as you have now done, would you not have answered me rightly? P. Hipp. M. 289c; ““ἢν μὲν πόλεμον αἱρῆσθε, μηκέτι ἥκετε δεῦρο ἄνευ ὅπλων, εἰ σωφρονεῖτεif you choose war, come no more hither without arms if you are wiseX. C. 3.2.13, εἰ μετὰ Θηβαίων ἡμῖν ἀγωνιζομένοις οὕτως εἵμαρτο πρᾶξαι, τί χρῆν προσδοκᾶν εἰ μηδὲ τούτους ἔσχομεν συμμάχους ἀλλὰ Φιλίππῳ προσέθεντο; if it was decreed by fate that we should fare thus with the Thebans fighting on our side, what ought we to have expected if we had not even secured them as allies but they had joined Philip? D. 18.195.

a. A second protasis may be added to the first protasis to explain or define it. Thus, καὶ οὐ τοῦτο λέξων ἔρχομαι ὡς πολὺ μὲν ἐλά_ττους πολὺ δὲ χείρονας ἔχων ὅμως συνέβαλεν: εἰ γὰρ ταῦτα λέγοιμι, Ἀ_γησίλα_όν τ᾽ ἄν μοι δοκῶ ἄφρονα ἀποφαίνειν καὶ ἐμαυτὸν μῶρον, εἰ ἐπαινοίην τὸν περὶ τῶν μεγίστων εἰκῇ κινδυ_νεύοντα and I am not going to say that he made the engagement in spite of having much fewer and inferior troops; for if I should maintain this, I think that I should be proving Agesilaus senseless and myself a fool, if I should praise the man who rashly incurs danger when the greatest interests are at stake X. Ag. 2. 7.

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