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CONCESSIVE CLAUSES

2369. Concessive clauses are commonly formed by καί in conjunction with the εἰ or ἐά_ν of conditional clauses: καὶ εἰ (κει᾽), καὶ ἐά_ν (κἄ_ν) even if, εἰ καί, ἐὰ_ν καί although.

2370. Such concessive clauses are conditional, but indicate that the condition which they introduce may be granted without destroying the conclusion. The apodosis of concessive clauses thus has an adversative meaning, i.e. it states what is regarded as true notwithstanding (ὅμως) what is assumed in the protasis.

2371. Concessive clauses have the construction of conditional clauses. The protasis, if negative, takes μή.

2372. καὶ εἰ (even if) clauses.—καὶ εἰ commonly implies that the conclusion must be true or must take place even in the extreme, scarcely conceivable, case which these words introduce (even supposing that, even in the case that). In such cases the speaker does not grant that the alleged condition really exists. On κἂ_ν εἰ see 1766 b.

κει᾽ μὴ πέποιθα, τοὖργον ἔστ᾽ ἐργαστέον even if I have no confidence, yet the deed must be done A. Ch. 296, καὶ ἐὰ_ν μὴ ἡμεῖς παρακελευώμεθα, ( πόλις), ἱκανῶς ἐπιμελήσεται and even if we do not use exhortations, the city will take sufficient care P. Menex. 248d, γελᾷ δ᾽ μῶρος, κἄ_ν τι μὴ γελοῖον η<*> the fool laughs even if there is nothing to laugh at Men. Sent. 108, ““Μυ_σοῖς βασιλεὺς πολλοὺς μὲν ἡγεμόνας ἂν δοίη . . ., καὶ εἰ σὺν τεθρίπποις βούλοιντο ἀπιέναιthe king would give many guides to the Mysians even supposing they should want to depart with four-horse chariotsX. A. 3.2.24.

2373. The καί of καὶ εἰ may mean simply and, as ““κει᾽ τάδ᾽ εἴσεται Κρέωνand if Creon learns thisS. Ant. 229.

2374. Some scholars hold that the difference between καὶ εἰ and εἰ καί is that καὶ εἰ concedes a supposition and is used of an assumed fact, while εἰ καί concedes a fact and is used of an actual fact. But this distinction cannot be supported. καὶ εἰ sometimes differs from εἰ καὶ only in being more emphatic. When an actual fact is referred to, we expect εἰ καί; but καὶ εἰ sometimes occurs, as ἴσως τοι, κει᾽ βλέποντα μὴ ᾿πόθουν, θανόντ᾽ ἂν οἰμώξειαν perhaps, though they did not miss him when alive, they will lament him now that he is dead S. Aj. 962, cp. πειστέον, κει᾽ μηδὲν ἡδύ although it is in no wise sweet, I must obey S. O. T. 1516.

2375. ει᾽ καί (although) clauses.—εἰ καί commonly admits that a condition exists (granting that), but does not regard it as a hindrance. The condition, though it exists, is a matter of no moment so far as the statement in the principal clause is concerned.

““εἰ καὶ τυραννεῖςking though thou artS. O. T. 408, ““πόλιν μέν, εἰ καὶ μὴ βλέπεις, φρονεῖς δ᾽ ὅμως οἵᾳ νόσῳ σύνεστινthough thou canst not see, thou yet dost feel with what a plague our city is afflictedS. O. T. 302, ““εἰ καί τῳ σμι_κρότερον δοκεῖ εἶναιalthough it seems too unimportant to someP. Lach. 182c.

2376. The verb is omitted in ““εἰ καὶ γελοιότερον εἰπεῖνthough the expression be ridiculousP. A. 30c (cp. 944).

2377. The καί of εἰ καί may go closely with a following word. Here the meaning is either also or indeed; as εἰ καὶ δυνήσει γε if thou shalt also be able (besides having the will) S. Ant. 90, δεινόν γ᾽ εἶπας, εἰ καὶ ζῇς θανών a strange thing truly hast thou uttered, if, though slain, thou indeed livest S. Aj. 1127. Where trajection is assumed (εἰ μὴ καί for εἰ καὶ μή) the καί is intensive, as εἰ μὴ καὶ νῦν . . . ἀλλά if not already . . . at least T. 2.11. 6, εἰ μὴ καὶ δέδρα_κεν unless he has actually done it 6. 60. 3.

2378. εἰ (ἐὰ_ν) καί not infrequently means even if in prose as well as poetry.

““εἵλετο μᾶλλον συνειδέναι ὑ_μᾶς, ἵν᾽, εἰ καὶ βούλοιτο κακὸς εἶναι, μὴ ἐξείη αὐτῷhe preferred rather that you should know of it, in order that, even if he should wish to be base, it might not be possibleL. 20.23, ““ἀλλ᾽ ει᾽ καὶ μηδὲν τούτων ὑπῆρχεν ἡμῖν, οὐδ᾽ ὣς χαλεπόν ἐστι γνῶναι περὶ αὐτῶν ὁπότεροι τἀ_ληθῆ λέγουσινbut even if I had none of these points to rely on, even so it is not difficult to find out which tells the truthD. 41.15. Cp. also Ant. 5.27, And. 1.21, L. 31.20; Is. 11.23, D. 16.24, Aes. 3.211. εἰ καί for καὶ εἰ is especially common in Isocrates, who does not use καὶ εἰ or κει᾽ except in 21. 11. Demosthenes is not fond of καὶ εἰ, and often substitutes κἂ_ν εἰ for it (19. 282, 24. 109, 45. 12). Cp. 1766 b.

2379. εἰ (ἐά_ν) sometimes has a concessive force (X. Eq. 1.17). εἴπερ (ἐά_νπερ) has, rarely in Attic, a sort of concessive meaning (P. Euth. 4b), and especially when the truth of a statement is implicitly denied or doubted. Cp. L. 16.8.

2380. ἐπεί, usually with a following γέ, is sometimes translated although, where a speaker is strictly giving the reason for his statement of a fact (or for something in that statement) and not for the fact itself. Here there is a thought in the speaker's mind which is suppressed. Thus, αἰσχυ_νοίμην ἂν ἔγωγε τοῦτο ὁμολογεῖν, ἐπεὶ πολλοί γέ φα_σι τῶν ἀνθρώπων for my part I should be ashamed to acknowledge this (and I say this for myself) since there are many men who do assert it P. Pr. 333c.

2381. Negative concessive clauses have οὐδ᾽ (μηδ᾽) εἰ or ἐά_ν not even if. Here not (οὐ-, μη-) belongs to the leading clause, while even (-δέ, cp. καί) belongs to the dependent clause. The negative is frequently repeated in the leading clause.

““οὐδ᾽ ει᾽ πάντες ἔλθοιεν Πέρσαι, πλήθει οὐχ ὑπερβαλοίμεθ᾽ ἂν τοὺς πολεμίουςeven if all the Persians should come, we should not exceed the enemy in numbersX. C. 2.1.8, μὴ θορυβήσητε, μηδ᾽ ἐὰ_ν δόξω τι ὑ_μῖν μέγα λέγειν do not raise a disturbance, even if I seem to you to be speaking presumptuously P. A. 20e. Cp. 2382.

2382. The idea of concession or opposition is often expressed by the participle alone (2066) or by the participle with καίπερ or καὶ ταῦτα (2083). The negative is οὐ. In negative concessive sentences we find also the participle with οὐδέ (μηδέ), οὐδέ (μηδέ) περ.

““οὐδὲ πεπονθὼς κακῶς ἐχθρὸν εἶναί μοι τοῦτον ὁμολογῶnot even though I have been ill-treated do I admit that he is my enemyD. 21.205, γυναικὶ πείθου μηδὲ τἀ_ληθῆ κλύων listen to a woman, even if thou dost not hear the truth E. fr. 440.

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