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CLAUSES OF COMPARISON

2462. Clauses of comparison (as clauses) measure an act or state qualitatively or quantitatively with reference to an act or state in the leading clause.

a. Comparative clauses with than are used in disjunctive coördinated sentences. See under Particles (2863).

2463. Comparative clauses of quality or manner are introduced by ὡς as, ὥσπερ, καθάπερ just as, ὅπως, , ὅπῃ, ᾗπερ as. The principal clause may contain a demonstrative adverb (οὕτως, ὧδε so). ὥσπερ may be correlated with αὐτός.

ὡς, etc., are here properly conjunctive relative adverbs of manner, some uses of which fall under conditional relative clauses.

a. Other comparative conjunctive adverbs are ὥστε as (poetic and Ionic), ἠΰτε, εὖτε as, like as (Epic). Demonstrative adverbs in Epic are ὥς, τώς, τοίως, αὔτως, ὡσαύτως.

b. On other uses of ὡς, etc., see under Particles (2990 ff.). On ὡς, ὥσπερ with a participle, see 2086, 2087.

2464. The verb of the comparative clause is commonly omitted if it is the same as the verb of the leading clause. Thus, ἐὰ_ν σοὶ ξυνδοκῇ ὥσπερ ἐμοί if it seems good also to you as (it seems) to me P. Ph. 100c.

2465. The subject of a comparative clause with ὡς or ὥσπερ, the verb of which is omitted, is often attracted into the case (usually the accusative) of the other member of the comparison. Thus, οὐδαμοῦ γὰρ ἔστιν Ἀγόρατον Ἀθηναῖον εἶναι ὥσπερ Θρασύβουλον it is in no wise possible for Agoratus to be an Athenian as Thrasybulus is ( = Θρασύβουλος Ἀθηναῖός ἐστι) L. 13.72. Attraction into the dative is less common: Κύ_ρῳ ἥδετο . . . ὥσπερ σκύλακι γενναίῳ ἀνακλάζοντι he was delighted with Cyrus, who set up a cry like a young and noble dog ( = σκύλαξ γενναῖος ἀνακλάζει) X. C. 1.4.15.

a. Usually, however, we have the nominative with the verb omitted: πέπεισμαί σε μᾶλλον ἀποθανεῖν ἂν ἑλέσθαι ζῆν ὥσπερ ἐγώ I am persuaded that you would prefer to die rather than live as I live X. M. 1.6.4.

2466. Comparative clauses of quality are often fused with the leading clause by the omission of the preposition in the correlated member of the comparison, but only when ὡς precedes. Cp. 1673.

2467. The antecedent clause may contain a wish: οὕτω (ὥς) . . . ὡς (which may be omitted); as οὕτω νι_κήσαιμί τ᾽ ἐγὼ καὶ νομιζοίμην σοφός, ὡς ὑ_μᾶς ἡγούμενος εἶναι θεα_τὰ_ς δεξιοὺς . . . πρώτους ἠξίωσ᾽ ἀναγεῦσ᾽ ὑ_μᾶς as surely as I thought it proper to let you first taste this comedy because I thought you were clever spectators, so surely may I win and be accounted a master Ar. Nub. 520. Cp. N 825, Ar. Thesm. 469.

2468. Comparative clauses of quantity or degree are introduced by ὅσῳ, ὅσον in proportion as. The principal clause usually contains the corresponding demonstratives τοσούτῳ, τοσοῦτον (τόσῳ, τόσον are usually poetic).

a. Greek, like Latin, uses the adjective relative pronoun ὅσος (quantus) in the subordinate clause in correlation to τοσοῦτος agreeing with a substantive. Here English uses the conjunctive adverb as. So with τοιοῦτος . . . οἷος.— τοσούτῳ, τοσοῦτον may be followed by ὡς, ὥστε.

2469. τοσοῦτον . . . ὅσον or ὅσον . . . τοσοῦτον denotes that the action of the main clause takes place in the same degree as the action of the subordinate clause. ὅσῳ . . . τοσούτῳ with a comparative or superlative adjective or adverb is equivalent to the more . . . the more, the less . . . the less.

2470. The demonstrative antecedent may be omitted, especially when its clause precedes: ““καὶ χαλεπώτεροι ἔσονται ὅσῳ νεώτεροί εἰσινand they will be the more severe the younger they areP. A. 39d.

2471. One member may contain a comparative, the other a superlative; as ὅσῳ γὰρ ἑτοιμότατ᾽ αὐτῷ (τῷ λόγῳ) ““δοκοῦμεν χρῆσθαι, τοσούτῳ μᾶλλον ἀπιστοῦσι πάντες αὐτῷfor the more we are thought to excel all others in ability to speak, so much the more do all distrust itD. 2.12.

2472. ὅσῳ (ὅσον) may be used without a comparative or superlative when the correlative clause has a comparative or superlative with or without τοσούτῳ (τοσοῦτον). Thus, ὥσπερ ἐν ἵπποις, οὕτω καὶ ἐν ἀνθρώποις τισὶν ἐγγίγνεται, ὅσῳ ἂν ἔκπλεα τὰ δέοντα ἔχωσι, τοσούτῳ ὑβριστέροις εἶναι as it is in the nature of horses, so it is in the case of certain men: in so far as they have their wants satisfied, the more they are wanton X. Hi. 10.2. ὅσῳ may stand for the logical ὅτι in ““τοσούτῳ Σύρων κακί_ων ἐγένετο, ὅσῳ Σύροι ἔφυγονhe proved himself a greater coward than the Syrians all the more because they fledX. C. 6.2.19.

2473. The correlated clauses may be fused when both ὅσῳ (ὅσον) and τοσούτῳ (τοσοῦτον) are omitted and the predicate of the subordinate clause is a comparative or superlative with a form of εἶναι. Thus, ““ἐνδεεστέροις γὰρ οὖσι ταπεινοτέροις αὐτοῖς οἴονται χρῆσθαιfor the more indigent they are so much the more submissive do they expect to find themX. Hi. 5.4 ( = ὅσῳ ἐνδεέστεροί εἰσι, τοσούτῳ ταπεινοτέροις).


EXAMPLES OF COMPARATIVE CLAUSES

2474. The moods in comparative clauses are used with the same meaning as in conditional clauses or other conditional relative clauses.

2475. Indicative: in assertions and statements of fact: ““ἔρξον ὅπως ἐθέλειςdo as thou wiltΔ 37, ““ὡς δὲ πρὸς τὴν οὐσία_ν ἥρμοττεν, οὕτως ἑκάστοις προσέταττονbut as was suitable to their property, so they gave directions to eachI. 7.44, ““ἔστιν γὰρ οὕτως ὥσπερ οὗτος ἐννέπειfor it is so even as he saysS. Tr. 475, ““ὅσον αἱ κατὰ τὸ σῶμα ἡδοναὶ ἀπομαραίνονται, τοσοῦτον αὔξονται αἱ περὶ τοὺς λόγους ἐπιθυ_μίαιin proportion as the pleasures of the body wane the appetite for philosophical conversation increasesP. R. 328d, ““ἧκεν ἄγων στρατιὰ_ν ὅσην πλείστην ἐδύνατοhe came with an army as large as possibleT. 7.21 (cp. 1087).

a. With ἄν and the potential or unreal indicative: εἰσπηδήσαντες . . . θᾶττον ὡς τις ἂν ᾤετο jumping in quicker than (as) one could think X. A. 1.5.8, ὥσπερ οὖν, εἰ ἀληθῆ ἦν ταῦτα μου κατηγόρησαν, ἐμοὶ ἂν ὠργίζεσθε . . ., οὕτως ἀξιῶ κτλ. for just as you would be angry with me if their accusations against me were true, so I beg, etc. And. 1.24.

2476. Subjunctive with ἄν.—a. Of future time, as ἀλλ᾽ ἄγεθ᾽, ὡς ἂν ἐγὼ εἴπω, πειθώμεθα but come, as I shall direct, let us obey B 139, ““ὅπως γὰρ ἂν τοὺς ἄλλους πρὸς σαυτὸν διαθῇς, οὕτω καὶ σὺ πρὸς ἐκείνους ἕξειςfor as you dispose others towards yourself, so you too will feel towards themI. 2.23, ““τοῖς αὐτοῖς ἐνεχέσθω καθάπερ ἂν τὸν᾽ Αθηναῖον ἀποκτείνῃlet him be subject to the same penalties just as if he kills the AthenianD. 23.41, ἐν τοῖς ἀργυρείοις ὅσῳπερ ἂν πλείους ἐργάζωνται, τόσῳ πλείονα τἀ_γαθὰ εὑρήσουσι in silver mines the larger the number who coöperate, so much the more abundant will be the riches they find X. Vect. 4.32, οὐκοῦν ὅσῳ ἄν τις μείζω ἀγαθὰ παθὼν μὴ ἀποδιδῷ χάριν, τοσούτῳ ἀδικώτερος ἂν εἴη; then will he be the more unjust in proportion to the greatness of the benefits he has received and for which he does not return proper gratitude? X. M. 2.2.3 (cp. 2326 d).

b. Of present time, as in general conditions: ““τὸ μὲν γὰρ πέρας, ὡς ἂν δαίμων βουληθῇ, πάντων γίγνεταιfor the end of all events happens as God willsD. 18.92, τοσούτῳ χαλεπώτερον ἀκούειν τῶν λεγομένων, ὅσῳ περ ἂν αὐτῶν τις ἀκριβέστερον ἐξετάζῃ τὰ_ς ἁμαρτία_ς it is the more difficult for them to pay heed to what is said in proportion to the precision with which their errors are scrutinized I. 11.3.

2477. Optative.—a. With ἄν (potential): ““ἔστι μείζω τἀ_κείνων ἔργα ὡς τῷ λόγῳ τις ἂν εἴποιtheir deeds are too great for any one to tell in wordsD. 6.11, ““ὥσπερ αὐτοὶ οὐκ ἂν ἀξιώσαιτε κακῶς ἀκούειν ὑπὸ τῶν ὑ_μετέρων παίδων, οὕτω μηδὲ τούτῳ ἐπίτρεπε περὶ τοῦ πατρὸς βλασφημεῖνjust as you yourselves would not think it right to be ill spoken of by your children, even so do not permit him either to utter slanders about his fatherD. 40.45.

b. With ἄν, as in less vivid future conditions: ὅσῳ δὲ πρεσβύτερος γίγνοιτο, μᾶλλον ἀεὶ ἀσπάζοιτο ἂν (χρήματα) the older he grows, the more he would always respect wealth P. R. 549b.

c. The optative without ἄν in indirect discourse may represent ἄν with the subjunctive of direct discourse; as νομίζων, ὅσῳ μὲν θᾶττον ἔλθοι, τοσούτῳ ἀπαρασκευαστοτέρῳ βασιλεῖ μαχεῖσθαι, ὅσῳ δὲ σχολαιότερον, τοσούτῳ πλέον συναγείρεσθαι βασιλεῖ στράτευμα in the belief that, the more quickly he advanced, the more unprepared for battle would the king be, while the slower he advanced, the greater would be the army that was collecting for the king X. A. 1.5.9 (direct = ὅσῳ ἂν θᾶττον ἔλθω . . . μαχοῦμαι, ὅσῳ ἂν σχολ. ἔλθω τοσούτῳ πλέον συναγείρεται).

d. Without ἄν, of past time, as in general conditions. Thus, ξυνετίθεσαν ὡς ἕκαστόν τι ξυμβαίνοι they put the stones together as each happened to fit T. 4.4.— Also after a present tense: εἰκῆ κράτιστον ζῆν, ὅπως δύναιτό τις 'tis best to live at hazard, as one may S. O. T. 979 (cp. 2573).

2478. ὥσπερ εἰ (ὡσπερεί), ὥσπερ ἂν εἰ (ὡσπερανεί) just as if ( = just as would be the case, if) form a combination of a comparison and a condition, and are used with the indicative imperfect (of past time) or aorist or with the optative (commonly when τὶς is the subject). ὥσπερ (ἄν) here represents the suppressed apodosis to the condition with εἰ. In some cases the ellipsis may easily be supplied, but it was usually unconscious.

a. When ὥσπερ ἄν has its own verb it is used like for instance, as ὥσπερ ἄν (1766 a), εἴ τίς με ἔροιτο . . ., εἴποιμ᾽ ἄν for instance, if any one were to ask me, I should say P. G. 451a.

b. With ὥσπερ εἰ, ὥσπερ ἂν εἰ cp. καθάπερ εἰ, καθάπερ ἂν εἰ.

2479. ὥσπερ εἰ: θαυμάζω δέ σε . . . ἀλλόθρουν πόλιν κυρεῖν λέγουσαν, ὥσπερ εἰ παρεστάτεις but I marvel that of a city speaking another tongue thou dost as truly tell as (thou wouldst tell) if thou hadst always been dwelling therein A. Ag. 1201.

2480. ὥσπερ ἂν εἰ is more common than ὥσπερ εἰ. Thus, πρὸς μόνους τοὺς προγόνους τοὺς ἡμετέρους συμβαλόντες ὁμοίως διεφθάρησαν, ὥσπερ ἂν (διεφθάρησαν) εἰ πρὸς ἅπαντας ἀνθρώπους ἐπολέμησαν in contending against our ancestors alone they were destroyed as completely as if they had waged war against all mankind I. 4.69, ὅμοια γάρ μοι δοκοῦσι πάσχειν ὥσπερ (ἄν τις πάσχοι) ““εἴ τις πολλὰ ἐσθίων μηδέποτε ἐμπίπλαιτοfor they seem to me to be in the same condition as if any one for all his eating were never to be filledX. S. 4. 37, ἠσπάζετο αὐτὸν ὥσπερ ἂν (ἀσπάζοιτο) ““εἴ τις . . . πάλαι φιλῶν ἀσπάζοιτοhe greeted him as one would do who had long loved himX. C. 1.3.2.

a. With a participle ὥσπερ ἂν εἰ is sometimes used with much the same force as ὥσπερ, the εἰ being added by a confusion of constructions. Thus, ““ὥσπερ ἂν εἰ καὶ κατακλυσμὸν γεγενῆσθαι τῶν πρα_γμάτων ἡγούμενοιas if you believed that there had been also a revolution in politicsD. 18.214: lit. as (you would think) if you believed (for ὥσπερ ἂν ἡγούμενοι or ὥσπερ ἂν εἰ ἡγεῖσθε). Cp. 1766 a. Similarly ὥσπερ εἰ has virtually the force of ὥσπερ alone (2087).


SIMILES AND COMPARISONS

2481. ὡς, ὡς εἰ, ὡς εἴ τε as if, ὡς ὅτε, ὡς ὁπότε as when are often used in poetry in similes and comparisons.

a. The present and aorist indicative and subjunctive (usually without ἄν) are regularly used. The optative occurs only with ὡς εἰ or ὡς εἴ τε. The verb of the apodosis may sometimes be supplied from the main clause, and the sense may be satisfied in other cases by supplying as happens, as is the case; but as early as Homer the ellipsis was probably unconscious, as it is in English as if, as when. Hence ὡς εἰ, ὡς ὅτε are scarcely to be distinguished from ὡς.

b. The tense of the main clause may be primary or secondary without influence on the construction. Cp. 1935 and 1935 a.

2482. ὡς (ὥς τε) is followed by the indicative present (less often aorist) or by the subjunctive. Thus, ““ὡς δὲ πατὴρ οὗ παιδὸς ὀδύ_ρεται ὀστέα καίων . . . , ὣς Ἀχιλεὺς ἑτάροιο ὀδύ_ρετο ὀστέα καίωνand as a father waileth when he burneth the bones of his son, so Achilles wailed as he burned the bones of his comradeΨ 222.

2483. ὡς is common in Homer with the subjunctive (without ἄν) depending on the verb of the introductory clause, which is usually past. The simile may begin with ὡς or with a demonstrative (οἱ or τούς) after which ὥς τε is placed. Thus, ὡς δὲ λέων μήλοισιν ἀσημάντοισιν ἐπελθών . . . κακὰ φρονέων ἐνορούσῃ, ὣς μὲν Θρήικας ἄνδρας ἐπῴχετο Τυ_δέος υἱός and as a lion, coming on flocks without a shepherd, with evil purpose leaps upon them, so the son of Tydeus attacked the men of Thrace K 485, οἱ δ᾽, ὥς τ᾽ αἰγυπιοὶ . . . πέτρῃ ἐφ᾽ ὑψηλῇ μεγάλα κλάζοντε μάχωνται, ὣς οἱ κεκλήγοντες ἐπ᾽ ἀλλήλοισιν ὄρουσαν and they, like vultures who contend with loud screams on a lofty cliff, even so they rushed screaming against each other II 429. After the subjunctive with ὡς or ὡς ὅτε an independent indicative may follow (M 167, II 296).

2484. ὡς εἰ, commonly ὡς εἴ τε, in Homer is used rarely with the indicative and subjunctive, more frequently with the optative; but usually without any finite verb. Thus, λα_οὶ ἕπονθ᾽ ὡς εἴ τε μετὰ κτίλον ἕσπετο μῆλα the soldiers followed as sheep follow after the ram N 492 (the only occurrence in Homer of the indicative), καί με φίλησ᾽ ὡς εἴ τε πατὴρ δ̀ν παῖδα φιλήσῃ and he loved me as a father loveth his son I 481 (the only occurrence in Homer of the subjunctive), δόκησε δ᾽ ἄρα σφίσι θυ_μὸς ὣς ἔμεν, ὡς εἰ πατρίδ᾽ ἱκοίατο and their feeling seemed to be as (it would be) if they had come to their own country κ 416 (the optative occurs only after a past tense, except Λ 389, a negative present); τὼ δέ οἱ ὄσσε λαμπέσθην ὡς εἴ τε πυρὸς σέλας and his eyes flashed like gleaming fire T 366.

2485. Attic poetry does not use the Epic and Lyric ὡς εἴ τε for ὡς εἰ. In Attic ὡς εἰ (ὡσεί) is practically equivalent to ὡς as, like; thus, ““ἀλλ᾽ οὖν εὐνοίᾳ γ᾽ αὐδῶ, μά_τηρ ὡσεί τις πιστά_but at any rate I speak in good-will at least as some faithful motherS. El. 234.

2486. ὡς ὅτε, ὡς ὁπότε are used with the indicative (present or aorist) or the subjunctive (as in general conditions). With the subjunctive ἄν is generally absent in Homer; but ὡς δ᾽ ὅτ᾽ ἄν (never κέν) occurs. The clause with ὡς ὅτε, ὡς ὁπότε generally precedes the main clause. ὡς ὅτε without appreciable difference from ὡς in Ἐριφύλα_ν, ὅρκιον ὡς ὅτε πιστόν, δόντες Οἰκλείδᾳ γυναῖκα having given to the son of Oecles Eriphyle to wife, as a sure pledge Pind. Nem. 9. 16.

2487. A relative pronoun referring to a substantive accompanied by ὥς, ὥστε as often takes the subjunctive (without ἄν). Thus, ““ δ᾽ ἐν κονίῃσι χαμαὶ πέσεν αἴγειρος ὥς, ῥά τ᾽ ἐν εἱαμενῇ ἕλεος μεγάλοιο πεφύ_κῃ λείηand he fell to the ground amid the dust like a poplar that has grown up smooth in the lowland of a great marshΔ 483.

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