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THE USE OF THE MOODS IN CERTAIN RELATIVE CLAUSES

2546. An extension of the deliberative subjunctive not infrequently occurs in relative clauses after such expressions as οὐκ ἔχω, οὐκ ἔστι, etc., which usually denote baffled will, the existence of an obstacle to carrying out an act desired by the speaker or some one else. The subjunctive is much less common after the positive ἔχω I have the means. The pronoun or adverb introducing such clause is an interrogative that has taken on the function of a relative.

2547. The subjunctive here follows primary tenses; the optative follows secondary tenses.

a. οὐ τοῦτο δέδοικα μὴ οὐκ ἔχω τι δῶ ἑκάστῳ τῶν φίλων . . ., ἀλλὰ μὴ οὐκ ἔχω ἱκανοὺς οἷς δῶ I do not fear that I shall not have something to give to each of my friends, but that I shall not have enough friends to give to X. A. 1.7.7, οὐχ ἕξουσιν ἐκεῖνοι ὅποι φύγωσιν they will not have any place whither to escape 2. 4. 20, ““οὐκέτ᾽ εἰσὶν ἐλπίδες ὅποι τραπόμενος θάνατον . . . φύγωI have no longer any hopes to which I may turn and escape deathE. Or. 722, ““ἕξει τι λέγῃhe will be able to say somethingL. 6.42.

b. ““οὐδένα γὰρ εἶχον ὅστις . . . τὰ_ς ἐμὰ_ς ἐπιστολὰ_ς πέμψειεfor I had no one to bring my letterE. I. T. 588.

c. Attic never, or rarely, has the positive forms ἔχω τι ἄν, ἔστιν δ̀ς ἄν (K 170), πέμπω ὅστις ἄν, with the potential optative.

2548. The subjunctive with κέ in Homer does not involve will in ““οὐκ ἔσθ᾽ οὗτος ἀνὴρ . . . οὐδὲ γένηται, ὅς κεν Φαιήκων . . . ἐς γαῖαν ἵκηταιthat man lives not nor will ever be born who shall come to the land of the Phaeaciansζ 202; cp. δ 756, Ψ 345. Φ 103 involves a different aspect of will from that in 2547 a.

2549. The deliberative future (1916) occurs in relative clauses; as ““ὅπως μολούμεθ᾽ ἐς δόμους οὐκ ἔχωI do not know how we are to go homeS. O. C. 1742.

The deliberative subjunctive is more common; as ““οὐκ ἔχω τι χρήσωμαι τοῖς λόγοιςI am not able to deal with your argumentP. Eu. 287c.

2550. In a few cases the future is used like the subjunctives of 2547 a; and may be explained as a dependent deliberative future. Thus, οὐ γάρ τις ὅρμος ἔστιν, οὐδ᾽ ὅποι πλέων ἐξεμπολήσει κέρδος for there is no harbour, nor is there any place to which a man may voyage and sell his wares at a profit S. Ph. 303, ““αὐτὸν γάρ σε δεῖ προμηθέως ὅτῳ τρόπῳ τῆσδ᾽ ἐκκυκλισθήσει τύχηςfor thou thyself hast need of forethought whereby thou shalt extricate thyself from this troubleA. Pr. 86.

2551. οὐκ ἔστιν ὅς (ὅπως, ὅπου, ὡς) are used with the future indicative to introduce statements as regards the future. Thus, οὐ γάρ τις ἔστιν δ̀ς πάροιθ᾽ αἱρήσεται τὴν σὴν ἀχρεῖον δύναμιν ἀντ᾽ Εὐρυσθέως there is no one who will prefer thy feeble power rather than Eurystheus E. Heracl. 57, οὐκ ἔσθ᾽ ὅπως ὄψει σὺ δεῦρ᾽ ἐλθόντα με thou wilt in no wise (lit. it is not possible how thou shalt) see me coming here S. Ant. 329. The indicative present or aorist is also used in statements as regards the present or past. All these indicatives may be dependent deliberatives. Cp. 2557.

2552. The optative without ἄν (probably potential) occurs in Attic poetry after οὐκ ἔστιν ὅστις (ὅπως, ὅποι) and the interrogative τίς ἐστίν ὅς (ὅστις) and ἔσθ᾽ ὅπως. Thus, ““οὐκ ἔστιν ὅστις πλὴν ἐμοῦ κείραιτό νινthere is no one except myself who could cut itA. Ch. 172, οὐκ ἔσθ᾽ ὅπως λέξαιμι τὰ ψευδῆ καλά I could not (lit. there is no way how I could) call false tidings fair A. Ag. 620, τίς τῶνδ᾽ . . . δωμάτων ἔχει κράτος, ὅστις ξένους δέξαιτο; who has authority in this house that might receive guests? Ar. Thesm. 871, ἔστ᾽ οὖν ὅπως Αλκηστις ἐς γῆρας μόλοι; is there a way by which Alcestis might reach old age? E. Alc. 52. The potential optative with ἄν occurs after these expressions (E. Alc. 80, S. O. C. 1168, P. Lach. 184c). Attic does not use the optative with ἄν after the positive form ἔστιν ὅπως (ὅστις).

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