previous next


καί

2868. καί is both a copulative conjunction (and) connecting words, clauses, or sentences; and an adverb meaning also, even.


Conjunctional καί

2869. Copulative καί often has an intensive or heightening force; as where it joins a part and the whole, the universal and the particular. Thus, ἐν Ἀθηναίοις καὶ τοῖς Ἕλλησι Ar. Nub. 413, Ζεῦ καὶ θεοί Ar. Pl. 1 (θεοὶ καὶ Ζεύς the gods and above all Zeus), ἐνταῦθα ἔμειναν ἡμέρα_ς τρεῖς καὶ ἧκε Μένων X. A. 1.2.6. On καὶ ταῦτα, see 947, 2083.

a. Here καί often = namely, for example, and so where an antecedent statement is explained either by another word or by an example. Cp. X. A. 1.9.14, 4. 1. 19, 5. 2. 9, 5. 6. 8.

2870. The heightening force is also seen where καί with corrective force may be rendered by or; often to set forth a climax and not an alternative. Thus, ““σοφία_ ὀλίγου τινὸς ἀξία_ καὶ οὐδενόςwisdom worth little or nothingP. A. 23a, ““μαχαιροποιοὶ . . . ἀνὰ πέντε μνᾶς καὶ ἕξsword-cutlers worth five or six minas eachD. 27.9, ““προιοῦσι δὲ καὶ ἀπιοῦσι πόλεμοςbut war if we advance or retireX. A. 2.1.21, ““καὶ δίκαια κἄ_δικαright or wrongAr. Nub. 99, σὸς (γόνος), ““κει᾽ μὴ σόςthy son, or if not thineS. O. C. 1323.

2871. καί often has an adversative force; as where it joins a negative to an affirmative clause. Here καὶ οὐ (μή) is almost = but not, as in ἐμ᾽ ἐχειροτόνησαν καὶ οὐχ ὑ_μᾶς they elected me and (= but) not you D. 18.288. So also where καί is like καίτοι and yet; as ““χαίρων ἄπιθι: καί σ᾽ ἄ_κων ἐγὼ λείπωfare thee well; and yet I leave thee unwillinglyAr. Eq. 1250. To connect negative clauses οὐδέ is used.

2872. In questions, καί before an interrogative expression marks an objection occasioned by surprise or indignation; as καὶ τίς θανόντων ἦλθεν ἐξ Ἅιδου πάλιν; and, pray, who of the dead has come back from Hades? E. H. F. 297. So καὶ πῶς; pray, how comes it that? Cp. Eng. and when a speaker is stopped by an abrupt question.

a. After an interrogative expression adverbial καί asks for further information concerning a statement assumed to be true. Thus, ποίου χρόνου δὲ καὶ πεπόρθηται πόλις; but when was the city captured? A. Ag. 278. Cp. 2884.

2873. In imperative sentences καί often means and now, just. Thus, ““καί μοι ἀνάγνωθι τὸ ψήφισμαand now read me the billL. 13.35, ““καί μοι ἀπόκρι_ναιjust answer meP. A. 25a.

2874. καί may mark a result (P. Th. 154c, quoted in 2288).

2875. After expressions of sameness and likeness καί has the force of as (Lat. ac). Thus, ““ αὐτὸς ὑ_μῖν στόλος ἐστὶ καὶ ἡμῖνyour expedition is the same as oursX. A. 2.2.10, ““οὐχ ὁμοίως καὶ πρίνnot the same as beforeT. 7.28, ἴσα καὶ ἱκέται the same as suppliants 3. 14, ““ταὐτὰ καίthe same asX. C. 1.3.18. This use is commoner in prose than poetry.

2876. In expressions denoting coincidence of time καί often has the force of when. So ἅμα . . . καί (2169), ἤδη . . . καί X. A. 2.1.7, οὔπω . . . καί P. Eu. 277b, οὐκ ἔφθην . . . καί (εὐθύς) I had not got the start . . . when I. 19.22, D. 43.69. Cp. καὶ . . . καί in ““καὶ ἥκομεν καὶ ἡμῖν ἐξελθὼν θυρωρὸς . . . εἶπεν περιμένεινas soon as we arrived the doorkeeper came out and told us to waitP. Ph. 59e.

2877. καὶ . . . καί both . . . and, not only . . . but also, as . . . so, as well as . . . as also, sometimes whether . . . or, emphasizes each member separately, and forms a less close combination than τὲ καί. Thus, καὶ τότε καὶ νῦν not only then but also now. So ““τι_μὰ_ς δοτέον καὶ ζῶντι καὶ τελευτήσαντιhonours must be paid him both when living and after deathP. R. 414a, σὺ καὶ δέδορκας κου᾽ βλέπεις thou both hast sight and (yet) dost not see S. O. T. 413, ““κἀ_πεμπόμην πρὸς ταῦτα καὶ τὸ πᾶν φράσωas I was sent for this purpose so I will tell thee allS. El. 680, ““τολμᾶν ἀνάγκη, κἂ_ν τύχω κἂ_ν μὴ τύχωI must dare whether I succeed or failE. Hec. 751.

2878. In a series of more than two ideas καί is used before each, where English would use and only before the last. Thus, ““συντυγχάνουσιν αὐτῷ καὶ λαμβάνουσιν αὐτὸν καὶ γυναῖκα καὶ παῖδας καὶ τοὺς ἵππους καὶ πάντα τὰ ὄνταthey fell upon him and seized him, his wife, his children, his horses, and all his possessionsX. A. 7.8.22.

2879. Adjectives of quantity, as πολύς and ὀλίγος in the plural, are usually joined to an adjective in the same construction by καί or τὲ καί (also by τέ or τὲ . . . τέ in poetry). Thus, πολλὰ καὶ δεινά D. 37.57 (δεινὰ καὶ πολλά 37. 57), πολλά τε καὶ δεινά X. A. 5.5.8. In πολλὰ καὶ μεγάλα ἀγαθά (X. C. 1.5.9), the substantive is qualified by two adjectives; whereas in English the second adjec tive is taken with the substantive and treated as a unit modified by the first adjective (many good-things).

a. πολλοὶ καὶ ἄλλοι means many others also (with καί adverbial). For many others we find ἄλλοι πολλοί (very common) or πολλοὶ ἄλλοι.

2880. Some combinations of conjunctional καί are:

καὶ . . . μέντοι and however, and of course (in καὶ μέντοι καί the first καί may be adverbial: yes indeed and).

καὶ . . . τοίνυν and . . . further, in connecting a thought with the preceding.


Adverbial καί

2881. Adverbial καί also, even (Lat. etiam) influences single words or whole clauses. Adverbial καί stresses an important idea; usually the idea set forth in the word that follows, but sometimes also a preceding word when that word stands first in its clause. καί often serves to increase or diminish the force of particular words; sometimes it gives a tone of modesty.

2882. With single words: a. κᾆτα then too, καὶ ἐγώ I on my part, ““σὸν κἀ_μὸν γένοςoffspring from thee or me eitherS. El. 965, ““βουλόμενος δὲ καὶ αὐτὸς λαμπρόν τι ποιῆσαιdesirous of himself too doing something illustriousX. C. 5.4.15.

b. καὶ πρίν even before, καὶ ὀψέ late though it be, καὶ οὕτως even so, καὶ ἔτι καὶ νῦν and now too, and still even now, ὀκνῶ καὶ λέγειν I fear even to say it, ““πολλὴ μωρία_ καὶ τοῦ ἐπιχειρήματοςthe very attempt is utter follyP. Pr. 317a. On καί though with a participle, see 2083.

c. Often with adverbs of intensity, as καὶ μάλα exceedingly, certainly, καὶ κάρτα very greatly, καὶ πάνυ absolutely. With comparatives and superlatives: καὶ μᾶλλον yet more, ““καὶ μωρότατονaltogether the most foolish thingX. A. 3.2.22.

2883. With a whole phrase or clause; as ἄμφω γὰρ αὐτὼ καὶ κατακτανεῖν νοεῖς; what, dost thou indeed intend to put them both to death? S. Ant. 770. Other examples in 2885-2887.

2884. When καί stresses a verb in interrogative and conditional sentences it is often to be rendered by an emphatic auxiliary, often by at all. Thus, πολλάκις ἐσκεψάμην τί καὶ βούλεσθε I have often asked myself the question what you can want T. 6.38, τί καὶ χρὴ προσδοκᾶν; what on earth is one to expect? D. 4.46, τί γὰρ ἄν τις καὶ ποιοῖ ἄλλο; for what else could one do? P. Ph. 61e, ““εἰ δεῖ καὶ μῦθον λέγειν καλόνif it is well to tell a fable at allP. Ph. 110b. Cp. 2872 a.

a. In affirmative independent clauses or sentences καί often has an emphasis which is difficult to render; as ““ κίνδυ_νος νῦν δὴ καὶ δόξειεν ἂν δεινὸς εἶναιthe danger must now indeed seem to be dreadfulP. Ph. 107c.

2885. Καί of Balanced Contrast.—In order to mark the connection of thought between antecedent and consequent, καί also, too, is often placed in the subordinate clause or in the main clause or in both.

a. Greek has thus the following modes of expression where a comparison is instituted between the parts of such bimembral sentences: “What I do, that you also do” (as in English) or “What I also ( = I on my part) do, that you do” or “What I also do, that you also do.” In the subordinate clause καί seems superfluous to English idiom.

2886. Καί of balanced contrast occurs frequently when the subordinate clause sets forth something corresponding to, or deducible from, the main clause; and when an antithesis is to be emphasized. It is found especially in relative, causal, and final clauses, and has the effect of putting such subordinate clauses on a plane with the main clause. A relative word often adds -περ or is followed by δή. Thus, ““τὰ δὲ τῆς πόλεως ἔπρα_ττον, ὧνπερ ἕνεκεν καὶ Σωκράτει προσῆλθονthey devoted themselves to those affairs of state on account of which they had in fact associated with SocratesX. M. 1.2.47, ““καὶ ἡμῖν ταὐτὰ δοκεῖ ἅπερ καὶ βασιλεῖwe hold exactly the same views as the kingX. A. 2.1.22, ““ἐπειδὴ καὶ πόλις ἐσώθη . . . ἀξιῶ κἀ_μοὶ σωτηρία_ν γενέσθαιsince the city has been saved I beg that safety be granted to me as wellAnd. 1.143, ἔμαθον καὶ ἐγὼ ὥσπερ καὶ οἱ ἄλλοι I (on my part) learned just as the rest did too P. Alc. 110d, ““τι_μωρία_ γὰρ οὐκ εὐτυχεῖ δικαίως ὅτι καὶ ἀδικεῖταιfor vengeance is not successful in accordance with justice, because it is taken upon a wrongT. 4.62.

2887. In final clauses ἵνα καί is common, and sometimes, like Eng. just, serves to show that the fact answers to the expectation, or the effect to the cause (or vice versa). Thus, βούλει οὖν ἕπεσθαι ἵνα καὶ ἴδῃς τοὺς ὄντας αὐτόθι; do you wish to go along then just to see those who are there? P. Lys. 204a, ““ἄρξομαι δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς ἰ_α_τρικῆς λέγων ἵνα καὶ πρεσβεύωμεν τὴν τέχνηνI will begin my speech with medicine in order that we may do honour to our artP. S. 186b.

2888. Καί of balanced contrast appears also in coördinate clauses; as ““ἤδη γὰρ ἔγωγε καὶ Φιλολά_ου ἤκουσα . . . ἤδη δὲ καὶ ἄλλων τινῶνfor I have ere now heard Philolaus . . . and ere now certain others besides himP. Ph. 61e, κατὰ πολλὰ μὲν καὶ ἄλλα, οὐχ ἥκιστα δὲ καὶ κατὰ ταῦτα as in many other respects also and not least (too) in this Aes. 1.108, ““ὑπὸ τῶν τἀ_νταῦθα διοικήσειν . . . καὶ πρὶν ὑπεσχημένων καὶ νῦν δὲ πρα_ττόντωνby those who had promised to manage things there before and are now also doing themD. 7.5. The negative of καὶ . . . καὶ . . . δέ is οὐδὲ . . . οὐδὲ . . . δέ.

a. So in disjunctive phrases or clauses. Thus, ““εἴτε διὰ τὸ ἐπιβόημα εἴτε καὶ αὐτῷ ἄλλο τι . . . δόξανeither because of the exclamation or also because some other thought occurred to himT. 5.65; and so καί 2862. Cp. ἐζητεῖτο οὐδέν τι μᾶλλον ὑπὸ τῶν ἄλλων καὶ ὑπ᾽ ἐμοῦ he was not searched for by the others more than he was by me (on my part) Ant. 5.23.

2889. Similarly the καί of εἴ τις καὶ ἄλλος is superfluous; as ““εἴπερ τι καὶ ἄλλο καὶ τοῦτο μαθητόνif any other thing is learnable, this is tooX. S. 2. 6. But καί is usually omitted in the main clause; as ““ἐπίσταται δ᾽ εἴ τις καὶ ἄλλοςhe knows as well as anybody elseX. A. 1.4.15. So ““ὥς τις καὶ ἄλλοςas also any otherX. A. 2.6.8.

2890. καὶ δὴ καί and especially, and in particular, and what is more, lays stress on a particular instance or application of a general statement. Here the second καί emphasizes the following word. καὶ δὴ καί is usually attached to a preceding τέ or καί. Thus, καὶ δὴ καὶ τότε πρῳαίτερον συνελέγημεν and on that especial occasion we came together somewhat earlier than usual P. Ph. 59d, ““ἐν ἄλλοις τε πολλοῖς καὶ δὴ καὶ ἐν τοῖς κάμνουσινin the case of many others and particularly in that of the sickX. C. 1.6.21.

2891. καὶ . . . δέ and . . . also, and . . . moreover. Here καί empha sizes the important intervening word or words, while δέ connects. Thus, ““καὶ σὲ δ᾽ ἐν τούτοις λέγωand I count thee also among theseA. Pr. 973. And also not is οὐδὲ . . . δέ. Hom. has καὶ δέ and further, and even (H 113), not καὶ . . . δέ. καὶ . . . δέ (for τέ) is different (S. Ant. 432).

hide Display Preferences
Greek Display:
Arabic Display:
View by Default:
Browse Bar: