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οὐδέ, οὔτε μηδέ, μήτε

2930. οὐδέ (μηδέ) is an adverb and a conjunction, and is to be broken up into the negative οὐ (μή) and δέ meaning and, even, also , or but.


οὐδέ (μηδέ) as an Adverb

2931. Adverbial οὐδέ (μηδέ) not even, not . . . either, also . . . not, nor yet (ne . . quidem). Cp. the use of καί even, also in affirmative sentences; as οὐδ᾽ ὥς not even in that case (καὶ ὥς even in that case).

““ἀλλ᾽ οὐδὲ τούτων στερήσονταιbut no; even of these shall they be deprivedX. A. 1.4.8, ““ὅτ᾽ οὐδ᾽ οὕτω ῥᾴδιον ἦνwhen besides it was not so easyI. 18.65 (= καὶ οὐ also not). With οὐδ᾽ ει᾽ (ἐά_ν) not even if οὐ belongs with the main clause, while δέ even goes with the dependent clause. Thus, ““οὐδ᾽ ἂν εἰ βούλοιντο, ῥᾳδίως πονηροὶ γένοιντοeven if they wished, they could not easily become wickedX. C. 7.5.86 (= καὶ εἰ βούλοιντο, οὐκ ἂν γένοιντο). Similarly with a participle: ““οὐδὲ πεπονθὼς κακῶς ἐχθρὸν εἶναί μοι τοῦτον ὁμολογῶI do not admit that this man is my enemy even though I have been ill-usedD. 21.205.


οὐδέ (μηδέ) as a Conjunction

2932. οὐδέ (μηδέ) as a conjunction (and not, nor) connects two or more whole clauses.

2933. In Attic prose οὐδέ is used only to join a negative clause to another clause itself negative; as ““οὐδεμία ἐλπὶς ἦν τι_μωρία_ς οὐδὲ ἄλλη σωτηρία_ ἐφαίνετοthere was no hope of assistance nor did any chance of safety appearT. 3.20.

a. A negative clause is joined to an affirmative clause by καὶ οὐ (μή). Thus, ““ἐμμενῶ τῇ ξυμμαχίᾳ . . . καὶ οὐ παραβήσομαιI will abide by the alliance and I will not violate itT. 5.47. καὶ οὐ (μή) may have an adversative force (but not).

N.—But in poetry and Ionic prose οὐδέ may continue an affirmative clause; as ““δεινὸν γὰρ οὐδὲ ῥητόνdread indeed and not to be utteredS. Ph. 756.

2934. οὐδέ is used by the poets for but not, where Attic prose writers have ἀλλ᾽ ου᾽ or καὶ οὐ. Thus, ἔνθ᾽ ἄλλοις μὲν πᾶσιν ἑήνδανεν, οὐδέ ποθ᾽ Ἥρῃ οὐδὲ Ποσει- ““δάωνιthen it was pleasing to all the others, but not to Hera or to PoseidonΩ 25, ““ἐμαῖσι οὐδὲ σαῖσι δυσβουλίαιςby my folly but not by thineS. Ant. 1269 (cp. the negative form ““οὐκ ἐμὸν τόδ᾽ ἀλλὰ σόνthis is not my part, but thineS. El. 1470). Cp. ““σοῦ τάδε κινδυ_νεύεις, ἀλλ᾽ οὐκ ἐμοῦ ἀκηκοέναιyou probably heard this from yourself and not from meP. Alc. 113c.

2935. οὐδέ may stand in an apodosis corresponding to apodotic δέ (2837). Cp. S. O. C. 590.

2936. οὐδέ may negative a preceding word also; as ““αἱ Φοίνισσαι νῆες οὐδὲ Τισσαφέρνης . . . ἧκονthe Phoenician ships had not arrived nor had TissaphernesT. 8.99. Cp. 2943. In such cases we usually find another negative, which goes with the verb; as ““ἁπλοῦν μὲν οὐδὲ δίκαιον οὐδὲν ἂν εἰπεῖν ἔχοιhe could say nothing straightforward nor justD. 22.4.


οὐδέ (μηδέ) with other Negatives

2937. οὐδὲ . . . οὐδέ commonly means not even . . . nor yet (or no, nor), the first οὐδέ being adverbial, the second conjunctive. οὐδὲ . . . οὐδέ is not correlative, like οὔτε . . . οὔτε, and hence never means neither . . . nor. Thus, οὐδὲ ἥλιον οὐδὲ σελήνην ἄρα νομίζω θεοὺς εἶναι; do I then hold that not even the sun nor yet the moon are gods? P. A. 26c, ““σύ γε οὐδὲ ὁρῶν γιγνώσκεις οὐδὲ ἀκούων μέμνησαιyou do not even understand though you see, nor yet do you remember though you hearX. A. 3.1.27. οὐδὲ . . . οὐδέ both copulative (and not . . nor yet) in X. C. 3.3.50. οὐδὲ . . . οὐδὲ . . . δέ is the negative of καὶ . . . καὶ . . . δέ in X. A. 1.8.20.

a. So in both members of comparative sentences (cp. καί 2885); as ““ὥσπερ οὐδὲ γεωργοῦ ἀ_ργοῦ οὐδὲν ὄφελος, οὕτως οὐδὲ στρατηγοῦ ἀ_ργοῦντος οὐδὲν ὄφελοςas there is no good in an idle tiller of the soil, so there is no good in an idle generalX. C. 1.3.18.

2938. οὐδὲ γὰρ οὐδέ (negative of καὶ γὰρ καί); as ““οὐδὲ γὰρ οὐδὲ τοῦτο ἐψεύσατοfor neither did he deceive me even in thisX. C. 7.2.20. Here the first οὐδέ negatives the whole sentence, the second οὐδέ negatives τοῦτο.

2939. ου᾽ . . . οὐδέ: οὐδέ not even as well as nor (2933) may resume a preceding οὐ. Thus, ὕβριν γὰρ οὐ στέργουσιν οὐδὲ δαίμονες lit. not even the gods do not love insolence S. Tr. 280, ““οὐ μέντοι ἔφη νομίζειν οὐδ᾽ ει᾽ παμπόνηρος ἦν Δέξιππος βίᾳ χρῆναι πάσχειν αὐτόνhe said however that he did not think that, even if Dexippus was a downright rascal, he ought to suffer by an act of violenceX. A. 6.6.25, ““οὐ δεῖ δὴ τοιοῦτον . . . καιρὸν ἀφεῖναι οὐδὲ παθεῖν ταὐτὸν ὅπερ . . . πεπόνθατεwe must not let such an opportunity go by nor suffer the same as you have sufferedD. 1.8.

ου᾽ μέντοι οὐδέ not by any means however. On ου᾽ μὴν οὐδέ see 2768.

2940. οὐδὲ . . . οὐ: οὐδέ may be resumed by οὐ; as ““οὐδέ γε ἰδίᾳ πονηρὸς οὐκ ἂν γένοιτο δημοσίᾳ χρηστόςnor can the man who is bad in his private life prove himself good in a public capacityAes. 3.78.

2941. οὐδὲ . . . οὔτε is rare (P. Charm. 171b).

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