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ὥς, ὡς

2988. Demonstrative ὥς (also accented ὡς, ὧς) thus, so is originally an ablative from the demonstrative stem ὁ- (from σο-), from which come the article and ὅς he in καὶ ὅς, δ᾽ ὅς (1113). For the -ς, see 341. Cp. also ὧ-δε thus.

So καὶ ὥς even so, nevertheless, οὐδ᾽ (μηδ᾽) ὥς not even thus, in no wise, ὡς αὔτως (ὡσαύτως) in the same way, just so (ablative of αὐτός). ὡς ἑτέρως (lit. thus otherwise, in that other way) quite otherwise and ὡς ἀληθῶς (lit. thus truly) in very truth also probably belong here.

a. In some cases it is uncertain whether ὡς is demonstrative or relative; e.g. ὡς in exclamatory clauses. Cp. 2998, 3001.

2989. Relative ὡς as, how is originally an ablative (in which way) from the relative stem [ιγλιδε]ο-, whence come also ὅς, , . For the -ς, see 341. Relative ὡς has various uses as an adverb or a conjunction, all of which represent the primitive meaning.


Relative ὡς as an Adverb

2990. In comparative clauses, often correlated with οὕτως. Thus, ““πιστὸς ἦν, ὡς ὑ_μεῖς ἐπίστασθεI was faithful, as you knowX. A. 3.3.2, ἐκέλευσε τοὺς Ἕλληνας, ὡς νόμος αὐτοῖς εἰς μάχην, οὕτω ταχθῆναι he ordered the Greeks (thus) to be stationed as was their custom for battle 1. 2. 15. Cp. 2462 ff. In similes and comparisons, 2481 ff.

2991. ὡς is rarely used for after comparatives; as ““μή μου προκήδου μᾶσσον ὡς ἐμοὶ γλυκύcare not for me further than I wishA. Pr. 629. Cp. 1071.

2992. In adverbial clauses ὡς is often used parenthetically; as ὡς ἐμοὶ δοκεῖ as it seems to me. Instead of ὡς δοκεῖ, ὡς ἔοικε the personal construction is often preferred; as ““ἀπέπλευσαν, ὡς μὲν τοῖς πλείστοις ἐδόκουν, φιλοτι_μηθέντεςthey sailed away out of jealousy, as it seemed to most peopleX. A. 1.4.7.

2993. ὡς restrictive for (cp. ut), involving the judgment of the observer, occurs often in elliptical phrases; as (Βρα_σίδα_ς) ἦν οὐδὲ ἀδύνατος, ὡς Λακεδαιμόνιος, εἰπεῖν Brasidas was, for a Lacedaemonian, not a bad speaker either T. 4.84, ταῦτα ἀκούσα_ς Ξέρξης ὡς ἐκ κακῶν ἐχάρη on hearing this Xerxes rejoiced as much <*> could be expected considering his misfortunes Hdt. 8.101. On ὡς restrictive with the dative, cp. 1495 a, 1497; with the absolute infinitive, 2012.

2994. ὡς is often used to heighten a superlative (1086).

2995. With numerals and words indicating degree ὡς means about, nearly, not far from; as ““ὁπλί_τα_ς ἔχων ὡς πεντακοσίουςhaving about five hundred hoplitesX. A. 1.2.3, ““ὡς ἐπὶ πολύfor the most partP. R. 377b (lit. about over the greater) part).

2996. ὡς often indicates the thought or the assertion of the subject of the principal verb or of some other person prominent in the sentence. Here ὡς expresses a real intention or an avowed plea. So often with participles (2086); and also with the prepositions εἰς, ἐπί, πρός; as ““ἀπέπλεον . . . ἐκ τῆς Σικελία_ς ὡς ἐς τὰ_ς Ἀθήνα_ςthey sailed away from Sicily as though bound for AthensT. 6.61.

2997. ὡς ἕκαστος means each for himself; as ἀπέπλευσαν ἐξ Ἑλλησπόντου ὡς ἕκαστοι (ἀπέπλευσαν) ““κατὰ πόλειςthey sailed away from the Hellespont each to his own StateT. 1.89.

2998. ὡς exclamatory (2682) may be the relative adverb ὡς how, the relative clause originally being used in explanation of an exclamation. Exclamatory ὡς has also been explained as ὡς demonstrative (so).

2999. On ὡς in wishes, see 1815.


Relative ὡς as a Conjunction

3000. ὡς conjunctive is found in dependent clauses.

Declarative: that, like ὅτι. Cp. 2577 ff., 2614 ff.

Final: that, in order that; like ἵνα, but not used in standard Attic prose. Cp. 2193.

Object clauses after verbs of effort: that, like ὅπως; cp. 2209. Rarely after verbs of fearing: that. Cp. 2235.

Causal: as, inasmuch as, since, seeing that, like ὅτι, ἐπεί, etc. Cp. 2240.

Consecutive: so that, like ὥστε. Usually with the infinitive, sometimes with the indicative. Cp. 2260.

Temporal: after, like ἐπεί; sometimes when, whenever. Cp. 2383.

3001. ὡς is often found before sentences apparently independent, where it is sometimes explained as a conjunction with the verb suppressed. Thus, ὡς τῆσδ᾽ ἑκοῦσα παιδὸς οὐ μεθήσομαι (know) that of my own accord I will not relinquish my child E. Hec. 400, ὡς δὴ σύ μοι τύραννος Ἀργείων ἔσει (do you mean) that you forsooth shall be lord and master of Argives A. Ag. 1633. Some scholars regard this ὡς as causal, others regard it as demonstrative, others as comparative.


ὥς as, like

3002. ὥς as, like (postpositive) in Hom., as ὄρνι_θες ὥς Γ 2, stands for ϝως, which is of uncertain origin.


ὡς to

3003. ὡς to, a preposition with persons (once in Hom., ρ 218) is obscure in origin.

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