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PARTICLES

2769. Under the head of particles are included sentence adverbs (1094) and conjunctions. Many sentence adverbs remained such, some sank to mere enclitics, others became pure conjunctions, while still others fluctuated in function, being now adverbial, now conjunctional, as καί even and and, οὐδέ not even and nor, γάρ in fact and for, πρίν sooner and until or before.

2770. Conjunctions are either coördinating or subordinating. The coördinating conjunctions with their several varieties are given in 2163. The subordinating conjunctions are

Causal: ὅτι, διότι, διόπερ, ἐπεί, ἐπειδή, ὅτε, ὁπότε, ὡς (2240).

Comparative: ὡς, ὥσπερ, καθάπερ, ὅπως, , ὅπῃ, ᾗπερ (2463; cp. 2481).

Concessive: καὶ εἰ (κει᾽), καὶ ἐό_ν (κἄ_ν), εἰ καί, ἐὰ_ν καί (2369).

Conditional: εἰ, ἐά_ν, ἤν, ἄ_ν (2283).

Consecutive: ὥστε, ὡς (2250).

Declarative: ὅτι, διότι, οὕνεκα, ὁθούνεκα, ὡς (2578).

Final: ἵνα, ὅπως, ὡς, μή, etc. (2193; cp. 2209, 2221).

Local: οὗ, ὅπου, οἷ, ὅποι, ἔνθα, ὅθεν, ὁπόθεν, , ὅπῃ, etc (2498).

Temporal: ὅτε, ὁπότε, ἡνίκα, ἐπεί, ἐπειδή, ὡς, μέχρι, ἔστε, ἕως, πρίν, etc (2383).

Some conjunctions belong to more than one class.

2771. Greek has an extraordinary number of sentence adverbs (or particles in the narrow sense) having a logical or emotional (rhetorical) value. Either alone or in combination these sentence adverbs give a distinctness to the relations between ideas which is foreign to other languages, and often resist translation by separate words, which in English are frequently over emphatic and cumbersome in comparison to the light and delicate nature of the Greek originals (e.g. ἄρα, γέ, τοί). The force of such words is frequently best rendered by pause, stress, or alterations of pitch. To catch the subtle and elusive meaning of these often apparently insignificant elements of speech challenges the utmost vigilance and skill of the student.

2772. The particles show different degrees of independence as regards their position. Many are completely independent and may occupy any place in the sentence; some may occur only at the beginning (prepositive particles, as ἀτάρ); others find their place only after one or more words at the beginning (postpositive particles, as γάρ, δέ); and some are attached closely to a preceding word o<*> even form compounds with that word wherever it may occur (γέ, τέ).

2773. Some verbal forms have virtually become particles, e.g. ἄγε used with the second person plural, ὁρᾷς used of several persons, parenthetic οἶμαι, δῆλο<*> ὅτι, εὖ οἶδ᾽ ὅτι, εὖ ἴσθ᾽ ὅτι (2585).

2774. As regards their meaning, particles may be arranged in classes, e.g adversative, affirmative, asseverative, concessive, confirmative, conjunctive, infer ential, intensive, interrogative, limitative, negative, etc. These classes canno<*> always be sharply distinguished: some particles fall under two or more classes Many particles, which serve to set forth the logical relation between clauses, ha<*> originally only an intensive or confirmatory force that was confined to their ow<*> clause. The following sections deal only with the commoner uses of the most noteworthy particles.


ἀλλά

2775. ἀλλά, a strongly adversative conjunction (stronger than δέ) connects sentences and clauses, and corresponds pretty closely to but; at times ἀλλά need not or cannot be translated (2781 b). In form (but with changed accent) ἀλλά was originally the same wor<*> as the accusative neuter plural ἄλλα other things used adverbially = on the other hand. ἀλλά marks opposition, contrast, protest, dif<*> ference, objection, or limitation; and is thus used both where one notion entirely excludes another and where two notions are no<*> mutually exclusive. ἀλλά is often freely repeated in successive clauses.

2776. The Antecedent Statement is Negative.—In its simplest use ἀλλ<*> introduces a positive statement after a negative clause. Thus, οὐκ ἀνδρὸς ὅρκο<*> πίστις, ἀλλ᾽ ὅρκων ἀνήρ his oath is not the warrant of a man, but the man is war rant of his oath A. fr. 394, οὐ γὰρ κραυγῇ ἀλλὰ σι_γῇ ὡς ἀνυστὸν . . . προσῇσαν fo<*> they came on, not with shouts, but with as little noise as possible X. A. 1.8.11.

a. After a question implying a negative answer or a question to be refute<*> ἀλλά may have the force of (nay) rather, on the contrary. Thus, τί δεῖ σε ἰένα . . .; ἀλλὰ ἄλλους πέμψον what's the need of your going? Nay rather send oth<*> ers X. A. 4.6.19. Here ἀλλ᾽ ου᾽ (μή) has the force of and not rather (2781 b) as τίδεῖ ἐμβαλεῖν λόγον περὶ τούτου, ἀλλ᾽ οὐχὶ προειπεῖν ὅτι οὕτω ποιήσεις; why is i<*> necessary to propose a discussion about this and not rather announce that you will have it so? X. C. 2.2.19.

2777. After a negative clause, or a question implying a negative answer ἀλλά, or more commonly the colloquial ἀλλ᾽ , may mean except, the combination being equivalent either to ἀλλά or to . In the preceding clause a form of ἄλλο or ἕτερος is often expressed. Thus, ““ἔπαισε . . . νιν οὔτις ἀλλ᾽ ἐγώno one smote him except myselfS. O. T. 1331, ““οὐδὲν ἐθέλοντες ἐπαινεῖν ἀλλ᾽ τὸν πλοῦτονwishing to praise nothing except wealthP. R. 330c (here ἀλλ᾽ is detached from οὐδέν) τίνα ἄλλον ἔχουσι λόγον βοηθοῦντες ἐμοὶ ἀλλ᾽ τὸν ὀρθόν κτλ.; what other reason<*> have they for supporting me except the true reason, etc.? P. A. 34b.

a. Distinguish the use of ἀλλ᾽ except (= εἰ μή) in τὸ γοῦν σημεῖον ἕτερον φαί νεται, ἀλλ᾽ οὐ καθορῶ the device at any rate appears different, unless I can't se<*> Ar. Eq. 953.

2778. οὐδὲν ἀλλ᾽ nothing but is also used elliptically, apparently by a<*> original suppression of a form of ποιῶ or γίγνομαι; in effect, however, the phras<*> has acquired a purely adverbial sense (merely). Thus, διεφθάρμεθα . . . ὑπ᾽ ἀνδρῶ οὐδὲν ἀλλ᾽ φενα_κίζειν δυναμένων we have been ruined by men who are able (to do nothing except deceive (i.e. able merely to deceive) I. 8.36.

a. With the above use compare οὐδὲν ἄλλο nothing else than, used without, and with, ellipse; as οἱ μύ_ριοι ἱππεῖς οὐδὲν ἄλλο μύ_ριοί εἰσιν ἄνθρωποι your ten thousand horse are nothing more (else) than ten thousand men X. A. 3.2.18, οὐδὲν ἄλλο πόλιν τὴν ἑαυτοῦ ἀπόλειπων ἕκαστος doing nothing else than each abandoning his own city T. 2.16. So also οὐδὲν ἄλλο . . . D. 8.27. Cp. ἄλλο οὐδὲν , as in ἄλλο οὐδὲν ἐκ γῆς ἐναυμάχουν they did nothing else than conduct ( = they practically conducted) a sea-fight from the land T. 4.14. Cp. 946, 2652.

2779. The origin of ἀλλ᾽ is disputed, some scholars regarding ἀλλ᾽ as ἀλλά (originally ἄλλα, 2775), while others derive ἀλλ᾽ directly from ἄλλο, which is thought to have lost its force and consequently its accent. In some passages the Mss. do not distinguish between ἀλλ᾽ and ἄλλ᾽; and ἀλλ᾽ and ἄλλο differ only slightly in meaning. In some of the above cases ἀλλ᾽ has an adjectival force, in some it hovers between an adjective and a conjunction, and in others it clearly has become a conjunction.

2780. After a comparative (μᾶλλον, τὸ πλέον) in a negative clause ἀλλά has the force of as. Thus, καὶ ἔστιν πόλεμος οὐχ ὅπλων τὸ πλέον ἀλλὰ δαπάνης and war is not so much (lit. more) a matter of arms as (but rather) of money T. 1.83. Here the clause with ἀλλά is more emphatic than if had been used. Cp. “there needed no more but to advance one step”: Steele.

2781. The Antecedent Statement is Affirmative.—ἀλλά is sometimes found after an affirmative statement.

a. The antecedent clause often has a concessive force, and frequently takes μέν (2900). Thus, ““τὰ μὲν καθ᾽ ἡμᾶς ἔμοιγε δοκεῖ καλῶς ἔχειν: ἀλλὰ τὰ πλάγια λυ_πεὶ μεthe part where we are seems to me to be well disposed, but the wings cause me uneasinessX. C. 7.1.16.

b. ἀλλ᾽ ου᾽ (μή) after an affirmative statement often has the force of and not, and not rather, instead of (sometimes with a touch of irony). Thus, ἐκεῖθεν ἀλλ᾽ οὐκ ἐνθένδε ἡρπάσθη she was carried off from there and not (or simply not) from here P. Phae. 229d, ἐμοὶ ὀργίζονται ἀλλ᾽ οὐχ αὑτοῖς they are angry with me instead of (or and not rather with) themselves P. A. 23c. In such cases καὶ οὐ (μή) would not repudiate the opposition.

2782. ἀλλά in Apodosis.—After a concession or a condition expressed or implied, the apodosis may be emphatically introduced by ἀλλά, ἀλλὰ . . . γε, ἀλλ᾽ οὖν γε still, yet, at least. Thus, εἰ σῶμα δοῦλον, ἀλλ᾽ νοῦς ἐλεύθερος if the body is enslaved, the mind at least is free A. fr. 854, εἰ δ᾽ ἐν πᾶσι τούτοις ἡττῴμεθα, ἀλλὰ τό γέ τοι πῦρ κρεῖττον καρποῦ ἐστιν but if we should be baffled in all these points, still, as they say, fire is stronger than the fruit of the field X. A. 2.5.19. So also in clauses other than conditional; as ἀλλ᾽ ἐπεὶ . . . πατέρα τόνδ᾽ ἐμὸν οὐκ ἀνέτλα_τ᾽, . . . ἀλλ᾽ ἐμὲ . . . οἰκτί_ρατε but since ye did not bear with my father, pity me at least S. O. C. 241.

2783. ἀλλά attached to Single Words.—ἀλλά, attached to a single word in an adverbial sense, may stand in the interior of the sentence (not in Hom.). Thus, ἀλλὰ νῦν now at least, as in τί δῆτ᾽ ἂν ἀλλὰ νῦν σ᾽ ἔτ᾽ ὠφελοῖμ᾽ ἐγώ, how pray, can I serve thee even now? S. Ant. 552. So with γέ, as ““ἐὰ_ν οὖν ἀλλὰ νῦν γ᾽ ἔτι . . . ἐθελήσητεif therefore you still desire even nowD. 3.33 (and often in D.). Here ἀλλὰ νῦν implies εἰ μὴ πρότερον. ἀλλά sometimes apparently implies εἰ μή τι ἄλλο or εἰ μὴ ἄλλοις, etc., as λέγ᾽ ἀλλὰ τοῦτο say this at least (say but this) S. El. 415.

2784. ἀλλά opposing Whole Sentences.—ἀλλά well, well but, nay but, however is often used, especially at the beginning of a speech, in opposition either to something said (or supposed to be meant) by another, or to a latent feeling in the mind of the writer or speaker himself. Thus, ἀλλὰ πρῶτον μὲν μνησθήσομαι . . . τελευταῖον κατ᾽ ἐμοῦ εἶπε well, I will first allude to the charge against me which he mentioned last X. H. 2.3.35, ἀλλ᾽ ὤφελε μὲν Κῦρος ζῆν: ἐπεὶ δὲ τετελεύτηκεν κτλ. well, I would that Cyrus were alive; but since he is dead, etc. X. A. 2.1.4. Often of remonstrance or protest, as ἀλλ᾽ ἀμήχανον nay, it is impossible E. El. 529. ἀλλά is also especially common when a previous train of thought or remark is impatiently interrupted, as ἀλλὰ ταῦτα μὲν τί δεῖ λέγειν; but what is the need of recounting this? S. Ph. 11. Similarly in

a. Replies (often in quick, abrupt, or decisive answers): ἤρετο τι εἴη τὸ σύνθημα: δ᾽ ἀπεκρἱ_νατο: Ζεὺς σωτὴρ καὶ νἱ_κη: δὲ Κῦρος ἀκούσα_ς Ἀλλὰ δέχομαί τε, ἔφη, καὶ τοῦτο ἔστω he asked what the watchword was; and he replied:Zeus the saviour and Victory;and Cyrus, on hearing this, said, “Well, I accept it and so let it beX. A. 1.8.17.

b. Assent, with an adversative sense implied (cp. oh, well): ἀλλ᾽ ει᾽ δοκεῖ, χωρῶμεν well, if it pleases thee, let us be going S. Ph. 645.

c. Appeals, exhortations, proposals, and commands: ““ἀλλ᾽ ἴωμενbut let us goP. Pr. 311a, ἀλλ᾽ ἐμοὶ πείθου καὶ μὴ ἄλλως ποίει nay, take my advice and don't refuse P. Cr. 45a. The tone here is often impatient.

d. Wishes and imprecations: ἀλλ᾽ εὐτυχοίης well, my blessings on thee! S. O. T. 1478.

e. Questions, to mark surprise: πῶς εἶπας; ἀλλ᾽ καὶ σοφὸς λέληθας ὤν; what dost thou mean? can it really be that thou art subtle too and without my knowing it? E. Alc. 58.

2785. ἀλλά is often used when a speaker introduces a supposed objection (either in his own name or in that of his opponent), and immediately answers it; as ἀλλὰ νὴ τὸν Δία ἐκεῖν᾽ ἂν ἴσως εἴποι πρὸς ταῦτα κτλ. but, by Zeus, he might perhaps say in reply to this, etc. D. 20.3. ἀλλά may here put the supposed objection and also give the answer. Thus, τί γὰρ καὶ βουλόμενοι μετεπέμπεσθ᾽ ἂν αὐτοὺς ἐν τούτῳ τῷ καιρῷ; ἐπὶ τὴν εἰρήνην; ἀλλ᾽ ὑπῆρχεν ἅπα_σιν: ἀλλ᾽ ἐπὶ τὸν πόλεμον; ἀλλ᾽ αὐτοὶ περὶ τῆς εἰρήνης ἐβουλεύεσθε for with what possible desire would you have been sending them at that juncture? With a view to peace? Why (but) peace was open to all. With a view to war? Why (but) you were yourselves deliberating about peace D. 18.24. Cp. French mais introducing a reply to a question.

a. So in rapid dialogue objections may take the form of questions, in which each ἀλλά after the first may be rendered by or. Cp. 2654.

2786. ἀλλά with other Particles.—For example:

ἀλλὰ γάρ 2816; on ου᾽ γὰρ ἀλλά, see 2767.

ἀλλὰ . . . γε but at any rate.

ἀλλά γέ τοι (τοί γε) yet at least, yet be sure.

ἀλλὰ δή well then.

ἀλλ᾽ ; why how? can it really be that? what, can it be true? Here ἀλλά marks surprise, while asks the question.

ἀλλὰ μέντοι nay, but; well, however; yet truly. On ου᾽ μέντοι ἀλλά, see 2767.

ἀλλὰ μήν nay, but; but then; but surely. Often to introduce an objection, to reject an alternative, often merely to introduce a new idea or to resume an interrupted thought. On ου᾽ μὴν ἀλλά, see 2767.

ἀλλ᾽ ὅμως but still. Often without a verb, to introduce the reply to an objection.

ἀλλ᾽ οὐδέ is sometimes used elliptically, as in ὑπὲρ . . . ὧν οὗτος ἀπήγγειλε πρὸς ὑ_μᾶς ἀλλ᾽ οὐδὲ μι_κρόν nay, there is not even ever so little (not only not a great deal but not even a little) concerning which he reported to you D. 19.37. ἀλλ᾽ οὐδὲ μὲν δή is often used to reject an alternative.

ἀλλ᾽ οὖν (γε) but then, well then, well at any rate; stronger than δ᾽ οὖν.


ἄρα

2787. ἄρα (Epic ἄρα and enclitic ἄρ before a consonant, ῥά usually after monosyllables; all postpositive), a connective, confirmatory, and inferential particle marking the immediate connection and succession of events and thoughts; the natural, direct, and expected consequence of a previous statement of the existing situation, or of the realization of experience of some sort; and agreement of various kinds, as between assertion and reality, cause and result, premise and conclusion, explanation and what was to be explained.

a. ἄρα marks a consequence drawn from the connection of thought, and expresses impression or feeling; the stronger οὖν marks a consequence drawn from facts (a positive conclusion).

2788. The etymology of ἄρα, and hence its original meaning, is obscure. Some derive it from the root ἀρ, seen in ἀρ-αρ-ίσκω fit, join, ἄρτι just; and thus regard the proper sense as fittingly, accordingly. Others think the earliest meaning was truly, forsooth and connect ἄρα with a lost adj. ἀρίς, surviving in ἄρι-στος, ἀρί-γνωτος. On this interpretation ἄρα would originally assert the truth of its own clause. ἄρα is found also in ἆρα and γάρ.

2789. ἄρα is used in Homer much more freely than in Attic, and often so as to defy exact translation. In general ἄρα in Epic marks immediate connection and succession, a natural consequence of something already said or done; gives an explanation of an antecedent statement; or is used in recapitulations and transitions. Thus, ““αὐτὰρ ἐπεί ῤ̔ ἤγερθεν . . ., βῆ ῤ̔ ἴμεν εἰς ἀγορήνbut when they were collected, then he started to go to the assemblyβ 9, ὣς ἔφαθ᾽, οἱ δ᾽ ἄρα πάντες ἀκὴν ἐγένοντο σιωπῇ thus he spake, and all accordingly became hushed in silence H 92, σῖτον δέ σφιν ἔνειμε Μεσαύλιος, ὅν ῥα συβώτης αὐτὸς ἐκτήσατο and Mesaulius distributed food to them, a slave whom (and this was the reason for his so doing) the swineherd had acquired ξ 449, ““ὣς ἄρ᾽ ἐφώνησεν καὶ ἀπὸ ἕο τόξον ἔθηκενthus then he spake and put the bow from himφ 163. So also in the later language; as ““ἐρωτήσης δὲ αὐτὸν τῆς μητρὸς . . . ἀπεκρί_νατο ἄρα Κῦροςon his mother's questioning him Cyrus naturally repliedX. C. 1.3.2.

2790. In Attic, and in part also in Homer, ἄρα marks an inference (conse- quently, so then, therefore, it seems, after all, of course, etc.). Thus, εἶπεν αὐτῷ ὅτι βασιλεὺς οὐ μαχεῖται δέκα ἡμερῶν: Κῦρος δ᾽ εἶπεν: οὐκ ἄρα ἔτι μαχεῖται, εἰ ἐν ταύταις οὐ μαχεῖται ταῖς ἡμέραις the seer said to him that the king would not fight within ten days. And Cyrus answered:Well then if he does not fight within that time he will not fight at allX. A. 1.7.18, οὐδεὶ<*> ποτοῦ ἐπιθυ_μεῖ, ἀλλὰ χρηστοῦ ποτοῦ . . ., πάντες γὰρ ἄρα τῶν ἀγαθῶν ἐπιθυ_μοῦσιν no one desires drink merely, but good drink, since of course everybody desires good things P. R. 438a.

2791. ἄρα is often used of direct logical conclusions in conducting an argument (especially in Plato); as ““τί οὖν περὶ ψυ_χῆς λέγομεν; ὁρα_τὸν ἀόρα_τον εἶναι; οὐχ ὁρα_τόν. ἀιδὲς ἄρα; ναί. ὁμοιότερον ἄρα ψυ_χὴ σώματός ἐστιν τῷ ἀιδεῖ, τὸ δὲ τῷ ὁρα_τῷwhat then do we say about the soul? That it is visible or invisible? Not visible. Then it is invisible? Yes. Consequently soul has a closer resemblance to the invisible than the body, and the latter to the visibleP. Ph. 79b.

2792. In the argument ex contrario set forth in clauses with μέν and δέ, ἄρα, usually meaning in sooth, is commonly placed with the second clause (P. Ph. 80d, R. 445 b), occasionally with the first (P. Cr. 46d, L. 840 b), or with both (P. Ph. 97a, R. 600 c).

2793. In direct questions ἄρα adds liveliness, while at the same time it marks connection or consequence. So τίς ἄρα who then? πῶς ἄρα how then? In questions of anxiety ἄρα marks increase of feeling. Thus, τί μ᾽ ἄρα τί μ᾽ ὀλέκεις; why then, why dost thou destroy me? S. Ant. 1285.

2794. ἄρα occurs in questions in which the admissibility of one opinion is inferred from the rejection of another. Thus, εἰπέ μοι, ἔφη, Οεοδότη, ἔστι σοι ἀγρός; οὐκ ἔμοιγ᾽, ἔφη. ἀλλ᾽ ἄρα οἰκία_ προσόδους ἔχουσα; ‘tell me,’ said he, ‘Theodote, have you an estate?’ ‘Not I indeed,’ said she. ‘But perhaps then you have a house that brings in an income?X. M. 3.11.4. Such questions are often ironical (P. A. 25a).

2795. ἄρα is often used to indicate new perception, or surprise genuine or affected; as when the truth is just realized after a previous erroneous opinion and one finds oneself undeceived either agreeably or disagreeably. So, especially with the imperfect of εἶναι, ἄρα means after all, it seems, why then, so then, sure enough. See 1902.

2796. ει᾽ ἄρα, ἐὰ_ν ἄρα if really, if after all, if indeed, are commonly used of that which is improbable or undesirable; ει᾽ (ἐὰ_ν) μὴ ἄρα unless perhaps (nisi forte, nisi vero) is often ironical. Thus, ““εἰ ἄρα γέγονεν ὡς οὗτοι ἔλεγονif indeed it did take place as they saidD. 56.28, καὶ μὴν εἰ καὶ τοῦτ᾽ ἄρα δεῖ μ᾽ εἰπεῖν and yet if I must after all say this too 18. 317, πολλάκις τοῖς Ἀθηναίοις παρῄνει, ἢν ἄρα ποτὲ κατὰ γῆν βιασθῶσι . . . ταῖς ναυσὶ πρὸς ἅπαντας ἀνθίστασθαι he often counselled the Athenians, if after all they should ever be hard pressed on the land side, to fight the world with their fleet T. 1.93, ““πῶς ἂν οὖν τοιοῦτος ἀνὴρ διαφθείροι τοὺς νέους; εἰ μὴ ἄρα τῆς ἀρετῆς ἐπιμέλεια διαφθορά_ ἐστινhow then could such a man corrupt the young? unless perchance the study of virtue is corruptionX. M. 1.2.8.

2797. εἰ (ἐὰ_ν) ἄρα is common after σκοπῶ, etc. See 2672.

2798. ἄρα is often used, especially with ὡς, to introduce the statement of others which, in the view of the speaker, is (usually) to be rejected. Thus, ἀκούω αὐτὸν ἐρεῖν ὡς ἄρ᾽ ἐγὼ πάντων ὧν κατηγορῶ κοινωνὸς γέγονα I hear that he is going to say that I forsooth (or if you please) have been a partner in all that I denounced D. 19.202.

2799. Attic has, in bimembral clauses, εἴτε ἄρα . . . εἴτε or εἴτε . . . εἴτε ἄρα, as ““εἴτ᾽ ἀληθὲς εἴτ᾽ ἄρ᾽ οὖν μάτηνwhether truly or after all, it may be, falselyS. Ph. 345. Hom. has also a similar use with οὔτε . . . οὔτε, and . . . . Hom. has ἄρα . . . ἄρα (ψ 887).


ἆρα

2800. ἆρα, a confirmative particle from ¨ ἄρα, is used in lyric and dramatic poetry in the sense of ἄρα. ἆρα is postpositive, except in New Comedy.

““σὸν ἆρα τοὔργον, οὐκ ἐμὸν κεκλήσεταιit shall then be called thy work, not mineS. Aj. 1368. Often with τίς, as τίς ἆρ᾽ ἐμοῦ γένοιτ᾽ ἂν ἀ̈θλιώτερος; who then could be more wretched than I am? Trag. fr. 280. On interrogative ἆρα, see 2650, 2651. Epic ῥα is both confirmatory and interrogative.


ἀτάρ

2801. ἀτάρ (prepositive; Hom. also αὐτάρ from αὖτε ¨ ἄρ) usually poetical, but found in Xenophon and Plato, is an adversative conjunction commonly used to introduce a strong or surprising contrast (but, but yet, however); sometimes to introduce a slight contrast (and, and then), but one stronger than that marked by δέ. ἀτάρ is common as a correlative to μέν. It is often found in lively questions to introduce an objection; in rapid transitions; and sometimes it serves to introduce the apodosis of a conditional sentence. ἀτάρ was largely displaced by the stronger ἀλλά.


αὖ

2802. αὖ (postpositive), an adversative particle meaning on the other hand, on the contrary (properly again). In Hom. it serves as a correlative to μέν or τοι, and to introduce the apodosis of conditional or relative clauses.

αὖ is often used with personal pronouns, as ““ἀλλὰ σὺ αὖ . . . λέγεbut do you in turn tell usX. S. 3. 5; and is often added to δέ, as ““οἱ Ἕλληνες ἐπῇσαν . . . οἱ δ᾽ αὖ βάρβαροι οὐκ ἐδέχοντοthe Greeks came on, but the barbarians on their part did not wait to receive themX. A. 1.10.11. Connected in meaning are the derivatives αὖτε (poetic) and αὖθις.


γάρ

2803. γάρ (postpositive) in fact, indeed , and for, a confirmatory adverb and a causal conjunction. As a conjunction, γάρ usually stands after the first word in its clause; as an adverb, its position is freer. γάρ is especially common in sentences which offer a reason for, or an explanation of, a preceding or following statement. It may be used in successive clauses.

a. γάρ is from γέ ¨ ἄρ ( = ἄρα), γέ originally giving prominence either to the word it followed or to the whole clause, while ἄρα marked this prominence as due to something previously expressed or latent in the context. The compound γάρ originally emphasized a thought either as the result of existing circumstances or as a patent and well known fact. In most uses of the word, however, the force of its component parts cannot be distinguished nor is it clear in many cases whether γάρ is a conjunction or an adverb marking <*>ssurance.

2804. Adverbial γάρ appears in questions, answers, and wishes; and in many other cases where recourse is had to conscious or unconscious ellipse by those scholars who hold that γάρ is always a conjunction. Ellipse is sometimes natural and easy, but often clumsy and artificial. Though we find in parallel use both incomplete and complete clauses with γάρ, it is improbable that the Greeks were conscious of the need of any supplement to explain the thought. In many uses γάρ has become formulaic, serving only to show the natural agreement with the existing situation.

2805. In questions, γάρ asks for confirmation of a preceding statement, or expresses assent or dissent; asks whether an act before mentioned was not reasonable; asks a question prompted by some form of emotion; and serves to indicate transition, etc.

a. In questions γάρ often marks surprise or indignation, and may frequently be translated by what, why, then, really, surely. Thus, ταυτὶ_ λέγεις σὺ στρατηγὸν πτωχὸς ὤν; ἐγὼ γάρ εἰμι πτωχός; do you, beggar that you are, address your general thus? what! I a beggar? Ar. Ach. 593, ζῇ γὰρ ἁ_νήρ; is the man really alive? S. El. 1221, οἴει γάρ σοι μαχεῖσθαι . . . τὸν ἀδελφόν; do you really think that your brother is going to fight? X. A. <*> 7. 9. So τίς γάρ; who then, why who?

b. Brief interrogative for<*>ulae asking for confirmation of a preceding statement are:

τί γάρ; what then, how when, how else? τί γάρ also serves as a formula of transition (now, well then, now what . . ., furthermore).

γάρ; is it not so? surely this is so? (cp. n'est ce pas). Often of surprise.

ου᾽ γάρ; is it not so? often in indignant questions; when not standing alone, why not?

<*>ῶς γάρ; πόθεν γάρ; imply that something is impossible (often of surprise). Cp. πῶς γὰρ οὔ; in negative rhetorical questions.

2806. In answers γά<*> marks assent, assurance, sometimes dissent. Thus, ““δεινόν γε τοὐπίσαγμα τοῦ νοσἡματος. δεινὸν γὰρ οὐδὲ ῥητόνdread indeed is the burden of one disease. Aye dread indeed and beyond all wordsS. Ph. 755, ““ὁμολογεῖς οὖν περὶ ἐμὲ ἄδικος γεγενῆσθαι; γὰρ ἀνάγκηdo you then confess that you have proved yourself unjust toward me? In truth I must indeedX. A. 1.6.8, ““μηδ᾽ αἱ μητέρες τὰ παιδία ἐκδειματούντων . . . μὴ γάρ, ἔφηnor let mothers frighten their children. No indeed, said heP. R. 381e, φῂς τάδ᾽ οὖν; μὴ φρονὼ̂ γὰρ οὐ φιλῶ λέγειν dost thou then consent to this? No, for I am not wont to utter words I do not mean S. O. T. 1520.

a. γάρ is common in brief answers, as after οὐ, δεῖ, ἔοικε, εἰκός, λέγω, ὡμολόγηται. So in the rhetorical questions πῶς γάρ; πῶς γὰρ οὔ; used as answers.

2807. In wishes: ““εἰ γὰρ . . . ἐν τούτῳ εἴηwould that it depended on thatP. Pr. 310d, κακῶς γὰρ ἐξόλοιο oh that you might perish wretchedly E. Cyc. 261. Here γάρ marks the agreement of the wish with the existing situation.

2808. Explanatory (or prefatory) γάρ has the force of now, namely, that is, for example; but usually is not to be translated, and especially when the preceding sentence contains a verb of saying, showing, etc. It usually introduces, as an explanation, the details of that which was promised in an incomplete or general statement; sometimes, without any such statement, it introduces a new fact. Whether this γάρ is an adverb or a conjunction is uncertain. Thus, δοκεῖ τοίνυν μοι χαριέστερον εἶναι μῦθον ὑ_μῖν λέγειν. ἦν γάρ ποτε κτλ. I think it will be more interesting to tell you a myth. Once upon a time there was, etc. P. Pr. 320c, ““οὕτω γὰρ σκοπεῖτεlook at it in this lightL. 19.34 (at the beginning of a new point in the discussion).

2809. Explanatory γάρ often introduces a clause in apposition to a preceding demonstrative, to such expressions as τεκμήριον δέ or μαρτύριον δέ now the proof is this, δῆλον δέ (ἐστιν) it is clear, τὸ δὲ μέγιστον but, what is of the greatest importance, or to relative clauses (995). Thus, ὡς δ᾽ ἔτι μᾶλλον θαρρῇς, καὶ τόδε κατανόησον: οἱ μὲν γὰρ (explaining τόδε) πολέμιοι πολὺ μὲν ἐλά_ττονές εἰσι νῦν πρὶν ἡττηθῆναι ὑφ᾽ ἡμῶν and that you may be still more encouraged, consider this fact too. The enemy (namely) are much fewer now than they were before they were beaten by us X. C. 5.2.36, ἐννοήσωμεν δὲ καὶ τῇδε, ὡς πολλὴ ἐλπίς ἐστιν ἀγαθὸν αὐτὸ εἶναι. δυοῖν γὰρ θά_τερόν ἐστιν τὸ τεθνάναι κτλ. let us consider the matter also in this way and we shall see that there is abundant reason to hope that it is a good: now death must be one of two things, etc. P. A. 40c, μαρτύριον δέ: Δήλου γὰρ καθαιρομένης κτλ. and this is a proof of it: now when Delos was being purified, etc. T. 1.8, ““δ̀ δὲ πάντων σχετλιώτατον: οὓς γὰρ ὁμολογήσαιμεν ἂν πονηροτάτους εἶναι τῶν πολι_τῶν, τούτους πιστοτάτους φύλακας ἡγούμεθα τῆς πολι_τεία_ς εἶναιbut the most abominable of all is this: we consider the most trustworthy guardians of the State to be those men whom we should agree were the worst citizensI. 8.53.

2810. Causal γάρ is a conjunction: for (nam, enim). It serves to introduce a cause of, or a reason for, an action before mentioned; to justify a preceding utterance; to confirm the truth of a previous statement. Causal γάρ often refers to a thought implied in what has preceded. Thus, λεκτέα γιγνώσκω: ἔμπειρος γάρ (causal) εἰμι καὶ τῆς χώρα_ς τῶν Παφλαγόνων καὶ τῆς δυνάμεως. ἔχει γὰρ (explanatory) ἀμφότερα, καὶ πεδία κάλλιστα καὶ ὄρη ὑψηλότατα I must tell what I know, for I am acquainted with the country of the Paphlagonians and its resources; now the country has very fertile plains and very lofly mountains X. A. 5.6.6, ἰού, δύστηνε: τοῦτο γάρ σ᾽ ἔχω μόνον προσειπεῖν alas, ill-fated one! for by this name alone can I address thee S. O. T. 1071, ἐπιστευόμην δὲ ὑπὸ τῶν Λακεδαιμονίων: οὐ γὰρ ἄν με ἔπεμπον πάλιν πρὸς ὑ_μᾶς but I was trusted by the Lacedaemonians; for (otherwise, i.e. εἰ μὴ ἐπίστευον) they would not have sent me back to you P. A. 30c.

2811. Anticipatory γάρ states the cause, justifies the utterance, or gives the explanation, of something set forth in the main clause which follows. The main clause usually contains an inferential word, a demonstrative pointing backward, or καί, δέ, ἀλλά; or stands without a connective. Anticipatory γάρ may often be rendered by since, but is often omitted in translation. Thus, ἔτι τοίνυν ἀκούσατε καὶ τάδε. ἐπὶ λεία_ν γὰρ ὑ_μῶν ἐκπορεύσονταί τινες. οἶμαι νῦν βέλτιστον εἶναι κτλ. listen therefore to this proposal also. Some of you will be going out to plunder. Now it is my opinion that it is best, etc. X. A. 5.1.8, ἐσελθὼν δὲ τὴν ταχίστην, ἦν γάρ οἱ παῖς εἷς μοῦνος . . ., τοῦτον ἐκπέμπει and when he had come in straightway, he sent out his son, for he had one only son Hdt. 1.119, φίλοι, οὐ γάρ τ᾽ ἴδμεν ὅπῃ ζόφος οὐδ᾽ ὅπῃ ἠώς . . . ἀλλὰ φραζώμεθα κτλ. friends, since we do not know where is the place of darkness nor of the dawn, let us consider, etc. κ 190, ““ φίλτατε, σπονδαὶ γάρ εἰσί σοι μόνῳ, μέτρησον εἰρήνης τί μοιmy dear fellow, since you alone have got a truce, measure me out a bit of peaceAr. Ach. 102.

a. In this construction γάρ may be an adverb, not a conjunction. Cases of explanatory γάρ (2808) and of parenthetical γάρ (2812), especially after vocatives, may fall under 2811.

2812. The clause with γάρ since is often inserted parenthetically in the clause which it is intended to explain; as δὲ (κρἱ_νουσι γὰρ βοῇ καὶ οὐ ψήφῳ) οὐκ ἔφη διαγιγνώσκειν τὴν βοὴν ποτέρα_ μείζων but, since they decide by shouts and not by ballot, he said he could not decide which side shouted the louder T. 1.87.

2813. καὶ γάρ has in general two distinct meanings according as γάρ is an adverb or a conjunction. As καὶ γάρ has become a formula, it is often uncertain which of the two words is the adverb, which the conjunction.

2814. (I) καὶ γάρ and in fact, and indeed, καί being a conjunction, and γάρ an adverb. Here the clause in which καὶ γάρ stands is added as a new and important thought; where γάρ alone would state the reason or the explanation with less independence and with slighter emphasis. The negative is οὐδὲ γάρ. Thus Κῦρος δ᾽ ὁρῶν τοὺς Ἕλληνας νι_κῶντας τὸ καθ᾽ αὑτοὺς . . . ἐπεμελεῖτο τι ποιήσει βασιλεύς. καὶ γὰρ ᾔδει αὐτὸν ὅτι μέσον ἔχοι τοῦ Περσικοῦ στρατεύματος on seeing the Greeks victorious over the troops opposed to them, Cyrus watched to see what the king would do; and in fact he knew that he commanded the centre of the Persian force X. A. 1.8.21 (cp. 1. 1. 6, 2. 5. 5, 2. 6. 2). So often in affirmative responses: οὐκ ἀγαπήσεις τούτων τυγχάνων; ἐγὼ μὲν γὰρ ἂν ἀγαπῴην. καὶ γὰρ ἐγώ, ἔφη or will you not be content if you obtain this? For my part I shall be. And so shall I, he said P. R. 473b.

a. καὶ γὰρ καί and even is καὶ γάρ and in fact reënforced by καί. Thus, καὶ γὰρ καὶ ἄδεια ἐφαίνετο αὐτοῖς and in fact it looked to them as if there was perfect safety in so doing T. 4.108. The negative is οὐδὲ γὰρ οὐδέ (2938).

2815. (II) καὶ γάρ for even, for also. Here καί is an adverb affecting a single word, several words, or the whole sentence, and γάρ is a conjunction. The negative is οὐδὲ γάρ. Thus, ““καὶ γὰρ οὗτοιfor these tooP. A. 22c, ““καὶ γὰρ ἠδικημένοι σι_γησόμεσθαfor even wronged as I am I'll keep silentE. Med. 314, καὶ γὰρ μόνος ἡγοῖτ᾽ ἂν δύνασθαι πείθειν for, though quite unaided, he would think that he was able to persuade X. M. 1.2.11.

a. καὶ γὰρ . . . καί for both . . . and: here καί is correlated with a second καί; as ““καὶ γὰρ ὑγιαίνουσιν οἱ τὰ σώματα εὖ ἔχοντες καὶ ἰσχύ_ουσιfor those who keep their bodies in good condition are both healthy and strongX. M. 3.12.4.

2816. ἀλλὰ γάρ occurs both in conjunction and separated by one or several words, which are generally emphatic.

2817. First Form (often but since, since however): here there are two predicates. In prose separation is the rule. Thus, ““ἀλλ᾽, οὐ γὰρ ἔπειθε, διδοῖ τὸ φᾶροςbut since he could not persuade her, he gave her the mantleHdt. 9.109, ἀλλ᾽ ἴσως γὰρ καὶ ἄλλοι ταὐτὰ ἐνθυ_μοῦνται, . . . μὴ ἀναμένωμεν ἄλλους ἐφ᾽ ἡμᾶς ἐλθεῖν κτλ. since however others too perhaps entertain the same opinion, let us not wait for others to come to us, etc. X. A. 3.1.24. In poetry the words are generally not separated. Thus, ἀλλὰ γὰρ Κρέοντα λεύσσω τόνδε . . . πρὸς δόμους στείχοντα, παύσω τοὺς . . . γόους since however I see Creon yonder coming to the palace, I will cease my lamentations E. Phoen. 1307. Here the clause coördinated by the conjunction γάρ is parenthetical and gives, by anticipation, the reason for the ἀλλά clause. Cp. ἀλλ᾽ ἐπεί ε 137, and Shakesp. Sonnet 54: “but, for their virtue only is their show, They live unwoo'd.”—The first form is found chiefly in Homer, Pindar, Herodotus, and in the drama.

2818. Second Form (usually but indeed, but in fact, but the truth is, but be that as it may). Here there is a single predicate. Thus, ““καὶ οὐχ ὡς ἀτι_μάζων λέγω . . . ἀλλὰ γὰρ ἐμοὶ τούτων . . . οὐδὲν μέτεστιand I do not speak in disparagement; but the truth is I have nothing to do with these mattersP. A. 19c, ἀλλὰ γιγνώσκω γὰρ . . . ὅτι κτλ. but indeed I know that, etc. X. C. 2.1.13, ““ἀλλ᾽ εἰσορῶ γὰρ τόνδε . . . Πυλάδην δρόμῳ στείχονταbut indeed I see Pylades yonder coming at full speedE. Or. 725, ““ἀλλ᾽ ου᾽ γὰρ ἔστι τἀ_μφανῆ κρύπτεινbut indeed it is impossible to hide what lies openS. O. C. 755.

a. In this use γάρ may have preserved, or regained, its primitive adverbial (confirmatory) force. Many scholars, however, claim that there was a conscious or unconscious ellipse, after ἀλλά, of an idea pertinent to the situation; and thus regard this form as logically equivalent to the form in which γάρ is a causal conjunction. In actual use ἀλλὰ γάρ was clearly a formula used without any consciousness of an omitted idea.

2819. ἀλλὰ γάρ has a great variety of uses, most of which may be classed as follows:

a. In statements of direct opposition: καὶ ταῦτά σε πολλοῦ δεῖ λεληθέναι, ἀλλὰ γὰρ οἶμαι δ̀ ἄρτι οὐκ ἔφησθα ποιεῖν, τοῦτο ποιεῖς and you are far from forgetting this, but in fact I think you are doing that which you just denied you were doing P. Charm. 166c.

N. This use is post-Homeric, rare in the drama, common in the orators and Plato. It is especially frequent in putting and setting aside an objection supposed to be raised by an opponent (hypophora). Cp. b.

b. In real and assumed objections (cp. at enim): καὶ ἀληθῆ γε ἔλεγον, Σώκρατες. ἴσως. ἀλλὰ γάρ, Εὐθύφρων, καὶ ἀλλὰ πολλὰ φῂς εἶναι ὅσια yes, and I said what was true, Socrates. Perhaps, but in fact, Euthyphron, you say that many other things too are holy P. Euth. 6d, ἀλλὰ γάρ, φήσει τις, οὐ ῥᾴδιον ἀεὶ λανθάνειν κακὸν ὄντα yes, but some one will say that it is not easy always to conceal the fact that one is wicked P. R. 365c.

c. In transitions.—(1) At the close of the discussion of an argument, where the force of ἀλλά is like that of and yet or emphatic but. Thus, ἀλλὰ γάρ, βουλή, ταῦτα μὲν ἐνθάδε οὐκ οἶδ᾽ τι δεῖ λέγειν but, Senators, I do not know why I should discuss these matters here L. 7.42, ““ἀλλὰ γὰρ ἤδη ὥρα_ ἀπιέναιbut it is already time to departP. A. 42a.

(2) To restrain the expression of emotion; as ἀλλ᾽ ἄναξ γάρ ἐστ᾽ ἐμός, σι_γῶ but no, I am silent for he is my king E. El. 1245.

(3) When the approach of a new actor is announced. Cp. 2817, 2818.

2820. Other Combinations.—γὰρ ἄρα for sure enough.

γὰρ δή for of course, for indeed, for you must know, as φαμὲν γὰρ δή for of course we say so.

γὰρ δή που for I presume, for doubtless.

γὰρ οὖν often of frank assent, as οὐ γὰρ οὖν certainly not, λέγω γὰρ οὖν certainly, I do say so; less often to explain (for certainly); καὶ γὰρ οὖν (not very common) is stronger than καὶ γάρ.

γάρ που for I suppose.

γάρ τοι for surely, for mark you; sometimes καὶ γάρ τοι.


γέ

2821. γέ (postpositive and enclitic) is an intensive and restrictive particle with the force of at least, at any rate, even, certainly, indeed; but often to be rendered by intonation. γέ may indicate assent, concession, banter, scorn, deprecation, irony, etc. γέ emphasizes single words or whole phrases or clauses.

a. Single words. So often with pronouns, as ἔγωγε I at least (excluding others), ἐμέ γε cp. mi-ch, γε even he (Hom.), οὗτός γε, and with a repeated pronoun (S. Ph. 117). Other words, as τι βούλει γε whatever you like Ar. Ran. 3, ““πλήθει γε οὐχ ὑπερβαλοίμεθ᾽ ἂν τοὺς πολεμίουςin numbers at least we should not surpass the enemyX. C. 2.1.18.

b. With phrases or clauses. Thus, ““ὡς μή μ᾽ ἄτι_μον, τοῦ θεοῦ γε προστάτην, οὕτως ἀφῇ μεthat he may not thus send me away in dishonour—who am the suppliant of the godS. O. C. 1278, ἀνθρώπους τί_νυσθον, ὅτις γ᾽ ἐπίορκον ὀμόσσῃ ye who punish men who swear falsely Γ 279.

2822. γέ may be used twice in the same sentence. Thus, ““ἐπεί γ᾽ ἀρκοῦνθ᾽ ἱκανὰ τοῖς γε σώφροσινsince indeed that which suffices their wants is enough for the wiseE. Phoen. 545. Cp. Hdt. 1.187, Ar. Vesp. 1507.

2823. γέ stands between article and noun, as οἵ γ᾽ ἄνθρωποι (after a preposition, as ἔν γε τῷ φανερῷ); between noun and adjective, or after the adjective, as ἀνήρ γε σοφός, or ἀνὴρ σοφός γε; after a possessive pronoun, as ἐμός γε θυ_μός; after μέν, δέ, τέ, as ὅτι δέ γε ἀληθῆ λέγω. When γέ influences a whole clause it stands as near as possible to the introductory conjunction; as εἴ γε, ἆρά γε.

2824. γέ in contrasts and alternatives; as σὺ δ᾽ ου᾽ λέγεις γε (αἰσχρά), ““δρᾷς δέ μεthou dost not indeed say, but do shameful things to meE. And. 239, ““ἤτοι κρύφα γε φανερῶςeither secretly or openlyT. 6.34, ““ σοφοὶ τί_μιοι γέροντές γεor wise or held in honour aye or oldP. Hipp. M. 301a (here γέ indicates a change in an alternative series; cp. οὔτε . . . οὔτε . . . οὐδέ γε and καὶ . . . γε 2829).

2825. γέ in replies and comments (yes, well). Thus, δοκεῖ παρεικαθεῖν; ὅσον γ᾽, ἄναξ, τάχιστα does it seem best to you that I should give way? Aye, my lord, and with all speed S. Ant. 1102. Here καὶ . . . γε is common, as καὶ οὐδέν γε ἀτόπως yes, and no wonder P. Th. 142b.

2826. ὅς γε (rarely ὅστις γε) has a causal force, much like qui quidem, quippe qui. Thus, ““ἄτοπα λέγεις . . . ὅς γε κελεύεις ἐμὲ νεώτερον ὄντα καθηγεῖσθαιyou are talking absurdly in bidding me who am the younger take precedenceX. M. 2.3.15. So with other relatives, as οἷος, ὅσος, ὥσπερ.

2827. γέ sometimes marks an ellipse (S. Ph. 1409). When the verb of the apodosis is omitted, the protasis often has γέ (so usually in Aristophanes, e.g. Nub. 267).

2828. When γέ is followed by other particles, it belongs with the emphasized word, and the other particles retain their original force; as ““τούς γε μέντοι ἀγαθούςyet the brave at leastX. A. 1.9.14. So γε δή, γε μὲν δή, γέ τοι (often used like γοῦν in giving a reason for a belief), γέ τοι δή. With the imperative, γέ is rare except when it is followed by another particle, as ὅρα_ γε μήν S. O. C. 587.

2829. After other Particles.—For example:

δέ γε: here γέ usually does not emphasize δέ but either a single word or the whole clause; as ἡμῖν δέ γε οἶμαι πάντα ποιητέα but we at least, in my opinion, should adopt every means X. A. 3.1.35. δὲ . . . γε is often used when two things are compared, in order to show that one is more important than the other.

καὶ . . . γε sometimes means yes, and and sometimes γέ emphasizes the intervening word. Thus, κοὐδέν γε θαῦμα yes, and no wonder S. O. T. 1132, ““καὶ στίβου γε οὐδεὶς κτύποςand of footsteps there is no soundS. Ph. 29. καὶ . . . γε often emphasizes one item in a series, and especially the last item, Here καὶ . . . γέ προς (καὶ πρός γε) and besides is common. Cp. P. G. 450d, 469 b.

μέν γε lends force to a contrast (P. S. 180d); sometimes it has the force of that is to say, for example (T. 6.86).

Frequent combinations are ἀλλ᾽ οὖν . . . γε, μέντοι . . . γε, μὴν . . . γε, οὐκοῦν . . . γε.


γοῦν

2830. γοῦν (postpositive; first in Aeschylus) is a restrictive particle from γέ ¨ οὖν. Its meaning varies according to the prominence of the γέ or οὖν; often certainly, at any rate (at all events, at least). γοῦν commonly confirms a previous general assertion by giving a special instance of its truth (the special instance may be a seeming exception). γοῦν is thus used in bringing forward a reason, which, while not absolutely conclusive, is the most probable explanation of a previous statement.

““ἔτι γὰρ οὗτοι κακί_ονές εἰσι τῶν ὑφ᾽ ἡμῶν ἡττημένων: ἔφευγον γοῦν πρὸς ἐκείνους καταλιπόντες ἡμᾶςfor they are even more cowardly than those who were beaten by us. At any rate they deserted us and sought refuge with themX. A. 3.2.17.

2831. γοῦν may emphasize a pronoun; as πρὸς γοῦν ἐμοῦ S. Aj. 527, τὰ γοῦν σά S. El. 1499.

2832. In answers γοῦν means well, at least; yes certainly; as εἰκὸς γοῦν X. C. 5.3.14.

2833. γοῦν finds the proof of an assertion in one of several possible facts or occurrences; γάρ gives the reason in general, but gives no particular instance; δ᾽ οὖν has an adversative force: ‘be that as it may, yet at any rate.’


δέ

2834. δέ (postpositive) was originally an adverb with a force not unlike that of on the other hand, on the contrary; later it became a conjunction commonly represented by but or and, which are, however, mere makeshifts of translation. δέ serves to mark that something is different from what precedes, but only to offset it, not to exclude or contradict it; it denotes only a slight contrast, and is therefore weaker than ἀλλά, but stronger than καί. δέ is adversative and copulative; but the two uses are not always clearly to be distinguished.

2835. Adversative δέ often marks a silent contrast, as at the beginning of speeches (ἐγὼ δὲ οὕτω γιγνώσκω X. A. 4.6.10); in questions which imply opposition to something just said (S. O. C. 57); in answers (S. O. T. 379); in objections or corrections (S. Ant. 517); in τὸ δέ, τὰ δέ on the contrary, whereas really, where a true opinion is opposed to a false one; similarly in νῦν δέ but in fact, but as the case stands. When δέ is balanced by μέν (2904) it is antithetical rather than adversative.

a. δέ after a pronoun following a vocative produces a pause; as Νιόβα_ σὲ δ᾽ ἔγωγε νέμω θεόν ah Niobe, thee I regard as divine S. El. 150.

b. δέ instead of ἀλλά is rare except in the poets and Thucydides. Thus, προμηνύ_σῃς γε τοῦτο μηδενὶ τοὖργον, κρυφῆ δὲ κεῦθε make known this plan to no one, but hide it in secret S. Ant. 85, ““οὐκ ἐπὶ κακῷ, ἐπ᾽ ἐλευθερώσει δὲ τῶν Ἑλλήνων παρελήλυθαI have come, not to harm, but to liberate, the GreeksT. 4.86. Sometimes οὐ μέν precedes when δέ is used like ἀλλά<*>T. 1.50).

c. But not is ἀλλ᾽ ου᾽ or οὐ μέντοι, not οὐ δέ, in order to avoid confusion with οὐδέ nor, not even. But οὐ and δέ may be separated, as ““οὐ βουλομένων δέ . . . προσχωρεῖνbut since they did not wish to surrenderX. H. 1.6.13.

2836. Copulative δέ marks transition, and is the ordinary particle used in connecting successive clauses or sentences which add something new or different, but not opposed, to what precedes, and are not joined by other particles, such as γάρ or οὖν.

Copulative δέ is common in marking continuation, especially when something subordinate is added. Thus, when a new phase of a narrative is developed (X. A. 1.2.7-8); where attention is called to a new point or person (as in τί δ᾽ ἔστιν;); when an interrupted speech or narrative is resumed (X. C. 1.6.41, S. Tr. 281); where a second relationship is added (μήτηρ βασιλέως, βασίλεια δ᾽ ἐμή the mother of the King, and my Queen A. Pers. 151, Ἠιόνα . . . Μενδαίων ἀποικία_ν, πολεμία_ν δὲ οὖσαν he seized Eïon, a colony of Mende, and which had been hostile T. 4.7); when δέ has a force like that of γάρ (X. C. 6.3.16); and in καὶ . . . δέ and also (Epic καὶ δέ), 2891.

2837. Apodotic δέ.—The beginning of the principal clause (apodosis) of conditional and concessive sentences is often marked by δέ. Apodotic δέ is found also in the principal clause of causal, temporal, comparative, and relative sentences; and regularly gives greater emphasis to the main clause, which is thus distinctly set off against the subordinate clause. Apodotic δέ is very common in Homer and Herodotus, not rare in Attic poetry, but infrequent in Attic prose, where it is used especially after an emphatic personal or demonstrative pronoun or when a participle represents the antecedent clause. Thus, εἷος ταῦθ᾽ ὥρμαινε . . ., ἦλθε δ᾽ Ἀθήνη while he was revolving these things, then came Athene A 193, ““εἰ οὖν ἐγὼ μὴ γιγνώσκω μήτε τὰ ὅσια μήτε τὰ δίκαια, ὑ_μεῖς δὲ διδάξετέ μεaccordingly if I have no knowledge either of what is holy or what is just, do you then instruct meX. H. 4.1.33, ““ἐπεὶ τοίνυν οὐ δύναμαί σε πείθειν μὴ ἐκθεῖναι, σὺ δὲ ὧδε ποίησονsince therefore I am not able to persuade you not to expose it, do you then do as followsHdt. 1.112, ““ἐκάθευδον . . . ὥσπερ οἱ ὁπλῖται οὕτω δὲ καὶ οἱ πελτασταίas the hoplites so also the peltasts sleepX. C. 8.5.12, ““ἐπειδὴ δὲ ἀφικόμενοι μάχῃ ἐκράτησαν . . ., φαίνονται δ᾽ οὐδ᾽ ἐνταῦθα πά_σῃ τῇ δυνάμει χρησάμενοιbut when on their arrival they had conquered in battle, not even then did they appear to have made use of their entire forceT. 1.11, ““καί ποτε ὄντος πάγου . . . οὗτος δ᾽ ἐν τούτοις ἐξῄειand once when there was a frost he went out in the midst of thisP. S. 220b.

a. Apodotic δέ often resumes a δέ in the subordinate clause and carries on the opposition expressed by that clause; as εἰ δὲ βούλεσθε . . . ἐκλεξάμενοι ὅποι ἂν βούλησθε κατασχεῖν . . ., πλοῖα δ᾽ ὑ_μῖν πάρεστιν but if you wish to select some place wherever you please and take possession of it, you have ships at command X. A. 5.6.20, δ᾽ αἰσχύ_νην ἡμῖν φέρει . . ., ταῦτα δὲ κατὰ χώρα_ν μένει but the terms which cause us shame, these remain in force I. 4.176.

b. The use of apodotic δέ should not be regarded as a survival of original coördination.

2838. δέ without μέν.—A clause with δέ often has no correlative particle in the clause with which it is contrasted. Here μέν is not used because the opposition in the first clause was too weak, or because the speaker did not intend to announce a following contrast or did not think he was going to use a contrasted δέ clause. Sometimes the entire first clause may have to be supplied in thought from the general connection or from what has gone before. δέ without μέν in such cases is common in poetry, but not rare in prose, even in brief antitheses, as πάντες ἀεὶ γλίχονται λέγειν, ἀξίως δ᾽ οὐδεὶς εἰπεῖν δεδύνηται exploits which everybody continually desires to recount, but which no one has been able to set forth adequately D. 6.11. See also 2835.

a. When a relative construction passes over into a construction with a personal or demonstrative pronoun, the relative clause usually has no μέν. Cp. Soph. Aj. 457, quoted in 2517.

b. οἱ δέ, when opposed to a larger number of persons or things, is often used without οἱ μέν, as προεληλυθότες ἐπὶ χι_λόν, οἱ δ᾽ ἐπὶ ξύλα having gone for fodder, and some for fuel X. C. 6.3.9.

2839. δέ with other Particles.—For example:

δ᾽ ἄρα, which sometimes follows μέν.

δ᾽ αὖ and ὅμως δέ mark stronger opposition than δέ alone.

δὲ δή but then, but now, well but is often used in passing to a new point. In Aristophanes this collocation is used almost always in questions.


δή

2840. δή (postpositive except in Hom. δὴ γάρ and poetic δὴ τότε) marks something as immediately present and clear to the mind, and gives greater precision, positiveness, and exactness. It sets forth what is obvious, acknowledged, and natural, and often corresponds to voilà. δή is used with single words (especially adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, and conjunctions) or, as a sentence adverb, with whole clauses. δή usually stands after the word it emphasizes, though it may be separated from it by one or more other words.

2841. δή of what is Obvious and Natural.—Thus, ἴστε δή you know of course, δεῖ δή it is manifestly necessary. So ““οὐχ οἵτως ἔχει; ἔχει δήis not this so? Of course it isP. A. 27c, ““νῦν δ᾽ ὁρᾶτε δήbut now you certainly seeX. C. 3.2.12, Παρύσατις μὲν δὴ μήτηρ ὑπῆρχε τῷ Κύ_ρῳ Parysatis, his mother, naturally supported Cyrus X. A. 1.1.4.

2842. Ironical δή.—Thus, ““Σωκράτης σοφὸς δήSocrates the wise forsoothP. A. 27a; often ὡς δή, as ““ὡς δὴ σύ μοι τύραννος Ἁργείων ἔσῃthat you forsooth should be the lord and master of the Argives!A. Ag. 1633.

2843. Intensive δή emphasizes, and makes definite, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, and other words. Thus, ἅπαντες δή absolutely all, κράτιστοι δή the very best, μόνος δή quite alone, ὀλίγοι δή very few; οὕτω δή just so, ὥσπερ δή exactly as, πολλάκις δή very often, δῆλα δή quite plain, νῦν δή just now, now at once; ἐκεῖνος δή this (and no other), δ̀ς δή who indeed. With indefinite pronouns δή increases the indefiniteness (339 e); as ὅστις δή whoever at all. With other words: εἰ δή if indeed, οὐ δή no indeed, ἵνα δή that in truth.

a. With imperatives and in questions δή adds urgency; as ἄκουε δή pray listen! τί δή; why, pray?

2844. δή may introduce emphatically the conclusion of a temporal sentence or of a narrative on passing to a new topic; as ἐνταῦθα δή, τότε δή then indeed, then and not till then, then it was that. Cp. X. A. 1.10.1.

2845. Temporal δή often, especially with καί, approximates in meaning to ἤδη already. Thus, ““ δὲ θανὼν κεύθει κάτω δὴ γῆςbut he is dead and already is hidden beneath the earthS. O. T. 967, ὁπότε . . . θηρῴης καὶ δὴ δύο ἡμέρα_ς when you have hunted (already) for two days X. C. 2.4.17, καὶ δὴ λέγω σοι well I will tell thee (without further ado) S. Ant. 245. So also in τέλος δή, νῦν δή.—Of succession, δή means next.—Poetic δαὖτε (δὴ αὖτε) means now again.

2846. Consecutive and Resumptive δή is used to set forth an inference, draw a conclusion, denote a consequence, and mark a transition (μὲν δὴ . . . δέ). Here δή is a sentence adverb: accordingly, then, of course, clearly, you see, I say. Thus, ““ἔλεγον ὅτι κατίδοιεν νύκτωρ πολλὰ πυρὰ φαίνοντα. ἐδόκει δὴ τοῖς στρατηγοῖς οὐκ ἀσφαλὲς εἶναι διασκηνοῦνthey said that they had seen many fires visible in the night; accordingly it seemed to the generals to be unsafe to encamp apartX. A. 4.4.10, ““φεραύλα_ς μὲν δὴ οὕτως εἶπεν: ἀνί_σταντο δὲ καὶ ἄλλοι πολλοίPherauias then spake thus; and many others also rose to speakX. C. 2.3.16.

2847. καὶ δή: (a) Introduces a climax, as καὶ δὴ τὸ μέγιστον and above all, what is the main thing P. A. 41b. (b) In replies = well; as βλέψον κάτω: καὶ δὴ βλέπω look down! Well, I am looking Ar. Av. 175. This is akin to the temporal use. (c) In assumptions = suppose (1771). On καὶ δὴ καί see 2890.


δαί, δῆθεν, δήπου, δῆτα

2848. δαί is used in colloquial Attic after interrogative words to express wonder, indignation, etc. Thus, τί δαί; πῶς δαί; what then? how so?

2849. δῆθεν truly, forsooth, is commonly used of apparent or pretended truth, and mostly with an ironical tone. Thus, ““ἐκερτόμησας δῆθεν ὡς παῖδ᾽ ὄντα μεthou hast mocked me forsooth as though I were a childA. Pr. 986.

2850. δήπου probably, I presume, I should hope, doubtless, you will admit, is stronger than πού perhaps, I suppose. δήπου often has a touch of irony or doubt in stating a case that would seem to be certain; as ἴστε δήπου ὅθεν ἥλιος ἀνίσχει you know, I presume, where the sun rises X. A. 5.7.6. In questions δήπου expects the answer yes. οὐ δήπου certainly not and is it not so? (with irony).

2851. δῆτα assuredly, really, in truth, is rare outside of Attic. It occurs: (a) In answers, often when a word is repeated with assent; as ““γιγνώσκεθ᾽ ὑ_μεῖς ἥτις ἔσθ᾽ ἥδ᾽ γυνή; γιγνώσκομεν δῆταdo you know who this woman is? Yes indeed we doAr. Thesm. 606; οὐ δῆτα surely not, in strong or indignant denial. (b) In questions, to mark an inference or consequence, as πῶς δῆτα; how in truth? τί δῆτα; what then? καὶ δῆτα ἐτόλμας; and didst thou really dare? S. Ant. 449. (c) In wishes and deprecations (stronger than δή), as ““σκόπει δῆταonly lookP. G. 452b, μὴ δῆτα, θυ_μέ, μή σύ γ᾽ ἐργάσῃ τάδε no indeed, my heart, do not this deed E. Med. 1056.


εἴτε

2852. εἴτε (from εἰ ¨ τέ), a disjunctive particle, generally doubled: εἴτε . . . εἴτε whether . . . or (2675), if . . . or (siue . . . siue), giving equal value to each supposition.

a. With the subjunctive we find ἐά_ν τε (ἤν τε, ἄ_ν τε). Hom. has εἴτε . . . εἴτε, but not ἤν τε . . . ἤν τε, with the subjunctive. In the same sense Hom. has . . . and ἤτε . . . ἤτε with the subjunctive.

2853. There are various forms of εἴτε clauses:

a. Both εἴτε clauses may have the same finite verb in common, which verb is used only once; as ““εἴτε βούλεσθε πολεμεῖν ἡμῖν εἴτε φίλοι εἶναιwhether you wish to wage war upon us or to be our friendsX. C. 3.2.13.

b. Each εἴτε clause has its own verb and its own main clause; as ἐκέλευσέ σε, εἴτε πάντας αἰτιᾷ, κρί_ναντα σὲ αὐτὸν χρῆσθαι τι ἂν βούλῃ, εἴτε ἕνα τινὰ δύο . . . αἰτιᾷ, τούτους ἀξιοῦσι παρασχεῖν σοι ἑαυτοὺς εἰς κρίσιν the army requests that, if you accuse all, you pass sentence on them and treat them as you may think best; or, if you accuse one or two, they think it right that these men should surrender themselves to you for judgment X. A. 6.6.20.

c. One main clause refers to both εἴτε clauses; as ““ ἀγαθὸς ἀνὴρ . . . εὐδαίμων ἐστὶ . . . ἐά_ν τε μέγας καὶ ἰσχυ_ρός, ἐά_ν τε σμι_κρὸς καὶ ἀσθενὴς the good man is happy whether he is large and strong or small and weakP. L. 660e.

d. Neither εἴτε clause has a verb, which is to be supplied from the main clause; as λέγοντες, εἴτ᾽ ἀληθὲς εἴτ᾽ ἄρ᾽ οὖν μάτην (ἔλεγον) saying, whether truly or after all, it may be, falsely S. Ph. 345.

e. One εἴτε clause has its own verb, while the other gets its verb from the main clause (rare); as ἐμοὶ σὺ . . . φαίνῃ . . . χρησμῳδεῖν, εἴτε παρ᾽ Εὐθύφρονος ἐπίπνους γενόμενος (χρησμῳδεῖς), ““εἴτε καὶ ἄλλη τις μοῦσα πάλαι σε ἐνοῦσα ἐλελήθειyou seem to me to utter prophecies, whether you were inspired by Euthyphron or whether some other muse has long been present in you without your knowing itP. Crat. 428c.

2854. Variations: εἴτε . . . (common): εἴτε Λυ_σία_ς τις ἄλλος πώποτε ἔγραψεν γράψει κτλ. whether Lysias or anybody else whoever wrote or will write, etc. P. Phae. 277d. . . . εἴτε: only in poetry (S. Aj. 175). εἴτε . . . εἰ δέ: when the second member is more important (P. L. 952c). On ει᾽ . . . εἴτε see 2675 d. On εἴτε for εἴτε . . . εἴτε see 2675 b, N. 2.

2855. εἴτε may be strengthened by ἄρα, δή, καί, or οὖν. οὖν is usually placed after the first εἴτε; like καί, it may stand after the second also. When καί stands only after the second εἴτε, its clause is weaker than the first (D. 18.57).


2856. Disjunctive (Epic ἠέ) or (uel, aut); and repeated: . . . either . . . or (uel . . . uel, aut . . . aut) to connect the two members more closely.

““ἀγαθὸν κακόνgood or badX. A. 1.9.11, ““ τι οὐδένlittle or nothingP. A. 17b. with the subjunctive is often used when a speaker corrects himself; as νῦν δ᾽ αὖ τρίτος ἦλθέ ποθεν σωτήρ, μόρον εἴπω; and now, again, the third has come, the deliverer—or shall I call it a deed of death? A. Ch. 1074. On in questions, see 2657, 2675.

2857. Between ascending numbers has the force of Eng. to, as ““ἐν ἓξ ἑπτὰ ἡμέραιςin six to seven daysX. C. 5.3.28.

2858. ἤτοι may be used instead of the first when the first member, as is commonly the case, contains the more probable choice. In English the order is often inverted. Thus, ““ἤτοι κλύουσα παιδὸς τύχῃ πάραshe comes either by chance or because she has heard about her sonS. Ant. 1182. ἤτοι may be followed by several times. ἤτοι . . . γε is more emphatic, as ““ἤτοι κρύφα γε φανερῶςeither secretly or openlyT. 6.34.

2859. often indicates that a given result will follow in case the action of the previous clause is not realized: or else (cp. εἰ δὲ μή, 2346 d). Thus, ““ὅπως . . . ὑ_μεῖς ἐμὲ ἐπαινέσετε, ἐμοὶ μελήσει: μηκέτι με Κῦρον νομίζετεit shall be my concern that you commend me; or else my name is no longer CyrusX. A. 1.4.16.

2860. often does not introduce an alternative to a previous question, but substitutes instead another question which is more specific and intended to anticipate the answer to the first (or rather, or precisely). Thus, λέγε ἡμῖν πῶς με φῂς διαφθείρειν τοὺς νεωτέρους; δῆλον δὴ ὅτι . . . θεοὺς διδάσκειν μὴ νομίζειν οὓς πόλις νομίζει; tell us how you mean that I corrupt the young? Or rather clearly you mean that (I corrupt them) by teaching them not to acknowledge the gods which the State acknowledges? P. A. 26b.

2861. often introduces an argument ex contrario (D. 31.14).

2862. καί is often used where would suffice (cp. 2888 a); as ξένος καί τις πο<*>`ί_της either an alien or a citizen if you will (or as well) D. 20.123.

2863. Comparative than is used to mark difference. It stands after comparatives where the genitive or a preposition (1069 ff.) is not used, and after words indicating difference or diversity or having a comparative force, e.g., ἄλλος or ἕτερος other, ἄλλως otherwise, διάφορος different, διαφέρειν to be different, ἐναντίος contrary, διπλάσιος twice as much, πρίν sooner.

““ἄλλα τὰ γενόμεναthings different from what occurredX. C. 3.1.9, ἄλλο οὐδὲν ἐκ γῆς ἐναυμάχουν T. 4.14 (2778 a), τῇ ὑστεραίᾳ δεῖ με ἀποθνῄσκειν ἂν ἔλθῃ τὸ πλοῖον I must die the day after (that on which) the ship arrives P. Cr. 44a (here or might be omitted), τἀ_ναντία . . . τοὺς κύνας ποιοῦσι differently from the way they treat dogs X. A. 5.8.24, ““τὸν ἥμισυν σῖτον πρόσθενhalf as much corn as beforeX. H. 5.3.21.

a. After τί or a negative, may be used without ἄλλος, as τί ποιῶν εὐωχούμενος; doing what else except feasting? P. Cr. 53e, ““εἶπε μηδένα παριέναι τοὺς φίλουςhe said that they should let no one pass except his friendsX. C. 7.5.41.

b. Often after verbs of willing, choosing, etc.; as ““θάνατον μετ᾽ ἐλευθερία_ς αἱρούμενοι βίον μετὰ δουλεία_ςpreferring death with freedom rather than life with servitudeL. 2.62. Here we might have μᾶλλον , which is usually not separated, and especially when μᾶλλον belongs to the whole sentence.

c. If two clauses connected by have the same verb it may be omitted in the clause following ; as ἔπρα_ττες ἀλλοῖον οἱ πολλοί (πρά_ττουσι) you behaved differently from the rest P. A. 20c.

d. On ὥστε (ὡς), or alone, than so as to, see 2264.


2864. Asseverative (prepositive) in truth, in sooth, verily, upon my honour, etc.; as καλῶς λέγεις P. G. 447c.

2865. is usually associated with other particles.

γάρ when used alone in dialogue = is it not so? Cp. n'est ce pas, nicht wahr? Elsewhere it often has the force of am I to understand that asked with surprise. Thus, γὰρ νοεῖς θάπτειν σφ᾽, ἀπόρρητον πόλει; what, dost thou in truth intend to bury him, when it is forbidden to the citizens? S. Ant. 44.

δή expresses lively surprise.

καί is found in animated questions. Here καί goes closely with .

μήν (Hom. μέν, μά_ν) prefaces strong asseverations, threats, and oaths, in direct and indirect discourse. Thus, ““ μὴν ἐγὼ ἔπαθόν τι τοιοῦτονin truth this was my experienceP. A. 22a, ““ὄμνυ_μι θεοὺς . . . μὴν μήτε με Ξενοφῶντα κελεῦσαι ἀφελέσθαι τὸν ἄνδρα μήτε ἄλλον ὑ_μῶν μηδέναI swear by the gods upon my honour neither did Xenophon nor any one else among you bid me rescue the manX. A. 6.6.17.

που indeed, methinks, in poetry I ween. Here the shade of doubt indicated by πού is not real.

2866. Interrogative (2650) is probably the same as asseverative .


ἠδέ (AND ἰδε

2867. ἠδέ and (Epic, lyric, tragic); also in conjunction with τε καί, or δέ. ἠμέν . . . ἠδέ (Epic) is used like τὲ . . . τέ, καὶ . . . καί.

ἰδέ and (Epic, rare in tragedy) is used where ἠδέ does not suit the metre.


καί

2868. καί is both a copulative conjunction (and) connecting words, clauses, or sentences; and an adverb meaning also, even.


Conjunctional καί

2869. Copulative καί often has an intensive or heightening force; as where it joins a part and the whole, the universal and the particular. Thus, ἐν Ἀθηναίοις καὶ τοῖς Ἕλλησι Ar. Nub. 413, Ζεῦ καὶ θεοί Ar. Pl. 1 (θεοὶ καὶ Ζεύς the gods and above all Zeus), ἐνταῦθα ἔμειναν ἡμέρα_ς τρεῖς καὶ ἧκε Μένων X. A. 1.2.6. On καὶ ταῦτα, see 947, 2083.

a. Here καί often = namely, for example, and so where an antecedent statement is explained either by another word or by an example. Cp. X. A. 1.9.14, 4. 1. 19, 5. 2. 9, 5. 6. 8.

2870. The heightening force is also seen where καί with corrective force may be rendered by or; often to set forth a climax and not an alternative. Thus, ““σοφία_ ὀλίγου τινὸς ἀξία_ καὶ οὐδενόςwisdom worth little or nothingP. A. 23a, ““μαχαιροποιοὶ . . . ἀνὰ πέντε μνᾶς καὶ ἕξsword-cutlers worth five or six minas eachD. 27.9, ““προιοῦσι δὲ καὶ ἀπιοῦσι πόλεμοςbut war if we advance or retireX. A. 2.1.21, ““καὶ δίκαια κἄ_δικαright or wrongAr. Nub. 99, σὸς (γόνος), ““κει᾽ μὴ σόςthy son, or if not thineS. O. C. 1323.

2871. καί often has an adversative force; as where it joins a negative to an affirmative clause. Here καὶ οὐ (μή) is almost = but not, as in ἐμ᾽ ἐχειροτόνησαν καὶ οὐχ ὑ_μᾶς they elected me and (= but) not you D. 18.288. So also where καί is like καίτοι and yet; as ““χαίρων ἄπιθι: καί σ᾽ ἄ_κων ἐγὼ λείπωfare thee well; and yet I leave thee unwillinglyAr. Eq. 1250. To connect negative clauses οὐδέ is used.

2872. In questions, καί before an interrogative expression marks an objection occasioned by surprise or indignation; as καὶ τίς θανόντων ἦλθεν ἐξ Ἅιδου πάλιν; and, pray, who of the dead has come back from Hades? E. H. F. 297. So καὶ πῶς; pray, how comes it that? Cp. Eng. and when a speaker is stopped by an abrupt question.

a. After an interrogative expression adverbial καί asks for further information concerning a statement assumed to be true. Thus, ποίου χρόνου δὲ καὶ πεπόρθηται πόλις; but when was the city captured? A. Ag. 278. Cp. 2884.

2873. In imperative sentences καί often means and now, just. Thus, ““καί μοι ἀνάγνωθι τὸ ψήφισμαand now read me the billL. 13.35, ““καί μοι ἀπόκρι_ναιjust answer meP. A. 25a.

2874. καί may mark a result (P. Th. 154c, quoted in 2288).

2875. After expressions of sameness and likeness καί has the force of as (Lat. ac). Thus, ““ αὐτὸς ὑ_μῖν στόλος ἐστὶ καὶ ἡμῖνyour expedition is the same as oursX. A. 2.2.10, ““οὐχ ὁμοίως καὶ πρίνnot the same as beforeT. 7.28, ἴσα καὶ ἱκέται the same as suppliants 3. 14, ““ταὐτὰ καίthe same asX. C. 1.3.18. This use is commoner in prose than poetry.

2876. In expressions denoting coincidence of time καί often has the force of when. So ἅμα . . . καί (2169), ἤδη . . . καί X. A. 2.1.7, οὔπω . . . καί P. Eu. 277b, οὐκ ἔφθην . . . καί (εὐθύς) I had not got the start . . . when I. 19.22, D. 43.69. Cp. καὶ . . . καί in ““καὶ ἥκομεν καὶ ἡμῖν ἐξελθὼν θυρωρὸς . . . εἶπεν περιμένεινas soon as we arrived the doorkeeper came out and told us to waitP. Ph. 59e.

2877. καὶ . . . καί both . . . and, not only . . . but also, as . . . so, as well as . . . as also, sometimes whether . . . or, emphasizes each member separately, and forms a less close combination than τὲ καί. Thus, καὶ τότε καὶ νῦν not only then but also now. So ““τι_μὰ_ς δοτέον καὶ ζῶντι καὶ τελευτήσαντιhonours must be paid him both when living and after deathP. R. 414a, σὺ καὶ δέδορκας κου᾽ βλέπεις thou both hast sight and (yet) dost not see S. O. T. 413, ““κἀ_πεμπόμην πρὸς ταῦτα καὶ τὸ πᾶν φράσωas I was sent for this purpose so I will tell thee allS. El. 680, ““τολμᾶν ἀνάγκη, κἂ_ν τύχω κἂ_ν μὴ τύχωI must dare whether I succeed or failE. Hec. 751.

2878. In a series of more than two ideas καί is used before each, where English would use and only before the last. Thus, ““συντυγχάνουσιν αὐτῷ καὶ λαμβάνουσιν αὐτὸν καὶ γυναῖκα καὶ παῖδας καὶ τοὺς ἵππους καὶ πάντα τὰ ὄνταthey fell upon him and seized him, his wife, his children, his horses, and all his possessionsX. A. 7.8.22.

2879. Adjectives of quantity, as πολύς and ὀλίγος in the plural, are usually joined to an adjective in the same construction by καί or τὲ καί (also by τέ or τὲ . . . τέ in poetry). Thus, πολλὰ καὶ δεινά D. 37.57 (δεινὰ καὶ πολλά 37. 57), πολλά τε καὶ δεινά X. A. 5.5.8. In πολλὰ καὶ μεγάλα ἀγαθά (X. C. 1.5.9), the substantive is qualified by two adjectives; whereas in English the second adjec tive is taken with the substantive and treated as a unit modified by the first adjective (many good-things).

a. πολλοὶ καὶ ἄλλοι means many others also (with καί adverbial). For many others we find ἄλλοι πολλοί (very common) or πολλοὶ ἄλλοι.

2880. Some combinations of conjunctional καί are:

καὶ . . . μέντοι and however, and of course (in καὶ μέντοι καί the first καί may be adverbial: yes indeed and).

καὶ . . . τοίνυν and . . . further, in connecting a thought with the preceding.


Adverbial καί

2881. Adverbial καί also, even (Lat. etiam) influences single words or whole clauses. Adverbial καί stresses an important idea; usually the idea set forth in the word that follows, but sometimes also a preceding word when that word stands first in its clause. καί often serves to increase or diminish the force of particular words; sometimes it gives a tone of modesty.

2882. With single words: a. κᾆτα then too, καὶ ἐγώ I on my part, ““σὸν κἀ_μὸν γένοςoffspring from thee or me eitherS. El. 965, ““βουλόμενος δὲ καὶ αὐτὸς λαμπρόν τι ποιῆσαιdesirous of himself too doing something illustriousX. C. 5.4.15.

b. καὶ πρίν even before, καὶ ὀψέ late though it be, καὶ οὕτως even so, καὶ ἔτι καὶ νῦν and now too, and still even now, ὀκνῶ καὶ λέγειν I fear even to say it, ““πολλὴ μωρία_ καὶ τοῦ ἐπιχειρήματοςthe very attempt is utter follyP. Pr. 317a. On καί though with a participle, see 2083.

c. Often with adverbs of intensity, as καὶ μάλα exceedingly, certainly, καὶ κάρτα very greatly, καὶ πάνυ absolutely. With comparatives and superlatives: καὶ μᾶλλον yet more, ““καὶ μωρότατονaltogether the most foolish thingX. A. 3.2.22.

2883. With a whole phrase or clause; as ἄμφω γὰρ αὐτὼ καὶ κατακτανεῖν νοεῖς; what, dost thou indeed intend to put them both to death? S. Ant. 770. Other examples in 2885-2887.

2884. When καί stresses a verb in interrogative and conditional sentences it is often to be rendered by an emphatic auxiliary, often by at all. Thus, πολλάκις ἐσκεψάμην τί καὶ βούλεσθε I have often asked myself the question what you can want T. 6.38, τί καὶ χρὴ προσδοκᾶν; what on earth is one to expect? D. 4.46, τί γὰρ ἄν τις καὶ ποιοῖ ἄλλο; for what else could one do? P. Ph. 61e, ““εἰ δεῖ καὶ μῦθον λέγειν καλόνif it is well to tell a fable at allP. Ph. 110b. Cp. 2872 a.

a. In affirmative independent clauses or sentences καί often has an emphasis which is difficult to render; as ““ κίνδυ_νος νῦν δὴ καὶ δόξειεν ἂν δεινὸς εἶναιthe danger must now indeed seem to be dreadfulP. Ph. 107c.

2885. Καί of Balanced Contrast.—In order to mark the connection of thought between antecedent and consequent, καί also, too, is often placed in the subordinate clause or in the main clause or in both.

a. Greek has thus the following modes of expression where a comparison is instituted between the parts of such bimembral sentences: “What I do, that you also do” (as in English) or “What I also ( = I on my part) do, that you do” or “What I also do, that you also do.” In the subordinate clause καί seems superfluous to English idiom.

2886. Καί of balanced contrast occurs frequently when the subordinate clause sets forth something corresponding to, or deducible from, the main clause; and when an antithesis is to be emphasized. It is found especially in relative, causal, and final clauses, and has the effect of putting such subordinate clauses on a plane with the main clause. A relative word often adds -περ or is followed by δή. Thus, ““τὰ δὲ τῆς πόλεως ἔπρα_ττον, ὧνπερ ἕνεκεν καὶ Σωκράτει προσῆλθονthey devoted themselves to those affairs of state on account of which they had in fact associated with SocratesX. M. 1.2.47, ““καὶ ἡμῖν ταὐτὰ δοκεῖ ἅπερ καὶ βασιλεῖwe hold exactly the same views as the kingX. A. 2.1.22, ““ἐπειδὴ καὶ πόλις ἐσώθη . . . ἀξιῶ κἀ_μοὶ σωτηρία_ν γενέσθαιsince the city has been saved I beg that safety be granted to me as wellAnd. 1.143, ἔμαθον καὶ ἐγὼ ὥσπερ καὶ οἱ ἄλλοι I (on my part) learned just as the rest did too P. Alc. 110d, ““τι_μωρία_ γὰρ οὐκ εὐτυχεῖ δικαίως ὅτι καὶ ἀδικεῖταιfor vengeance is not successful in accordance with justice, because it is taken upon a wrongT. 4.62.

2887. In final clauses ἵνα καί is common, and sometimes, like Eng. just, serves to show that the fact answers to the expectation, or the effect to the cause (or vice versa). Thus, βούλει οὖν ἕπεσθαι ἵνα καὶ ἴδῃς τοὺς ὄντας αὐτόθι; do you wish to go along then just to see those who are there? P. Lys. 204a, ““ἄρξομαι δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς ἰ_α_τρικῆς λέγων ἵνα καὶ πρεσβεύωμεν τὴν τέχνηνI will begin my speech with medicine in order that we may do honour to our artP. S. 186b.

2888. Καί of balanced contrast appears also in coördinate clauses; as ““ἤδη γὰρ ἔγωγε καὶ Φιλολά_ου ἤκουσα . . . ἤδη δὲ καὶ ἄλλων τινῶνfor I have ere now heard Philolaus . . . and ere now certain others besides himP. Ph. 61e, κατὰ πολλὰ μὲν καὶ ἄλλα, οὐχ ἥκιστα δὲ καὶ κατὰ ταῦτα as in many other respects also and not least (too) in this Aes. 1.108, ““ὑπὸ τῶν τἀ_νταῦθα διοικήσειν . . . καὶ πρὶν ὑπεσχημένων καὶ νῦν δὲ πρα_ττόντωνby those who had promised to manage things there before and are now also doing themD. 7.5. The negative of καὶ . . . καὶ . . . δέ is οὐδὲ . . . οὐδὲ . . . δέ.

a. So in disjunctive phrases or clauses. Thus, ““εἴτε διὰ τὸ ἐπιβόημα εἴτε καὶ αὐτῷ ἄλλο τι . . . δόξανeither because of the exclamation or also because some other thought occurred to himT. 5.65; and so καί 2862. Cp. ἐζητεῖτο οὐδέν τι μᾶλλον ὑπὸ τῶν ἄλλων καὶ ὑπ᾽ ἐμοῦ he was not searched for by the others more than he was by me (on my part) Ant. 5.23.

2889. Similarly the καί of εἴ τις καὶ ἄλλος is superfluous; as ““εἴπερ τι καὶ ἄλλο καὶ τοῦτο μαθητόνif any other thing is learnable, this is tooX. S. 2. 6. But καί is usually omitted in the main clause; as ““ἐπίσταται δ᾽ εἴ τις καὶ ἄλλοςhe knows as well as anybody elseX. A. 1.4.15. So ““ὥς τις καὶ ἄλλοςas also any otherX. A. 2.6.8.

2890. καὶ δὴ καί and especially, and in particular, and what is more, lays stress on a particular instance or application of a general statement. Here the second καί emphasizes the following word. καὶ δὴ καί is usually attached to a preceding τέ or καί. Thus, καὶ δὴ καὶ τότε πρῳαίτερον συνελέγημεν and on that especial occasion we came together somewhat earlier than usual P. Ph. 59d, ““ἐν ἄλλοις τε πολλοῖς καὶ δὴ καὶ ἐν τοῖς κάμνουσινin the case of many others and particularly in that of the sickX. C. 1.6.21.

2891. καὶ . . . δέ and . . . also, and . . . moreover. Here καί empha sizes the important intervening word or words, while δέ connects. Thus, ““καὶ σὲ δ᾽ ἐν τούτοις λέγωand I count thee also among theseA. Pr. 973. And also not is οὐδὲ . . . δέ. Hom. has καὶ δέ and further, and even (H 113), not καὶ . . . δέ. καὶ . . . δέ (for τέ) is different (S. Ant. 432).


καίπερ

2892. και<*>περ although is common with participles (2083). As a conjunction (cp. quanquam) without a main clause it is very rare (P. S. 219c).


καίτοι<*>

2893. καίτοι (καὶ ¨ τοι<*>), not in Homer, means and yet, although, rarely and so then. Here τοί marks something worthy of note, which is commonly opposed to what precedes. καίτοι is used in making a correction (sometimes in the form of a question), in passing to a new idea, and in the statement of a conclusion. The common καίτοι . . . γε is stronger than καίτοι.

““καίτοι οὐδὲν ὅτι οὐκ ἀληθὲς εἴρηκα ὧν προεῖπονand yet there is nothing untrue in what I said beforeP. Euth. 3c.

a. A sentence preceding καίτοι is often restated by a clause introduced by ἀλλά (ἀλλ᾽ ὅμως), δέ, or νῦν δέ. Cp. P. Ph. 77a, Charm. 175 c, A. 40 b, G. 499 c.

b. καίτοι is rarely, if ever, used with the participle in classical Greek. It is best attested in P. R. 511d; emendation is resorted to in L. 31.34, Ar. Eccl. 159.


μά

2894. μά asseverative (cp. μήν, μέν asseverative) with the accusative of the divinity or thing by which one swears. In negative sentences we have οὐ μά or μά alone with the accusative; in affirmative sentences, ναὶ μά, but more commonly νή. The omission of the accusative may sometimes be due to indecision or to indifference and not always to scrupulousness (1596 c). μά means properly in truth, verily; but apparently governs the accusative after the ellipse of such verbs as I call to witness.


μέν

2895. μέν was originally an asseverative, emphatic particle (surely, certainly, indeed) and a weaker form of μήν. Cp. Epic μέν, καὶ μέν, οὐ μέν in asseverations and protestations. Asseverative μέν survived as μέν solitarium and in combination with other particles. Antithetical (concessive) μέν owes its origin to the fact that, as emphasis. may indicate a contrast, the clause in which μέν stood was felt as preliminary to an adversative member of the sentence. Through association with this adversative member μέν gradually lost its primitive asseverative force.

2896. μέν solitarium occurs when a clause with μέν is not followed by a clause with δέ. This is especially common when the antithetical clause is to be supplied in thought, as when μέν emphasizes a statement made by a person with reference to himself as opposed to others (often with a tone of arrogance or of credulity). Here any possible opposition or difference of opinion, however justifiable, is left unexpressed. Thus, ἐγὼ μὲν οὐκ οἶδα I for my part do not know (though others may) X. C. 1.4.12, ““ἀπέπλευσαν, ὡς μὲν τοῖς πλείστοις ἐδόκουν, φιλοτι_μηθέντεςthey sailed away since they were jealous as it seemed to the majority at leastX. A. 1.4.7. So in such phrases as δοκῶ μέν, ἡγοῦμαι μέν, οἶμαι μέν.

2897. Sometimes μέν solitarium merely emphasizes a word in its clause and does not imply a contrast. Thus, ““ἐμοὶ μὲν οἰστέα τάδεthis must be borne by me on my partS. O. C. 1360.

2898. μέν solitarium is commonest after personal pronouns; but occurs also after demonstrative pronouns (L. 25.16), after relatives (Aes. 3.209), after substantives without the article (D. 9.15), or after the article and before its substantive (L. 29.1), after adjectives (L. 1.27), after adverbs (L. 12.91), after verbs (D. 19.231). In questions μέν alone is rare (P. Men. 82b).

2899. In combination with other particles, especially δή and οὖν, asseverative μέν either has a simple confirmatory force or is used adversatively. The following cases must be distinguished from those in which μέν is correlative to δέ.

2900. μὲν δή expresses positive certainty, especially in conclusions. It is common in summing up and in transitions, and is used either alone or with other particles (sometimes it is followed by ἀλλά or δέ). Thus, ““ταῦτα μὲν δὴ τοιαῦταso much for thatA. Pr. 500. So also, e.g. ἀλλὰ μὲν δή but certainly in fact (ἀλλ᾽ οὐδὲ μὲν δή in rejecting an alternative); ει᾽ μὲν δή if indeed in truth; καὶ μὲν δή and in truth, and in fact (often in transitions); ου᾽ μὲν δή certainly not at all, nor yet, in truth (often used adversatively).

2901. μὲν οὖν lit. certainly in fact, μέν being a weaker form of μήν. μὲν οὖν has two common uses, according as the particles have a compound force, or each has its own force.

a. The compound force of μὲν οὖν is seen in affirmations; as in replies: πάνυ (μάλιστα) μὲν οὖν yes, by all means; certainly, by all means; aye truly, εὖ μὲν οὖν οἶδα nay, I am sure of it, οὐ μὲν οὖν indeed not, ““ἆρ᾽ ου᾽ τόδε ἦν τὸ δένδρον ἐφ᾽ ὅπερ ἦγες ἡμᾶς; τοῦτο μὲν οὖν αὐτόisn't this the tree to which you were bringing us? To be sure this is itP. Phae. 230a.

b. The compound force appears also when μὲν οὖν indicates a correction; nay rather (imo vero); as λέγε σύ: σὺ μὲν οὖν μοι λέγε do you say. Nay, rather you Ar. Eq. 13, ἄτοπον τὸ ἐνύπνιον, Σώκρατες. ἐναργὲς μὲν οὖν the dream is strange, Socrates. Nay rather, it was distinct P. Cr. 44b.

c. Each particle has its own force especially where μὲν οὖν indicates a transition to a new subject. Here μέν points forward to an antithesis to follow and indicated by δέ, ἀλλά, μέντοι, while οὖν (inferential) connects with what precedes. Here so then, therefore may be used in translation. Thus, ““Κλέαρχος μὲν οὖν τοσαῦτα εἶπε. Τισσαφέρνης δὲ ὧδε ἀπημείφθηsuch then were the words of Clearthus; and on the other hand Tissaphernes answered as followsX. A. 2.5.15 Sometimes μὲν οὖν (like igitur) shows that a subject announced in general terms is now to be treated in detail (P. Ph. 70c).

2902. Common collocations are ἀλλὰ μέν (ἀλλὰ . . . μέν) but for a fact, γὲ μέν, μέν, καὶ μέν.

2903. Antithetical (concessive) μέν distinguishes the word or clause in which it stands from a following word or clause marked usually by δέ or by other particles denoting contrast, such as ἀλλά, ἀτάρ, μέντοι, μήν; and even by copulative τέ, καί (Hom. ἠδέ). μέν never connects words, clauses, or sentences.

2904. μὲν . . . δέ serves to mark stronger or weaker contrasts of various kinds, and is sometimes to be rendered by on the one hand . . . on the other hand, indeed . . . but; but is often to be left untranslated. The μέν clause has a concessive force when it is logically subordinate (while, though, whereas, cp. 2170). Thus, ““ μὲν ψυ_χὴ πολυχρόνιόν ἐστι, τὸ δὲ σῶμα ἀσθενέστερον καὶ ὀλιγοχρονιώτερονthe soul lasts for a long time, the body is weaker and lasts for a shorter timeP. Ph. 87d, ““καὶ πρόσθεν μὲν δὴ πολλοὶ ἡμῶν ἦρχον μὲν οὐδενός, ἤρχοντο δέ: νῦν δὲ κατεσκεύασθε οὕτω πάντες οἱ παρόντες ὥστε ἄρχετε οἱ μὲν πλειόνων, οἱ δὲ μειόνωνand whereas in fact many of us hitherto commanded no one, but were subject to the command of others, now however all of you who are present are so placed that you have command, some over more, others over fewerX. C. 8.1.4.

a. So ἄλλοτε μὲν . . . ἄλλοτε δέ, ἅμα μὲν . . . ἅμα δέ at once . . . and, partly . . . partly, ἔνθα μὲν . . . ἔνθα δέ, ἐνταῦθα μὲν . . . ἐκεῖ δέ, πρῶτον μὲν . . . ἔπειτα δέ (or ἔπειτα alone). On μὲν . . . δέ see 1107. Instead of (οἱ) δέ we find e.g. ἄλλος δέ, ἔνιοι δέ, ἔστι δ᾽ οἵ. So τοῦτο μὲν . . . τοῦτ᾽ ἄλλο (or αὖθις).—μέν may stand with a participle, δέ with a finite verb, in an antithetical sentence. Example in 2147 c.

b. εἰ, οὐ (μή) standing before μὲν . . . δέ exercise their force on both opposed clauses.

2905. When several verbs referring to the same person or thing are contrasted, or when several attributes are contrasted, the first has μέν, the others δέ. Cp. Lyc. 5, X. A. 3.1.19. But μέν is sometimes omitted.

2906. μέν . . . δέ is used in successive clauses which contain either the same word (anaphora) or a synonymous word; as ἐγὼ δὲ σύνειμι μὲν θεοῖς, σύνειμι δὲ ἀνθρώποις τοῖς ἀγαθοῖς quoted in 1159, ““ἦλθε μὲν καὶ ἀπὸ τῆς Ἐρυθραία_ς ἀγγελία_, ἀφι_κνεῖτο δὲ καὶ πανταχόθενnews came from the district of Erythrae itself and arrived also from all quartersT. 3.33. But μέν is sometimes omitted, as ““στήσω σ᾽ ἄγων, στήσω δ᾽ ἐμαυτόνI will bring thee and stablish thee, and I will stablish myselfS. O. C. 1342.

2907. If more than two clauses are contrasted, only the first clause has μέν, while each of the following clauses has δέ (X. A. 1.3.14, X. C. 4.2.28).

2908. A contrast indicated by μέν and δέ may stand inside another contrast indicated in the same manner, as μὲν ἀνὴρ τοιαῦτα μὲν πεποίηκε, τοιαῦτα δὲ λέγει: ὑ_μῶν δὲ σὺ πρῶτος, Κλέαρχε, ἀπόφηναι γνώμην τι σοι δοκεῖ the man has acted thus, and speaks thus; but do you, Clearchus, be the first to make known what you think best X. A. 1.6.9.

2909. Two relative (or conditional) clauses each with μέν may be followed by two demonstrative clauses each with δέ; but the second δέ is usually omitted, and there are other variations. Thus, ὁπόσοι μὲν . . . οὗτοι μὲν . . . ὁπόσοι δὲ . . . τούτους ὁρῶ X. A. 3.1.43, cp. X. O. 4.7, P. A. 28e.

2910. A clause with μέν is often followed by a contrasted clause without δέ but with a particle containing an element of opposition, as πρῶτον μὲν . . . ἔπειτα . . . εἶτα.

2911. A shift in the construction may cause δέ to be omitted (S. Ant. 1199).

2912. μέν after an emphatic demonstrative may resume μέν of the antecedent clause (D. 2.18).

2913. μὲν . . . τε (and even καί) is used where the second clause is merely added instead of being coördinated by means of δέ. Thus, ““ταχὺ μὲν ὅποι ἔδει περιγιγνόμεθα ἀθρόοι τε τῷ ἄρχοντι ἑπόμενοι ἀνυπόστατοι ἦμενwe have quickly reached the places to which we had to go, and by following our leader in a compact body we have been invincibleX. C. 8.1.3.

2914. Position of μέν (and δέ).—μέν and δέ are commonly placed next to the words they contrast, and take precedence over other postpositive particles. But when two words belong closely together, μέν and δέ are placed between. Thus, when nouns with the article are contrasted, μέν and δέ stand after the article; if the nouns depend on prepositions μέν and δέ stand after the preposition and before the article.

a. But this rule may be neglected in order to emphasize the preceding word, as τὰ μὲν ἀνθρώπινα παρέντες, τὰ δαιμόνια δὲ σκοποῦντες neglecting human affairs, but speculating on things divine X. M. 1.1.12, ““ἀνὰ τὸ σκοτεινὸν μένin the darknessT. 3.22.

b. If the noun has no article and is governed by a preposition, δέ usually takes the third place.

c. Postponement of δέ (and some other postpositive particles) to the fourth place is only apparent after an introductory vocative, which is not regarded as forming an integral part of the sentence.

2915. μέν and δέ are sometimes referred to the entire clause or to the predicate and not to the words that are opposed to each other. This arrangement is often adopted to preserve the symmetry of the juxtaposed clause. μέν and δέ are thus often placed after personal or demonstrative pronouns. Thus, ἔλεγε μὲν ὡς τὸ πολύ, τοῖς δὲ βουλομένοις ἐξῆν ἀκούειν Socrates for the most part was wont to talk, while any who chose could listen X. M. 1.1.10, πῶς ἂν πολλοὶ μὲν ἐπεθύ_μουν τυραννεῖν . . . ; πῶς δὲ πάντες ἐζήλουν ἂν τοὺς τυράννους; why should many desire to possess despotic power? why should everybody envy despotic rulers? X. Hi. 1.9 (for πάντες δὲ πῶς ἐζήλουν ἄν). Cp. ἐν μὲν τούτοις . . . ἐν ἐκείνοις δέ Lyc. 140, περὶ αὑτῶν μὲν . . . περὶ δὲ τῶν δεσποτῶν L. 7.35, etc.

a. The transposition is often designed to produce a chiastic (3020) order, as ““ἔπαθε μὲν οὐδέν, πολλὰ δὲ κακὰ ἐνόμιζε ποιῆσαιhe suffered no loss, but thought that he had done a great deal of damageX. A. 3.4.2 (here οὐδέν and πολλά are brought close together).

2916. In poetry μέν and δέ often have a freer position than in prose. δέ may often come third when an emphatic word is placed before it, and even fourth.


μέντοι

2917. μέντοι (postpositive) from μέν (= μήν, 2895) + τοί, is an asseverative and adversative particle.

2918. Asseverative μέντοι certainly, surely, of course, in truth is very common in replies, where it expresses positive, eager, or reflective assent. Often with νὴ (μὰ) Δία. Thus, ἐγώ; σὺ μέντοι I? certainly, you Ar. Eq. 168, τί γάρ, ἔφη, . . . μέμνησαι ἐκεῖνα . . . ; ναὶ μὰ Δία . . . μέμνημαι μέντοι τοιαῦτα ἀκούσα_ς σου well then, said he, do you recall those matters; Yes, by Zeus, certainly I do recall that I heard things to that effect from you X. C. 1.6.6, ἀληθέστατα μέντοι λέγεις well, certainly you say what is very true P. Soph. 245b.

μέντοι may strengthen asseverations or emphasize questions; as ““οὕτω μέντοι χρὴ λέγεινin truth we must speak thusP. Th. 187b; often with demonstrative pronouns, as τοῦτο μέντοι νὴ Δία αὐτοῖσιν πιθοῦ oh, by Zeus do oblige them in this Ar. Aves 661.

a. Asseverative μέντοι in combinations, e.g.:

ἀλλὰ μέντοι but surely, but in fact (in ἀλλὰ . . . μέντοι, μέντοι refers to the preceding word).

καὶ . . . μέντοι and . . . indeed, and . . . in fact, and . . . moreover, as ““φιλοθηρότατος ἦν καὶ πρὸς τὰ θηρία μέντοι φιλοκινδυ_νότατοςhe was very fond of hunting and moreover exceedingly fond of dangerX. A. 1.9.6.

ου᾽ μέντοι no indeed (also adversative: yet not).

2919. Adversative μέντοι however, yet often marks a contrast or a transition; as ““ἀφί_εμέν σε, ἐπὶ τούτῳ μέντοιwe let you go, on this condition howeverP. A. 29c. μέντοι γε is stronger. μὲν . . . μέντοι is much stronger than μὲν . . . δέ, as ““φιλοσόφῳ μὲν ἔοικας . . . ἴσθι μέντοι ἀνόητος ὤνyou resemble a philosopher— know however that you are a foolX. A. 2.1.13. On ου᾽ μέντοι ἀλλά (γε) see 2767.


μήν

2920. μήν (postpositive): (1) asseverative, in truth, surely; (2) adversative, especially after a negative, yet, however. The forms μήν (Hom., Att.), μά_ν (Hom., Lesb., Dor., lyric parts of tragedy), μέν truly (Hom., Att.) and μά in oaths are all connected. μήν emphasizes either a whole statement or a single word.

““ὧδε γὰρ ἐξερέω, καὶ μὴν τετελεσμένον ἔσταιfor thus I will declare, and verily it shall be accomplishedΨ 410; ““καλὸν μὲν ἀλήθεια . . ., ἔοικε μὴν οὐ ῥᾴδιον πείθεινtruth is a fine thing, yet it does not seem an easy thing to persuadeP. L. 663e, εἰ δ᾽ ἄγε μήν come now, on then A 302, ““οὐδὲν μὴν κωλύ_ειbut nothing hindersP. Phae. 268e.

2921. Combinations of μήν:

ἀλλὰ μήν ( . . . γε) but surely; but yet; nay, indeed; well, in truth. Often used to add something of greater importance, or in transitions when a new idea is opposed to the foregoing. ἀλλὰ μήν is often separated by a negative.

μήν verily, verily. Often to introduce an oath or a threat.

καὶ μήν and verily or and yet according to the context. καὶ μήν frequently introduces a new fact or thought and hence often denotes transition, sometimes opposition (further, however, and yet). In tragedy this formula is used to mark the beginning of a new scene, as when the arrival of a newcomer is thus signalized (but here comes); as ““καὶ μὴν ἄναξ ὅδεand lo! here is the kingS. O. C. 549. In replies, καὶ μήν usually confirms the last remark, accedes to a request, or denotes hearty assent; sometimes there is an adversative sense (and yet; and (yet) surely; oh, but). In enumerations, καὶ μήν adds a new fact (and besides).

και μὴν . . . γε in transitions or enumerations marks something of still greater importance; but it is not so strong as καὶ μὲν δή. Here γέ emphasizes the word or words with which it is immediately connected. In replies, and indeed, and yet or oh, but; as ““καὶ μὴν ποιήσω γεand yet I will do itS. El. 1045.

καὶ μὴν καί (neg. καὶ μὴν οὐδέ) and in truth also.

ου᾽ μήν surely not, ου᾽ μὴν ἀλλά nevertheless (2767), ου᾽ μὴν οὐδέ nor again (2768), οὐδὲ μήν and certainly not.

τί μήν; lit. what indeed (quid uero), as ἀλλὰ τί μὴν δοκεῖς; but what in truth is your opinion? P. Th. 162b. τί μήν; standing alone, has the force of naturally, of course. Thus, λέγουσιν ἡμᾶς ὡς ὀλωλότας, τί μήν; they speak of us as dead, and why should they not? A. Ag. 672. Often in Plato to indicate assent. τί μὴν οὔ; (why indeed not=) of course I do.


ναί, νή

2922. ναί (cp. Lat. nae) asseverative (truly, yea), with the accusative in oaths where it is usually followed by μά (1596 b). ναί yes, in answers, is found only in Attic.

2923. νή (cp. Lat. neē) asseverative (truly, yea), with the accusative in oaths, and only in an affirmative sense. νή is found only in Attic. See 1596 b.


νῦν, νυ_νί_, νύ_ν, νύν, νύ

2924. νῦν now, at present often has a causal sense, as νῦν δέ but as the case stands, as it is; often to mark reality in contrast to an assumed case.

2925. νυ_νί_ (νῦν + deictic ι_, 333 g) is stronger than νῦν: even now, at this moment; rarely in a causal sense.

2926. νυ?́ν (enclitic; lyric, tragic, Herodotus, rare and suspected in Homer), a weakened form of νῦν, is rarely temporal, usually inferential, as now is used for then, therefore. νύν thus marks the connection of the speaker's thought with the situation in which he is placed. It is commonly used after imperatives, prohibitive and hortatory subjunctives. Thus, ““κάθιζε νύν μεseat me, thenS. O. C. 21. In Xenophon and Plato νυν is written by some editors, where the Mss. have νῦν (X. C. 4.2.37, H. 4. 1. 39).

2927. νύ_ν (enclitic) is adopted by some scholars in Attic tragedy where a long syllable is required (S. O. T. 644). Others write νῦν (with the force of νυ?́ν).

2928. νυ?́ (enclitic; Epic and Cyprian), a still weaker form of νῦν, and less emphatic than δή. It is common in questions and appeals; less frequent in statements; as τίς νυ; who now? Also after other particles, as καί νύ κε, ῥά νυ.


ὅπως

2929. ὅπως, originally a relative adverb meaning how, is derived from the relative particle σϝοδ (with which Eng. so is connected), to which the indefinite πώς has been added. Hom. ὅππως from σϝοδ-πως, as ὅττι from σϝοδ-τι (81 D 2).

a. The adverbial meaning of ὅπως is still seen in its use as an indefinite relative and as an indirect interrogative; and by the fact that in its place ὅπῃ, ὅτῳ τρόπῳ, ἐξ ὅτου τρόπου are sometimes used. By association with the subjunctive ὅπως became a conjunction (cp. μή πως) used with or without ἄν in final clauses (see 2196, 2201). On the use as a conjunction in object clauses after verbs of effort and of fear, see 2211, 2228. So in dependent statements ὅπως passed from how into that (2578 d).


οὐδέ, οὔτε μηδέ, μήτε

2930. οὐδέ (μηδέ) is an adverb and a conjunction, and is to be broken up into the negative οὐ (μή) and δέ meaning and, even, also , or but.


οὐδέ (μηδέ) as an Adverb

2931. Adverbial οὐδέ (μηδέ) not even, not . . . either, also . . . not, nor yet (ne . . quidem). Cp. the use of καί even, also in affirmative sentences; as οὐδ᾽ ὥς not even in that case (καὶ ὥς even in that case).

““ἀλλ᾽ οὐδὲ τούτων στερήσονταιbut no; even of these shall they be deprivedX. A. 1.4.8, ““ὅτ᾽ οὐδ᾽ οὕτω ῥᾴδιον ἦνwhen besides it was not so easyI. 18.65 (= καὶ οὐ also not). With οὐδ᾽ ει᾽ (ἐά_ν) not even if οὐ belongs with the main clause, while δέ even goes with the dependent clause. Thus, ““οὐδ᾽ ἂν εἰ βούλοιντο, ῥᾳδίως πονηροὶ γένοιντοeven if they wished, they could not easily become wickedX. C. 7.5.86 (= καὶ εἰ βούλοιντο, οὐκ ἂν γένοιντο). Similarly with a participle: ““οὐδὲ πεπονθὼς κακῶς ἐχθρὸν εἶναί μοι τοῦτον ὁμολογῶI do not admit that this man is my enemy even though I have been ill-usedD. 21.205.


οὐδέ (μηδέ) as a Conjunction

2932. οὐδέ (μηδέ) as a conjunction (and not, nor) connects two or more whole clauses.

2933. In Attic prose οὐδέ is used only to join a negative clause to another clause itself negative; as ““οὐδεμία ἐλπὶς ἦν τι_μωρία_ς οὐδὲ ἄλλη σωτηρία_ ἐφαίνετοthere was no hope of assistance nor did any chance of safety appearT. 3.20.

a. A negative clause is joined to an affirmative clause by καὶ οὐ (μή). Thus, ““ἐμμενῶ τῇ ξυμμαχίᾳ . . . καὶ οὐ παραβήσομαιI will abide by the alliance and I will not violate itT. 5.47. καὶ οὐ (μή) may have an adversative force (but not).

N.—But in poetry and Ionic prose οὐδέ may continue an affirmative clause; as ““δεινὸν γὰρ οὐδὲ ῥητόνdread indeed and not to be utteredS. Ph. 756.

2934. οὐδέ is used by the poets for but not, where Attic prose writers have ἀλλ᾽ ου᾽ or καὶ οὐ. Thus, ἔνθ᾽ ἄλλοις μὲν πᾶσιν ἑήνδανεν, οὐδέ ποθ᾽ Ἥρῃ οὐδὲ Ποσει- ““δάωνιthen it was pleasing to all the others, but not to Hera or to PoseidonΩ 25, ““ἐμαῖσι οὐδὲ σαῖσι δυσβουλίαιςby my folly but not by thineS. Ant. 1269 (cp. the negative form ““οὐκ ἐμὸν τόδ᾽ ἀλλὰ σόνthis is not my part, but thineS. El. 1470). Cp. ““σοῦ τάδε κινδυ_νεύεις, ἀλλ᾽ οὐκ ἐμοῦ ἀκηκοέναιyou probably heard this from yourself and not from meP. Alc. 113c.

2935. οὐδέ may stand in an apodosis corresponding to apodotic δέ (2837). Cp. S. O. C. 590.

2936. οὐδέ may negative a preceding word also; as ““αἱ Φοίνισσαι νῆες οὐδὲ Τισσαφέρνης . . . ἧκονthe Phoenician ships had not arrived nor had TissaphernesT. 8.99. Cp. 2943. In such cases we usually find another negative, which goes with the verb; as ““ἁπλοῦν μὲν οὐδὲ δίκαιον οὐδὲν ἂν εἰπεῖν ἔχοιhe could say nothing straightforward nor justD. 22.4.


οὐδέ (μηδέ) with other Negatives

2937. οὐδὲ . . . οὐδέ commonly means not even . . . nor yet (or no, nor), the first οὐδέ being adverbial, the second conjunctive. οὐδὲ . . . οὐδέ is not correlative, like οὔτε . . . οὔτε, and hence never means neither . . . nor. Thus, οὐδὲ ἥλιον οὐδὲ σελήνην ἄρα νομίζω θεοὺς εἶναι; do I then hold that not even the sun nor yet the moon are gods? P. A. 26c, ““σύ γε οὐδὲ ὁρῶν γιγνώσκεις οὐδὲ ἀκούων μέμνησαιyou do not even understand though you see, nor yet do you remember though you hearX. A. 3.1.27. οὐδὲ . . . οὐδέ both copulative (and not . . nor yet) in X. C. 3.3.50. οὐδὲ . . . οὐδὲ . . . δέ is the negative of καὶ . . . καὶ . . . δέ in X. A. 1.8.20.

a. So in both members of comparative sentences (cp. καί 2885); as ““ὥσπερ οὐδὲ γεωργοῦ ἀ_ργοῦ οὐδὲν ὄφελος, οὕτως οὐδὲ στρατηγοῦ ἀ_ργοῦντος οὐδὲν ὄφελοςas there is no good in an idle tiller of the soil, so there is no good in an idle generalX. C. 1.3.18.

2938. οὐδὲ γὰρ οὐδέ (negative of καὶ γὰρ καί); as ““οὐδὲ γὰρ οὐδὲ τοῦτο ἐψεύσατοfor neither did he deceive me even in thisX. C. 7.2.20. Here the first οὐδέ negatives the whole sentence, the second οὐδέ negatives τοῦτο.

2939. ου᾽ . . . οὐδέ: οὐδέ not even as well as nor (2933) may resume a preceding οὐ. Thus, ὕβριν γὰρ οὐ στέργουσιν οὐδὲ δαίμονες lit. not even the gods do not love insolence S. Tr. 280, ““οὐ μέντοι ἔφη νομίζειν οὐδ᾽ ει᾽ παμπόνηρος ἦν Δέξιππος βίᾳ χρῆναι πάσχειν αὐτόνhe said however that he did not think that, even if Dexippus was a downright rascal, he ought to suffer by an act of violenceX. A. 6.6.25, ““οὐ δεῖ δὴ τοιοῦτον . . . καιρὸν ἀφεῖναι οὐδὲ παθεῖν ταὐτὸν ὅπερ . . . πεπόνθατεwe must not let such an opportunity go by nor suffer the same as you have sufferedD. 1.8.

ου᾽ μέντοι οὐδέ not by any means however. On ου᾽ μὴν οὐδέ see 2768.

2940. οὐδὲ . . . οὐ: οὐδέ may be resumed by οὐ; as ““οὐδέ γε ἰδίᾳ πονηρὸς οὐκ ἂν γένοιτο δημοσίᾳ χρηστόςnor can the man who is bad in his private life prove himself good in a public capacityAes. 3.78.

2941. οὐδὲ . . . οὔτε is rare (P. Charm. 171b).


οὔτε (μήτε

2942. οὔτε (μήτε is usually repeated: οὔτε . . . οὔτε (μήτε . . . μήτε) neither . . . nor (nec . . . nec). οὔτε . . . οὔτε is the negative of τὲ . . . τέ, and unites single words or clauses.

““οὔτε ἔστιν οὔτε ποτὲ ἔσταιneither is nor ever shall beP. Phae. 241c, ““οὔτε Χειρίσοφος ἧκεν οὔτε πλοῖα ἱκανὰ ἦν οὔτε τὰ ἐπιτήδεια ἦν λαμβάνειν ἔτιneither had Chirisophus come nor were there enough boats nor was it possible any longer to secure provisionsX. A. 5.3.1.

After a negative clause: ““οὐκ ἔπειθεν οὔτε τοὺς στρατηγοὺς οὔτε τοὺς στρατιώτα_ςhe could not persuade either the generals or the soldiersT. 4.4.

a. οὔτε . . . μήτε is found when each negative is determined by a different construction, as ““ἀναιδὴς οὔτ᾽ εἰμὶ μήτε γενοίμηνneither am I nor may I become shamelessD. 8.68.

b. When οὔτε . . . οὔτε stands between οὐδὲ . . . οὐδέ the members thus correlated are subordinate to those expressed by οὐδὲ . . . οὐδέ. Cp. Aes. 1.19.

2943. Sometimes the first οὔτε is omitted in poetry: νόσοι δ᾽ οὔτε γῆρας disease nor old age Pindar, Pyth. 10. 41, ““ἑκόντα μήτ᾽ ἄ_κονταwillingly nor unwillinglyS. Ph. 771. Cp. “my five wits nor my five senses” (Shakesp.).

2944. For the first οὔτε the poets sometimes have οὐ, as ““οὐ νιφετὸς οὔτ᾽ ἂρ χειμώνnot snow nor stormδ 566.

2945. οὔτε . . . τέ on the one hand not . . . but, not only not . . . but (cp. neque . . . et). The τέ clause often denotes the contrary of that set forth in the οὔτε clause (so far from). Thus, οὔτε διενοήθην πώποτε ἀποστερῆσαι ἀποδώσω τε so far from ever thinking to deprive them of their pay I will give it to them X. A. 7.7.48, ὤμοσαν . . . μήτε προδώσειν ἀλλήλους σύμμαχοί τε ἔσεσθαι they swore that they would not betray one another and that they would be allies 2. 2. 8. So οὔτε . . . οὔτε . . . τέ. τὲ . . . οὔτε is not used.

a. Sometimes the negative may be added in the τέ clause: ““οὔτε ἐκεῖνος ἔτι κατενόησε τό τε μαντεῖον οὐκ ἐδήλουneither did he stop to consider and the oracle would not make it plainT. 1.126.

2946. οὔτε . . . τε οὐ S. Ant. 763. οὔτε . . . τε . . . οὔτε E. H. F. 1341.

2947. οὔτε . . . δέ is used when the second clause is opposed to the first; as ““οὔτε πλοῖά ἐστιν οἷς ἀποπλευσόμεθα, μένουσι δὲ αὐτοῦ οὐδὲ μιᾶς ἡμέρα_ς ἔστι τὰ ἐπιτήδειαwe have no vessels by which we can sail away; on the other hand, if we stay here, we haven't provisions even for a single dayX. A. 6.3.16. Cp. E. Supp. 223, P. R. 388e, 389 a.

2948. οὔτε . . . οὐ is rare in prose; as ““οὔτε νιφετός, οὐκ ὄμβροςneither rain nor snowHdt. 8.98. Cp. S. Ant. 249. οὔτε . . . οὐ . . . οὔτε A. Pr. 479. ου᾽ . . . οὔτε is generally changed to οὐ . . . οὐδέ in Attic prose.

2949. οὔτε . . . οὐδέ corresponds to the sequence of τὲ . . . δέ in affirmative clauses. The emphatic οὐδέ here adds a new negative idea as after any other preceding negative; and is most common after οὔτε . . . οὔτε: neither . . . nor . . . no, nor yet (nor . . . either). οὐδέ is often followed by an emphasizing particle, as αὖ, γέ, μήν. Thus, ““οὔτε πόλις οὔτε πολι_τεία_ οὐδέ γ᾽ ἀνήρneither a State nor a constitution nor yet an individualP. R. 499b, ““μήτε παιδεία_ . . . μήτε δικαστήρια μήτε νόμοι μηδὲ ἀνάγκη μηδεμίαneither education nor courts of justice nor laws, no nor yet restraintP. Pr. 327d.

2950. A subordinate clause with οὐδέ may come between οὔτε . . . οὔτε. Thus, ““οὔτε γὰρ ὡς ὀφείλοντά με κατέλειπεν πατὴρ . . . ἀπέφηνεν οὐδὲ . . . παρέσχηται μάρτυρας οὔτ᾽ αὖ τὸν ἀριθμὸν . . . ἐπανέφερενfor neither did he show that my father left me in debt, nor yet has he adduced witnesses, nor did he put into the account the sumD. 27.49.


οὐκοῦν, οὔκουν

2951. οὐκοῦν interrogative: not therefore? not then? (nonne, igitur? nonne ergo?). Here the stress lies on the inferential οὖν and an affirmative answer is expected as a matter of course. οὐκοῦν stands at the beginning of its clause.

οὐκοῦν . . . εὖ σοι δοκοῦσι βουλεύεσθαι; πρός γε ὁρῶσι do you not then think that they lay their plans well? Yes, with regard to what they see X. C. 7.1.8.

a. When a negative answer is expected we have οὐκοῦν οὐ (P. Phil. 43d).

b. οὐκοῦν and οὖν stand in parallel questions in X. A. 1.6.7-8.

c. Some scholars write οὔκουν or οὐκ οὖν for οὐκοῦν interrogative (and inferential).

2952. οὐκοῦν inferential: then, well then, therefore, accordingly (ergo, igitur). Inferential οὐκοῦν was developed, probably in colloquial speech, from the interrogative use, the speaker anticipating the affirmative answer to his question and emphasizing only the inference. From the negative question all that was left was an expression of his own opinion on the part of the speaker. οὐκοῦν has become so completely equivalent to οὖν that a negative has to be added if one is required.

οὐκοῦν, ὅταν δὴ μὴ σθένω, πεπαύσομαι well then, when my strength fails, I shall cease S. Ant. 91, ““ . . . τοὺς ἀμύ_νεσθαι κελεύοντας πόλεμον ποιεῖν φήσομεν; οὐκοῦν ὑπόλοιπον δουλεύεινor shall we say that those who bid us defend ourselves make war? Then it is left for us to be slavesD. 8.59. οὐκοῦν is used even with imperatives; as ““οὐκοῦν . . . ἱκανῶς ἐχέτωaccordingly let it sufficeP. Phae. 274b.

a. Editors often differ whether, in certain cases, οὐκοῦν is interrogative or inferential.

2953. οὔκουν not then, therefore not, so not, at any rate . . . not, surely not (non igitur, non ergo). Here οὐ is strongly emphasized, and οὖν is either confirmative or inferential. οὔκουν is usually placed at the beginning of its clause.

a. In emphatic negative answers; as ““οὔκουν ἔμοιγε δοκεῖcertainly not, in my opinion at leastX. O. 1.9.

b. In continuous discourse (P. L. 807a).

c. οὔκουν . . . γε returns a negative answer with qualified acquiescence in a preceding statement. Thus, τούτων ἄρα Ζεύς ἐστιν ἀσθενέστερος; οὔκουν ἂν ἐκφύγοι ““γε τὴν πεπρωμένηνis Zeus then weaker than these? Fate at least he surely cannot escapeA. Pr. 517.

d. In impatient or excited questions (non? non igitur?). Thus, οὔκουν ἐρεῖς ποτ᾽, εἶτ᾽ ἀπαλλαχθεὶς ἄπει; wilt thou not speak and so depart and be gone? S. Ant. 244.

2954. οὐκ (μὴ) οὖν is to be distinguished from οὐκοῦν or οὔκουν. Thus, ““ὁπότε καὶ πείρᾳ του σφαλεῖεν, οὐκ οὖν καὶ τὴν πόλιν γε τῆς σφετέρα_ς ἀρετῆς ἀξιοῦντες στερίσκεινwhenever they were foiled in any attempt they did not for this reason think it right to deprive their city of their valourT. 2.43 (μὴ οὖν 8. 91).

a. Hdt. has οὐκ ὦν (sometimes written οὔκων) to emphasize an idea opposed to what goes before (non tamen). Thus, ταῦτα λέγοντες τοὺς Κροτωνιήτα_ς οὐκ ὦν ἔπειθον by these words they did not however persuade the men of Croton 3. 137.


οὖν

2955. οὖν (Ionic, Lesbic, Doric ὦν), a postpositive particle, is either confirmatory or inferential. οὖν points to something already mentioned or known or to the present situation.

2956. Confirmatory οὖν in fact, at all events, in truth belongs properly to the entire clause, but usually, for purposes of emphasis, attaches itself to some other particle, to a relative pronoun, or at times to other words (P. A. 22b). On γοῦν, see 2830; on μὲν οὖν, 2901; on τοιγαροῦν, 2987. In some of its combinations with other particles οὖν may be inferential or transitional.

2957. ἀλλ᾽ οὖν or ἀλλ᾽ οὖν . . . γε (stronger than δ᾽ οὖν) well, at all events; well, certainly, for that matter; as ἀλλ᾽ οὖν πονηροί γε φαινόμενοι well, at all events they look like sorry fellows, that they are X. C. 1.4.19, ἀλλ᾽ οὖν τοσοῦτόν γ᾽ ἴσθι well, at any rate you know this at least S. Ph. 1305. ἀλλ᾽ οὖν may stand in the apodosis to an hypothetical proposition (P. Ph. 91b).

2958. γὰρ οὖν (and καὶ γὰρ οὖν) for in fact (indeed, in any case; as ““εὖ γὰρ οὖν γέγειςfor indeed thou sayest wellS. Ant. 1255, ““ὀνήσεσθε ἀκούοντες: μέλλω γὰρ οὖν ἄττα ὑ_μῖν ἐρεῖν καὶ ἄλλαyou will profit by listening; for I am certainly going to tell you some other thingsP. A. 30c.

Also to mark a consequence (X. A. 1.9.11), and in replies, as οὐ γὰρ οὖν P. Phae. 277e, and also when the speaker repeats an important word of his interlocutor, as φημὶ γὰρ οὖν P. G. 466e.

2959. δ᾽ οὖν but certainly, at all events, anyhow, be that as it may with or without μέν in the preceding clause. Here οὖν shows that an unquestionable fact is to be set forth in its own clause; while the adversative δέ marks opposition to what has preceded and implies that the foregoing statement is uncertain and liable to dispute: ‘be that true or not, at any rate what follows is certainly true.’ δ᾽ οὖν is used (a) to set aside conjecture, surmise, or hearsay; (b) to resume the main argument after long digression, and to cut short further discussion and come to the point; (c), with imperatives, to denote assent marked by unwillingness, impatience, or indifference. Thus, (a) εἰ μὲν δὴ δίκαια ποιήσω, οὐκ οἶδα: αἱρήσομαι δ᾽ οὖν ὑ_μᾶς whether I shall do what is right (or not), I do not know; be that as it may, I will choose you X. A. 1.3.5, καὶ ἐλέγετο Κύ_ρω δοῦναι πολλὰ χρήματα. τῇ δ᾽ οὖν στρατιᾷ τότε ἀπέδωκε Κῦρος μισθὸν τεττάρων μηνῶν and she is said to have given Cyrus a large sum; at any rate Cyrus then gave the army four months' pay 1. 2. 12; (b) cp. T. 1.3, 6. 15, 8. 81. Resumptive δ᾽ οὖν may also set aside doubtful statements. (c) ““σὺ δ᾽ οὖν λέγε, εἴ σοι τῷ λόγῳ τις ἡδονήwell speak on then, if thou hast delight in speakingS. El. 891, ἔστω δ᾽ οὖν ὅπως ὑ_μῖν φίλον however, be it as you wish S. O. C. 1205.

ει᾽ δ᾽ οὖν = but if indeed, but if in point of fact; as εἰ δ᾽ οὖν τι κἀ_κτρέποιτο τοῦ πρόσθεν λόγου but if he should deviate at all from his former statement S. O. T. 851.

2960. δὴ οὖν certainly then; cp. οὖν δή. Thus, τί δὴ οὖν; or τί οὖν δή; well then pray? πῶς δὴ οὖν; how then pray? οὖν δῆτα really then.

2961. εἴτε οὖν, οὔτε οὖν: in alternative clauses οὖν (indeed) is added to one or both clauses as emphasis may be desired: εἴτε οὖν . . . εἴτε whether indeed . . . or, εἴτε . . . εἴτε οὖν whether . . . or indeed, or εἴτε οὖν . . . εἴτε οὖν whether indeed . . . or indeed. So also in exclusive clauses: οὔτε (μήτε) . . . οὔτε (μήτε) οὖν neither . . . nor yet, οὔτε (μήτε) οὖν . . . οὔτε (μήτε) neither indeed . . . nor.

2962. οὖν often follows interrogative pronouns and adverbs (in dialogue); as τίς οὖν; who pray? τί οὖν, generally with the aorist, in impatient questions asks why that which is desired has not been done (2197 c).

2963. οὖν affixed to a relative pronoun has a generalizing force and makes it indefinite (339 e). Such indefinite relative pronouns are construed like the indefinite τὶς or demonstratives; and do not introduce relative clauses (unlike whosoever, etc., which are both indefinite and relative).

So with adverbs (346 c), as ὁπωσοῦν in any way, no matter how (= utique not = utcunque). Thus, οὐδ᾽ ὁπωσοῦν not even in the slightest degree.

a. Simply placed after relatives οὖν has a strengthening force; as ὥσπερ οὖν as in fact (often in parentheses), οἷός περ οὖν just as in fact.

2964. Inferential οὖν therefore, accordingly (igitur, ergo), usually classed as a conjunction, signifies that something follows from what precedes. Inferential οὖν marks a transition to a new thought and continues a narrative (often after ἐπεί, ἐπειδή, ὅτε), resumes an interrupted narration (T. 3.42, X. C. 3.3.9), and in general states a conclusion or inference. It stands alone or in conjunction with other particles. Thus, ἀναρχίᾳ ἂν καὶ ἀταξίᾳ ἐνόμιζον ἡμᾶς ἀπολέσθαι. δεῖ οὖν πολὺ μὲν τοὺς ἄρχοντας ἐπιμελεστέρους γενέσθαι τοὺς νῦν τῶν πρόσθεν they were of the opinion that we would be overcome through our lack of leaders and discipline. It is imperative therefore that the leaders we have now should be much more watchful than those we had before X. A. 3.2.29.

a. The inferential and transitional use is derived from the confirmative meaning, and is scarcely marked until Herodotus and the Attic poets. Cp. μὲν οὖν. ἐπεὶ οὖν in Hom. is sometimes used in transitions.


πέρ

2965. πέρ (postpositive and enclitic) very, just, even. Cp. Epic πέρι very much, and περί in composition. In Attic prose πέρ is common only with relatives (338 c) and conjunctions.

ὅσπερ the very one who (i.e. none other), οἷός περ just such, ἔνθα περ just where, ὥσπερ just as, in the very way in which, (sometimes not very different from ὡς, to which it is related as ὅσπερ to ὅς), εἴπερ if really. καίπερ (Hom. καὶ . . . περ) however much, though, Epic ἠέ περ just as.

a. After other words especially in Epic and Lyric and in Aeschylus; as ““μένει τὸ θεῖον δουλίᾳ περ έν φρενίthe divine power remains in the mind though it be enslavedA. Ag. 1084, μάχετ᾽, ἀχνύμενός περ ἑταίρου he fought, (though) sore grieving for his comrade P 459, ὀψέ περ howbeit late Pind. Nem. 3. 80.


πλήν

2966. πλήν an adverb, is used (a) as a preposition with the genitive (1700) meaning except, save, when that which is excepted is a single substantival idea; (b) as a conjunction, except, except that, save that, unless, only, but (often almost = ἀλλά).

ἀφειστήκεσαν . . . πᾶσαι πλὴν Μι_λήτου all the Ionic cities had revolted except Miletus X. A. 1.1.6; οὐδεὶς ἀπῄει πρὸς βασιλέα_, πλὴν Ὀρόντα_ς ἐπεχείρησε no one went off to the king save that Orontas made the attempt 1. 9. 29, ““πλὴν ἓν μόνον δέδοικαbut there is one thing and only one that I fearAr. Plut. 199. A substantive-equivalent may follow πλήν, not in the genitive, but in the case required by the verb of the sentence, as ““συνῆλθον πάντες πλὴν οἱ Νέωνοςall assembled except the men under NeonX. A. 7.3.2.

a. πλὴν οὐ only not, except (2753); πλὴν except, as οὐ γὰρ ἄλλῳ γ᾽ ὑπακούσαιμεν . . . πλὴν Προδίκῳ we would not listen to any one (else) except Prodicus Ar. Nub. 361; πλὴν ὅτι except that; πλὴν εἰ except if, cp. εἰ μή (nisi si), after a negative πλὴν εἰ μή; often with the verb omitted, as ““οὐδεὶς οἶδεν . . . πλὴν εἴ τις ἄρ᾽ ὄρνιςno one knows except perhaps some birdAr. Av. 601.

b. πλήν may be followed by the infinitive, as τί σοι πέπρα_κται πρᾶγμα πλὴν τεύχειν κακά; what hast thou accomplished save to work mischief? A. Eum. 125.


τέ

2967. τέ and (postpositive, and enclitic as -que) is generally used with a correlative conjunction.

2968. τέ alone sometimes in prose links whole clauses or sentences which serve to explain, amplify, supplement, or to denote a consequence of, what precedes (and thus, and therefore, and as a result). Thus, δ᾽ ἐχαλέπαινεν . . ., ἐκέλευσέ τ᾽ αὐτὸν ἐκ τοῦ μέσου ἐξίστασθαι but he was angry and (therefore) ordered him to get out of the way X. A. 1.5.14. Cp. 2978.

a. This use of τέ (τέ consequential) is quite common in Herodotus and Thucydides, rather rare in Xenophon, and infrequent in other prose writers. It occurs also in poetry.

N.—In poetry τέ alone (cp. -que) often connects single parallel nouns and pronouns so that the two connected ideas form a whole; as ““σκῆπτρον τι_μά_ς τεsceptre and prerogativesA. Pr. 171. In prose, participles and infinitives are occasionally linked by τέ; as ““καθαρωτέρα_ οὖσα πρεπόντως τε μᾶλλον ἠμφιεσμένηbeing fairer and dressed more becominglyX. O. 10.12.

2969. τέ (or καί) meaning both may be followed by asyndeton (S. Ant. 296).

2970. Homer often, and Herodotus sometimes, adds τέ to relative pronouns and conjunctions introducing subordinate clauses, which are usually postpositive. So after ὅς, ὅσος, οἷος, ὡς, ὅτε, ἐπεί, ἔνθα, ὅθι, etc. Thus, φίληθεν ἐκ Διός, ὅς τε θεοῖσι . . . ἀνάσσει they were loved by Zeus, who rules over the gods B 669. This untranslatable τέ is probably connective (not indefinite), and belongs to the whole clause. It has the effect of showing that its clause corresponds in some way to the preceding clause. ὅς τε is found in lyric poetry and in the lyric parts of tragedy (rarely in dialogue parts). ὥστε, οἷός τε became common.

2971. This connective force is also seen when τέ stands in the principal clause, sometimes both in the principal and in the subordinate clause, e.g. ὅς κε θεοῖς ἐπιπείθηται, μάλα τ᾽ ἔκλυον αὐτοῦ whosoever obeys the gods, him especially they hear A 218, ὅππῃ τ᾽ ἰ_θύ_σῃ, τῇ τ᾽ εἴκουσι στίχες ἀνδρῶν wheresoever he rushes, there the ranks of men give way M 48.

2972. Homer has τέ after the coördinating conjunctions καί, δέ, οὐδέ, ἀλλά, ; after , μέν, πέρ,